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EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 



THE EXEMPLA 



OR 



ILLUSTRATIVE STORIES FROM THE SERMONES 
VULGARES 



OF 



JACQUES DE VITRY. 



EDITED, WITH INTRODUCTION, ANALYSIS, AND NOTES, 

THOMAS FREDERICK CRANE, M.A., 

Professor of the, Romance Languages in Cornell University. 



LONDON : 
PUBLISHED FOR THE FOLK-LORE SOCIETY 

BY DAVID NUTT, 270, STRAND, W.C. 

1890. 



WESTA11NSTEK 

ritlNTEU BY NICHOLS AND SONS 
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BV 





Co 
H. L. D. WARD, 

IN 
GRATEFUL APPRECIATION 

OP 
HIS PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE 

OF 

MEDIAEVAL ROMANCE. 



PREFACE. 



WHEN tins work was undertaken in 1886, 1 hoped to be able to 
put upon the title-page " edited for the first time. I then 
knew of only a few exempla which had been printed by Lecoy 
de la Marche in his edition of Etienne de Bourbon, and by 
others as illustrative material to Moliere, etc. I very soon, 
however, discovered that the selection of Latin stories edited by 
Mr. T. Wright for the Percy Society (Vol. VIII., 1842) con 
tained a considerable number of Jacques de Vitry s exempla, 
although the name of the author was not mentioned. After the 
present work, with the exception of the Introduction, was in the 
hands of the printer, and the text partly in type, I received 
Cardinal Pitra s Analecta Novissima Spicilegii Solesmensis 
(Altera continuatio, Tom. II., 1888), containing selections from 
Jacques de Vitry s Sermones Vulgar es, and pp. 443-461, from a 
MS. in the Vatican library, a Speculum Exemplorum, or collec 
tion of exempla from these sermons. Had this work appeared 
earlier I should probably not have undertaken the present 
edition. Still, I trust it may not seem superfluous, since the 
MS. used by Cardinal Pitra for his selections from the sermons, 
as he himself confesses: " innumeris scatet vitiis"; and a 
number of exempla are omitted for obvious reasons, while com 
parative notes are entirely wanting. 

Finally, after the present edition was wholly printed, except 
the Introduction, appeared the Conies moralises de Nicole Bozon 



X EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE V1TEY. 

(Socidte des anciens textes frangais, 1889) also containing a 
number of exempla from the same MS. which I have followed. 
I have availed myself of this work, as well as of others which 
have come to my notice since my text and notes were in print, 
for additional references which will be found in the Intro 
duction. 

It remains to say a few words about the object of the present 
work, and to apologise for certain of its defects. Until recently 
the importance of the pulpit for the diffusion of popular tales 
was almost wholly unknown, and no attempt was made to give 
a general view of the subject until the writer s paper on 
Mediaeval Sermon-Books and Stories (American Philosophical 
Society, 1883). /The object of this book is to show the im 
portance in this respect of a single preacher, by exhibiting as 
fully as possible in the notes the diffusion of his stories ; first, 
among other preachers, and secondly, among the public at 
large by means of their sermons. / 1 could have made my notes 
much more extensive by appropriating the labours of Oesterley 
and others in this field ; but I have, unless otherwise stated, 
confined myself to works and references which I have myself 
seen and verified. It was impossible in my situation to even 
attempt to cover the entire subject of facetiae, etc., and I have 
in general contented myself with referring the reader to the 
sources of information. 

Owing to my absence abroad it was impossible for me to 
correct the proofs of the Latin text, and in order to insure 
greater accuracy I entrusted this task to M. Couderc of the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, who also made the copy for the 
present work. The proofs were read with the original MS. ; 
but in spite of every care a small number of exempla were 
omitted in their regular order (they are to be found on page 
127) and several allusions, not properly exempla, were admitted 
into the text. It is hoped that the annoying mistakes in 



PEEFACE. XI 

numbering some of the exempla will cause no confusion, since 
the exempla are referred to in the first index by page and folio 
as well as by number. 

I should indeed be ungrateful if I failed to acknowledge 
publicly the debt I owe Mr. H. L. D. Ward, of the British 
Museum, for the assistance he has rendered me in the present 
work, and to Harvard College Library for the generous loan ot 
many indispensable books. 

T. F. CRANE. 

Ithaca, N.Y., Feb. 22, 1890. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION 

EXEMPLA 

135 

ANALYSIS AND NOTES . 

273 
INDEX TO EXEMPLA 

294 
INDEX TO NOTES 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. 

of cxcmpla in sermons prior to Jacques de Vitry. 
Definition of exemplum Gregory s use of cxcmpla References to 



en . 

in Bcde and Aelfric Exemvla prescribed in homiletic works Revival 

preaching in xiiith century by Dominican and Franciscan orders- 
Domi nick s use of cxempla. 



II. 

Life and works of Jacques de Vitry. 



1 Materials for life of Jacques de Vitry- Early life and education - 
Attracted to Oignies by fame of St. Mary-Becomes a preacher of the crusade 
ao-ainst the Albigenses-Death of St. Mary-Jacques de Vitry s activity as i 
preacher of the crusade against the Saracens-Elected bishop of Acre-Sets out 
for Rome-Finds Innocent III. dead at Perugia-His successor, Honorms 1 
consecrates Jacques de Vitry- Journey to Genoa-Embarks for Acre-Arrival 
at Acre and description of the city-Daily life of Jacques de Vitry as bishop- 
Journey to the maritime cities of Syria-Arrival of Crusaders-Takes part m 
the expeditions against the Sultan Malek al Adel-Bnilds Districtum and 
reconstructs fortifications of Caesarea-Advocates expedition to Egypt-Sails 
forDamietta-Capture of that city-Jacques de Vitry writes history-Visit of 
St Francis of Assisi-Expedition to Cairo-Surrender of Damietta to the 
Saracens- Jacques de Vitry s return to Acre-Summoned to Council of Verona 
At Acre again Perilous journey to Rome-Resigns his bishopric at Acre- 
Returns to Europe and is sent to Belgium to preach crusade against the 
Albigenses-Consecrates church at Oignies-Created cardinal and bishop of 
Tusculnm Elected patriarch of Jerusalem-Election not ratified by Pope- 

Dies at Rome. 

2. Historical works-Life of St. Mary of Oigmes-Histona orientals- 



XVI EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Historia occidentalis Spurious second book of the Hlstoria oriental-is 
Letters of Jacques de Vitry Sermones dominicales Sermones de sanctis 
Sermones vulgares Sermones communes vel quotidiani. 

3. The exempla of Jacques de Vitry Manuscript collections of exempla 
taken from the Sermones vulgares Exempla attributed to Jacques de Vitry 
not in Sermones vulgares History of Jacques de Vitry s exempla in modern 
times. 

III. 

The use of exempla in sermons posterior to those of Jacques de Vitry. 

Brother Peregrinus Martinus Polonus Petrus de Palnde {Thesaurus novus) 
St. Vincent of Ferrer Johannes Herolt (Discipulus) Mcffreth (Ilortulus 
reginae) Johan Gritsch (Quadragesimale) John Felton Paratus de 
tempore et dc sanctis John of Werden (Sermones Dormi secure} Michael 
Lochmair Bernardino da Siena Gabriel Barletta Bernardinus de Bustis 
Gottschalk Hollen Later fate of exempla. 



IV. 

Collections of exempla for the use of preachers. 

1. Collections containing exempla alone Sources of exempla Form of col 
lectionsAlphabetical collections Etienne de Besanson (Alplialctum narra- 
tionum) Anonymous manuscript alphabetical collections Printed collections 
Speculum cxemplorum Magnum speculum cxemplorum Promptuarlum of 
Martinus Polonus Promptuarium of Johannes Herolt (Discipulus) Miracles 
of the Virgin by the same author Later imitations of works above mentioned 
Exempla virtutum et vitiorum of Herold Promptuarium exemplorum of 
Hondorf Florcs exemplorum of d Averoult Exempla virtutum et vitiorum of 
Rossi (Erythraeus) Modern collections of stories for the use of preachers. 

2. Collections of moralized stories Moralizing tendency of later Middle Ages 
Speculum sapientiae of Bishop Cyril Dialogus crcaturarum of Nicolaus 
Pergamenus Narrationes of Odo de Ceritona (Eude de Cheriton) Liber 
moralizatlonum liistoriarum of Holkot Gcsta Romanorum Scala Cell of 
Johannes Gobii Bonuni universale de Aj/ribus of Thomas Cautipratanus 
Formicarius of Johannes Nider Moralizing tendency extended to entire field 
of natural history De naturis rerum of Alexander Neckam DC cxemplis et 
simllitudini bus rerum of Johannes de Sancto Geminiano DC proprietatibus 
rerum of Bartholomaeus Anglicus (Glanville). 

3. Exempla contained in homiletic treatises Liber de septetn donis Spiritiw 
Sancti of Etienne de Bourbon Liber de abimdantia cxemplorum attributed to 
Albert the Great Summa virtutum ac vitiorum of Guilelmus Peraldus Liber 
Sapientiae of Holkot Summa praedicantium of John Bromyard Pre- 
ceptori nm of Gottschalk Hollen. 



INTRODUCTION. XV11 



V. 
s 

Collections of cxcmpla not in Latin, but based upon the Latin collections and 
intended for the edification of the general reader. 

Latin collections sometimes translated in their entirety Spanish collection, 
Libro clc los Enxcmplos Catalan collection, Recull do Eximplis e Miracles 
Last mentioned work a translation of Etieune de Besanson s AtyJiabctum 
narrationum Spanish Libro de los Gatos a translation of the Narrationes of 
Odo de Ceritona (Eude de Cheriton) Portuguese collection Italian manuscript 
collections Italian printed collections Gli Astempri of Era Filippo da Siena 
Exempla in Italian moral treatises Corona de* Monad Spccchio delta 
vcra penitenzia of Jacopo Passavanti Fiore di Virtu Fiore di Filosofi c di 
molti Savl French manuscript collections French printed collections Contes 
moralises of Nicole Bozon Exempla in French moral treatises Fleur des 
commandcmens dc Dicu and its relation to the Promptuarium of Herolt 
English translation by Andrew Chertsey Manuel des pccliicz by William of 
Wadington English translation by Kobcrd of Brunne (Ilandlyng Synne) 
Somme des vices et vcrtus of Lorens translated by Dan Michel of Northgate 
{Ayenbite of Inwyt ) English manuscript collections Survival of rxi inpla in 
later collections of facetiae. 



I. 

Use of exempla in sermons prior to Jacques de Vitry. 

THE use of apologues for the conveyance of moral doctrine far 
antedates the introduction of Christianity, and the Founder of that 
religion in his frequent employment of parables simply followed a 
method of instruction always popular in the East. The frequency 
with which apologues (including under this term the various 
classes of stories capable of use for moral instruction) would be 
used would depend upon the nature of the audiences addressed by 
the teacher. The more popular the audience the more frequently 
the teacher would employ apologues. The systematic use of 
apologues, or, as they will hereafter be termed, exempla, in what 
we should consider their most appropriate place sermons does 
not extend back to a very early date, partly, perhaps, because 

b 









XV111 EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

such popular sermons have not been preserved, or, if they were, 
the exempla have been omitted.* 

The first somewhat systematic use of exempla (although taken 
exclusively from the legends of the saints) is to be found in the 
homilies "in Evangelia" of Gregory (before 604). These homilies, 
forty in number, were addressed to the people and pronounced in 
the various basilicas of Rome. In twelve of them a legend illus 
trative of the theme is introduced, generally near the end. It 
should not be forgotten that the Dialogues of Gregory furnished 
later preachers with an abundant store of exempla. In the pro 
logue to the Dialogues (Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. LXXVII., p. 153) 
Gregory says in the person of his interlocutor Peter : " Et sunt 
nonnulli, quos ad amorem patriae coelestis plus exempla, quam 
praedicamenta succendunt." The Dialogues were later translated 
into the various languages of Europe, and exercised a powerful 
influence on later collectors of legends. 

Gregory s employment of exempla does not seem, however, to 
have led to their use in sermons. f 

* The word cxcmplum is employed by the ecclesiastical writers in two mean 
ings, first, our "example" in a general sense; second, an illustrative story. 
This second meaning of the word is, I think, not earlier thfin the end of the 
twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century. The two meanings of the 
word may easily be confused, and give rise to incorrect inferences, as, for 
instance, where Gregory, in one of his homilies (xxxviii., Migne, Patrol. Lat., 
vol. Ixxvi., p. 1290, sect. 15), says : " Sed quia nonnunquam mentes audientium 
plus exempla fidelium quam docentium verba convertuirc." This passage was 
later taken as an authority for the use of exempla in the restricted sense of 
illustrative story. 

f Etienne de Besan9on, in his Alpliabctum narrationum, ad verb. Excmplwm 
(cited by P. Meyer in the introduction to the Contcs moralises clc Nicole J3ozon, 
Paris, 1889, p. xi.), says : " Beda, in Hystoria Anglorum. Quidam episcopus 
litteratus et subtilis valde missus fuit ad conversionem Anglorum, et utens sub- 
tilitate in sermonibus suis nichil profecit. Missus est alius minoris litterature 
qui utens narrationibus et exemplis in sermonibus suis, pene totam Angliam 
convertit." No such statememt is found in Bede, but the reference undoubtedly 
is to the conversion of the Northumbrians through the influence of King Oswald, 
at whose request Aidan was sent from lona. Bede says (Hist, cedes, ed. 
Stevenson, iii., 5, p. 166) that before Aidan was sent: "missus fuerit primo 
alius austerioris animi vir, qui cum aliquandiu genti Anglorum praedicans nihil 



INTEODUCTION. XIX 

r It was not until the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the 
< thirteenth century that the practice became common, for reasons 
- which we shall soon see.* 

The duty of public preaching, which at first was reserved for 
the bishop, was later extended to the priests, but for a long time 
was a privilege jealously guarded and granted to comparatively 
few. The foundation in the thirteenth century of the two great 
orders of Franciscans and Dominicans, the latter par excellence 
the oi do pr aedicator urn, gave an enormous impulse to preaching 
and entirely changed its character.f The monks of these orders 

proficeret, nee libenter a populo audiretur, redierit patriom, etc." There is no 
mention of cxcmpla in this connection. The spurious passage from Bede was 
frequently cited as an authority for the use of exempla, for example, by Etienne 
de Bourbon in the prologue to his work, Liber de scptem donis Spiritus Sancti, 
and from him by the unknown author of Liber de abundantia exemplorum in 
his prologue. It is also found in the prologue to Meffreth s Sermones Hortulus 
licgine de Sanctis. 

I owe to Prof. Child the following reference to the use of stories, which, while 
it is too vague to be much value, is worth citing here. It occurs in Aelfric s 
preface to his translation of the Old Testament (about the year 1000), and may 
be found in Grein s Bibliotlieli der angelsaclisisclien Prosa, i., p. 7 : "He (that 
is Solomon) gesette J?re6 bee J?urh his snoternisse. An ys Parabole J?at ys bigs- 
pellboc, na svilce ge secgaft, ac visdomes bigspell and vanning, etc." 

* Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis, died 1202), in his treatise, Summade arte 
jpracdicatoria, c&p. 1 (Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. ccx., p. 113), says: "In fine 
vero, debet uti exemplis, ad probandum quod intendit, quia familiaris est 
doctrina exemplaris." I have examined all the other similar treatises at my 
disposal, such as Humbertus de Romanis, De eruditions praedicatorum ; 
Petrus Cantor, Verbum abbrcviatum ; and Guibert de Nogent, Liber quo 
or dine ser mo fieri debeat ; but have found no reference to exempla in them, 
although Lecoy de la Marche, La Chairc frangaise au moyen age, Paris, 1886, 
p. 300, says that Humbertus de Komanis recommends the frequent use of 
exempla. In the later treatises on sermon-writing elaborate directions are 
given in regard to exempla, or similitudines, as they are sometimes called, see, 
for instance, Ulrich Surgant s Manuale Curatorum (written 1502-1508), lib. i., 
Consideratio xvi. : "Et iste modus amplificandi sermonum valde utilis est 
auditoribus et specialiter rudibus et simplicibus." The use of fables he does not 
approve, although they may be employed : " Quando deprehenderit auditores 
somnolentos vcl attediatos, ad excitandum eos et sublevandum eorum tedium." 
3 f In the preparation of this introduction I have been much aided by the fol 
lowing works : L. Bourgain, La Cliaire frangaise au Xlle Siecle, Paris, 1879 ; 



XX EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

obeyed literally the words of the Founder of Christianity, and 
went into all the world and preached the Word to every creature. 
The popular character of the audiences modified essentially the 
style of preaching, and it became necessary to interest and even 
amuse the common people who had gradually become accustomed 
to an entertaining literature more and more secular in its character, 
and who possessed, moreover, an innate love for tales. The founder 
of the ordo praedicatorum himself set the example in this respect, 
and his biographer (Quetif et Echard, Scriptores ordinis praedica 
torum, i., p. 23, in Vita edita a Fratre Jordano, sect. 45) says of 
him: " Ubicunque versaretur sive in via sive cum sociis, aut in 
domo cum hospite reliquaque familia, aut inter magnates principes 
aut praelatos semper aedificatoriis affluebat sermones, abundabat 
exemplis,quibus ad amorem Christi seculive contemtum audientium 
animi flecterentur." The same statement is made in almost the 
same words in the Altera Vita (Op. cit., p. 35, sect. 44).* 

A. Lecoy de la Marche. La Chain; frangaisc an moyen age, 2 C ed., Paris, 1886 ; 
11. Cruel, Geschichtc dcr deutsclicn Prcdigt im Mittelalter, Detmolil, 1879 ; A. 
Linsenmcyer, Gescldclite dcr Prcdigt in Deutscliland von Karl dem Grosscn 
Ms zum Ausgang dcs vierzeknten Jahrhunderts, Munich, 188G ; and V. Le 
Clerc, IHscours sur Vetatdeslcttres auquatorzieme sicclc in Histoire litteraire 
de la France, vol. xxiv., pp. 363 -382. 

* The use of exempla is generally defended by reference to Jerome s Vitac 
Patrnm, Gregory s Dialogues, etc. Jacques de Vitry, in the prologue to his life 
of St. Mary of Oignies (Acta Sanct., June 23, torn, v., p. 547 of Palme s edition) 
says, after citing the above authors : "Multi enim incitantur exemplis, qui non 
moventur praeceptis." Etienne de Besan9on in the prologue to his Alphabetwn 
narrationum (cited in Hist. litt. de la jFrance,-*.*.., p. 273) says : " Antiquorum 
Patrum exemplo didici nonnullos ad virtutes fuisse inductos narrationibus aedi 
ficatoriis et exemplis. llefert enim de se ipso Augustinus, quod, Pontiano vitam 
beati Antonii coram eo recitante, ad imitandum statim exarsit. Narrationes qui- 
dem hujus (modi) et exempla facilius intellectu capiuntur, et memoriae firmius 
imprimuntur, et a multis libentius audiuntur. Utile igitur et expediens nimis est, 
viros praedicationis officio deditos, proximorum salutem per terram discurrendo 
quaerentes, exemplis talibus abundare, quibus modo in praedicationibus com- 
munibus, modo in locutionibus familiaribus, ad omne genus hominum salubriter 
(excitandum) utantur." He also cites the example of Gregory and St. Domi- 
nick. Etienne de Bourbon, in his prologue, also relies on the example of 
Gregory. The unknown author of the Speculum Exemplorum, after citing 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

It will be seen in the course of this introduction that almost all 
who played an important part in the use of exempla, either by 
employing them in their sermons or by collecting them for other 
preachers, were Dominicans.* 

A notable exception to this rule was the eminent prelate 
Jacques de Yitry, who by his example gave a powerful impulse 
to the use of exempla in sermons, and thus has played an im 
portant part in the diffusion of popular tales. A somewhat 
detailed account of this distinguished historian and preacher will 
now be necessary. 



Gregory and Christ s use of parables, continues : " Vade igitur, et tu fac sinri- 
liter, quia exempla mentem efficacius movent, memoriae firmius haerent, intel- 
lectui facile lucent, delectant auditum, fovent affectum, removent taedium, vitam 
informant, mores instruunt, et. dum sua novitate sensum permulcent, odiosam 
praedicatori somnolentiam fugant. Tempus me narrante deficiet, si voluero 
omnes exemplorum dicendorum utilitates retexere." Johannes Gobii, in the 
prologue to the Scala Cell, gives a more philosophical reason for the use of 
exempla. He says : " Cum enim reverende pater impossibile sit nobis super- 
lucere divinum radium nisi sub velamine similitudinis et figure ; ut testatur in 
angelica ierarchia. Hinc est quod mentis nostre ratio in tarn excellent! luce non 
figitur nisi earn aspiciat per similitudines et exempla. Unde unigenitum dei 
verbum ut sedentes in tenebris et in umbra mortis ad celestia elevaret in exemplis 
et parabolis loquebatur eo quod fortius moveant ; avidius audiantur ; firmius 
retineantur et a terrenis mentem erigant ad eterna ut Augustinus attestatur. 
Quia vero noster animus ridetur ad celestia inhiare eo quod delectetur narra- 
tionibus et sanctorum exemplis." Finally Herolt, in the prologue to his Promp- 
titarium, cites, without acknowledgment, a passage from Etienne de Besan9on s 
preface, and refers to the example of St. Dominick. 

* Lecoy de la Marche, op. cit. p. 200, gives an enumeration of the preachers 
of the thirteenth century. Of 318, 91 belonged to the secular and 227 to the 
regular clergy. Of the latter number 98 were Dominicans and 53 Franciscans. 
The remaining 76 belonged to the other orders, or their status was unknown. 



XX11 EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

II. 

Life and Works of Jacques de Vitiy. 

1. Materials for the history of the early life of Jacques deYitry 
are wholly wanting.* Nothing is known with certainty of the 

* The sources for a life of Jacques de Vitry will be found enumerated in 
U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources liistoriqucs flu moycn age, Paris, 1877-S6 ? 
p. 1150. It may be well to pass briefly in review those which I have been able 
to examine. For convenience I shall divide them into four classes : auto 
biographical and contemporaneous, independent biographies, literary historians 
and biographical encyclopaedias, and illustrative works. 

The autobiographical material (besides unimportant references to himself in 
the Historia orientalls ct occidentalis^ Vita B. M. 0. and sermons) consists of 
the twelve letters examined later in detail. These letters extend from 1216, 
when he set out for Rome to be consecrated bishop of Acre, to the capture of 
Damietta in 121&, and subsequent events down to the spring of 1221 (Damictta 
was surrendered to the Saracens on the 8th of September of the same year). 
Although these letters cover but a short time, they give us an excellent idea of 
the writer s personality. 

The contemporaneous accounts (besides references in the various historians 
of the Crusades, and in such writers as Etienne de Bourbon and Thomas Can- 
tipratanus) consist of a biography in the Acta Sanctorum, and the notice in 
Vincent of Beauvais {Speculum historialc, lib. xxxi., cap. 10). The biography 
{Acta Sanct , June 23, vol. v., June, p. 572, ed. Palme) is in the nature of a 
supplement (it bears that title in the Acta Sanct.~) to Jacques de Vitry s life of 
St. Mary, and was written by a certain Frater N., a regular canon of the 
monastery of Chantimpre, near Cambray, after Jacques de Vitry s elevation 
to the cardinalate (1228), and before his death (1210). The author does not 
give his name, and Papebroch (Acta Sanct., vol. cit., p. 546) supposes that the 
initial denotes Nicholas, or some such name. Now, a passage in the Supple 
mentum appears in the same words in the Bonum universale de apibits of 
Thomas Cantipratanus, and is evidently copied from the Supplementum without 
acknowledgment. This would naturally be the case were Thomas himself the 
writer of the Supplementum. Were it, on the other hand, by a different writer, 
Thomas would likely (to judge from other instances) have mentioned and praised 
the author. Finally the use of the letter N., to conceal the real name, is found 
as early as the first half of the fourteenth century, and may have arisen earlier. 
These arguments of Quctif and Echard (Script, ord. praed., i., p. 254) seem 
to me conclusive as to the authorship of the 8upplementum t which, after all, 
is of no value for the early life of Jacques de Vitry, and contains but few 
details of interest. 



INTEODUCTION. XX111 

place or date of his birth. It is stated in the Magnum Chronicon 
Belgicum (cited by Matzner, p. 1) that he was born at Argenteuil, 
a town on the Seine, near Paris. This statement was followed by 



A second biography entitled, Appendix de Jacobo Vitriaco scriptore, is also 
found in the Acta Sanctorum, vol. cit. p. 581, and although not contemporaneous 
may be examined here. It is by an unknown writer and probably not earlier 
than the fourteenth century. It contains the following details: time when sermons 
were written ; that Jacques de Vitry was curate of parish of Oignies before 
elevation to episcopate ; intimacy with St. Mary, and eloquence in preaching a gift 
of her prayers ; success in preaching the Crusade ; works written by him ; two 
anecdotes (also in Thomas Cantipratanus) illustrating Jacques de Vitry s power in 
prayer ; gifts bestowed upon school at Oignies by him ; commands his body to 
be buried at Oignies ; date of death (day of the month only) ; and apparition 
after death to several persons. It is clear to me (what has not been noticed 
before, I think) that the Appendix has no original worth, but is simply a com 
bination of Thomas Cantipratanus and Vincent of Beauvais. The two anecdotes 
above mentioned are taken literally from the Bonum universale de apibiis, i., 
22 ; ii., 18, and the rest from the Speculum historialc, lib. xxxi., cap. x., with 
the exception of the first sentence in regard to the date of Jacques de Vitry s 
sermons : " Ea tempestate, qua Bomae deguit, illos solennes sermones tarn de 
tcmpore quam de sanctis confecisse, qui usque hodie in ecclesia de Oignies con- 
servantur." 

There remains the account of Vincent of Beauvais. Like similar notices of 
that day it does not contain a single date, and gives only the vaguest sketch of 
Jacques de Vitry s life. 

The only separate life of Jacques de Vitry is that contained in the inaugural 
dissertation of F. L. Matzner : DC Jacobi Vitriacensis crucis praedicatoris vita 
ct rebus gestis, Munich, 1863, an admirable work which I have made the basis of 
my own sketch. 

The notices in the older literary histories (ecclesiastical writers) are unsatis 
factory and in many cases utterly worthless. The latter is the case with the 
notices in Bellarmin-Labbe, De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, Cologne, 1622, p. 
246 ; Paris, 1660, vol. i., pp. 493-495 ; Ceillier, Histoire generate des auteurs 
sacres ct ccclesiastiqiies, Paris, 1757, vol. xxi., pp. 163-4; Dupin, Nouvelle 
bibUotheque des auteurs ecclesiastiques, Paris, 1693-1755, vol. xiii., p. 223 ; 
Henricus Gandavensis, in Bibliotlieca ecclesiastica, ed. Miraeus, Antwerp, 1639, 
p. 169 ; Miraeus, op. cit., p. 249 ; Trithemius, De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, 
Cologne, 1546, p. 179. Fabricius, Bibliotlicca latina .mediae ct infimae actatis, 
Florence, 1858, vol. iii., p. 312, simply recapitulates the statement of the above 
and others, and Cave, Scriptonun cccle&iaxticorum historia literaria, Oxford, 
1740-43, vol. ii., p. 288 adds nothing. The best of this class of notices is that in 
Oudin, Commcntarius dc scrl^torilus ccclesiae, Frankfort, 1722, vol. iii., p. 46, 



XXIV EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

later writers until recently, when the fact that Jacques is in 
variably termed "of Vitiy" (" a Vitriaco ") has led to the sup 
position that he was born at a town of that name. Of such there 
are two : Vitry-le-Brule and Vitry-le-Fran9ais, the former in the 
department of the Seine, five miles from Paris, the latter in the 
department of the Marne, nineteen miles south-east of Chalons. 
Matzner inclines in favour of the latter, on the ground that there 
was formerly in that place a monastery of St. James (" Sancti 
Jacobi de Vitriaco"), and it would be quite in accordance with 
custom to name a child after the patron saint of his birthplace. 

The date of his birth is also a matter of mere conjecture. As 
he was ordained priest in 1210, and as at that time no one was 
ordained priest before his thirtieth year, that would make the 
date of his birth some time before 1180. 

Of his family we know nothing. From the fact that he became 

who does not, however, do more than bring together conveniently the opinions 
of earlier writers with a few unimportant additions of his own. 

The more recent writers of this class are : Becdelievre (Bec-de-Lievre Ilamel), 
Biographic liegeoise, Liege, 1836, vol. i., p. 91, whose notice is entirely worth 
less (he mentions Jacques de Vitry under erroneous date of death, 1244). The 
same may also be said of Duthilloeul, Bibliographic donaisienne, Douay, 1842, 
vol. i., p. 72. This notice is so brief that it may be cited here in its entirety as 
an example of this kind of work : "Jacques de Vitry naquit a Argenteuil pros 
Paris, dont il fut cure. Gregoire IX. le nomma cardinal et eveque de Tuseulum. 
II mourut a Rome en 1244." The article in Foppens, Biblwtheca bclgica, 
Brussels, 1839, vol. i., p. 542, is also incomplete and incorrect, and that in 
Graesse, Lehrluch einer allgemeinen Literargeschichte, ii., ii. Abth, l ste Hiili te, 
p. 1GO ; ii., iii. Abth., 2 te Hiilfte, p. 1058, is the usual compilation. 

There remain of this class of notices three excellent articles in the Histoirc 
litteraire de la France, vol. xviii., pp. 209-246 ; Nouvelle biographic generalc, 
Paris, Didot, 1858, vol. xxvi., pp. 260-264 ; and in Ersch and Gruber s Ency- 
hlop ddwt ii. 13, pp. 182-184. The first is by Daunou, the second by Haureau, 
and the third by Wachter. The last is especially remarkable for its historical 
perspective ; the other two are good general biographies, in which, as is natural, 
the stress is laid upon Jacques de Vitry as the historian of the Crusades. 

The last class of works illustrative of the life of -Jacques de Vitry will be men 
tioned in the proper place ; they are such works as Du Boulay s history of the 
University of Paris, Hoius s edition of the Hist or ia orivntulis, Michaud, and 
other historians of the Crusades, etc. 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

later a regular canon, it is probable that his family was of some 
rank, as only the noble or those distinguished for their learning or 
virtues could be received into that order, and at the time of his 
reception Jacques de Vitry had not so distinguished himself. 

Concerning his early education we are also ignorant. Later he 
pursued theological studies at the University of Paris (Du Boulay 
cited by Matzner, p. 4, says in the early years of the reign of 
Philip Augustus, that is 1180 to 1190). These studies he pursued 
with great fervour (the author of the Supplementum, p. 573, says : 
"Relictis Theologicis studiis, quibus fervebat immodice") and 
took his master s degree. While still engaged in his studies 
(1208-1210) he is said (Supplementum, p. 573) to have heard of 
the fame of Mary of Oignies, whose life he afterwards wrote, and 
to have abandoned Paris and his studies for the purpose of visit 
ing her.* A very tender and lasting friendship was formed 
between the two, and Jacques de Vitry never ceased to have for 
her the deepest reverence. 

After a brief stay at Oignies, Jacques de Vitry, at the instance 
of Mary, returned to Paris to complete his studies and receive 
consecration. He was ordained in 1210 and returned to Oignies, 
where he was received with great honour by Mary and the canons 
of the monastery (Supplementum, I., 2) and celebrated his first 
mass in their church in the presence of his friend (Vita B. M. 86). 
Shortly after he became a member of their order and curate of the 
parish of Oignies (Appendix, p. 581), and, at the instance of Mary, 
devoted himself to preaching, in which, by her advice and prayers, 
he soon attained great eminence. t 

* Mary was born at Nivelles, in Belgium, about 1177, of a family of rank and 
wealth She was married in 1191, but her husband soon died, and she gave her 
floods to the poor and lived a life of ascetic retirement, first at Willebroc, and 
from about 1206 at Oignies, where sho was a member of the society of Begumes. 
She died in VI 3 Although termed indiscriminately sancta and leata, she does 
not seem ever to have been formally canonised, but papal licenses must have 
been given for the translation of her body, and her name was admit! 
various martyrologies. 

f The Supplement, I., says : Compulit ergo ancilla Christi dictum vcne- 



XXVI EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

In 1212, Foulques, Bishop of Toulouse, was expelled from his 
sec by Count Raymond VI., and went to preach the crusade 
against the Albigenses in the north of France and Belgium. He 
had intended to visit Liege, but owing to the dissensions between 
the Emperors Otto IV. and Frederick II., that city had been 
besieged, captured, and the neighbourhood laid waste. Foulques, 
therefore, led by the fame of Mary of Oignies, turned aside to that 
place, where he probably remained all the winter (Vita B . M., p. 547, 
2). That he became an intimate friend of Jacques de Vitry is 
shown by the dedication to him by the latter of his life of St. 
Mary, and it is also probable that Foulques induced him to 
devote to the service of the crusade against the Albigenses his 
remarkable gifts as a preacher. For this purpose he received 
permission from the Papal legate, Cardinal Robert de Common, 
and prepared himself to discharge his duty (Vita B. M., p. 569, 
96) ; but as his friend Mary was in her last illness, he was un 
willing to leave her, and restricted his preaching to the vicinity of 
Oignies. Mary died on the 23rd June of that year (1213), and 
Jacques de Vitry was with her in her last moments (Vita B. M. t 
pp. 569-572). 

After her death he preached the crusade against the Albigenses 
in France, especially in the diocese of Rheims, and his preaching 
was attended with great success. Vincent of Beauvais (Speculum 
Htstoriale, lib. xxxi., x.) say : " Unde et ipse crucem contra Albi 
genses in Francia predicans, eloquii suavitate atque dulcedine 
multos atque innumerabiles ad signum crucis accipiendum provo- 
cavit." The following year he led a large army of crusaders to 
the siege of Toulouse. He was not present at the siege of the 
city, having set out again upon his preaching. It was during his 

rabilem virum praedicare populis, revocarc animas quas diabolus conabatur 
aufcrre : enituitque in co illud speciale miraculum, quod precibus ct meritis 
beatissimae feminac in brcvi tempore ad tantam eminentiam pracdicationis 
attingeret, ut in exponendis Scripturis et destructionc peccaminum vix ei 
quisquam inter mortales posset aequari." In the life of St. Mary, 79, Jacques 
relates an interesting anecdote about his early failure as a preacher, owing to 
his desire to. say too much, and how he was corrected of his fault by a parable 
told him by his friend. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

stay in Franco, as a preacher of the crusade, that Jacques do Vitry 
wrote, at the request of his friend Foulques, Bishop of Toulouse, 
the life of Mary of Oignies (Vita B. If., p. 546). 

Meanwhile Innocent III. was stirring up the Christian world 
for a new crusade, and the preaching against the Albigenses was 
exchanged for preaching against the Saracens. Upon this new 
crusade Jacques de Vitry entered with great vigour, and achieved 
even greater success than in the other. The continuer of William 
of Tyre says : "II ot en France un clerc, qui avoit iiom Jacques 
de Vitry, cil en croisa mult, la ou il estoit en la predication 
(Michaud, Ilistoire des Croisades, Paris, 1862, vol. ii., p. 363, n.), 
and Etienne de Bourbon (Prologue cited in Histoire titt. de la 
France, vol. xviii., p. 215) says of him : " Vir sanctus et litteratus 
praedicando per regnum Franciae et utens exemplis in sermonibus 
suis, adeo totam commovit Franciam, quod non putat memoria 
aliquem ante vel post sic movisse." The practical result of Jacques 
de Vitry s preaching was that a considerable number of persons 
from Lower Lorraine and the province of Kheims engaged as 
crusaders, and were later found in Syria and Egypt. 

We are without any details of Jacques de Vitry s life for the 
next two years. He probably continued his preaching, and his 
fame spread to the East, for in 1214 the canons of the city of Acre 
in Palestine elected him bishop to fill the vacancy made by the 
promotion of the former bishop to the patriarchate of Jerusalem. 
The approval of the Pope (Innocent III.) was given the following 
year, and early in 1216 Jacques de Vitry set out for Rome to be 
consecrated. The details of this journey are given in a letter to 
his friends at Oignies (No. 7 in the list of letters given later). 

He accepted with great unwillingness the onerous office to 
which he had been called through no effort of his own, and he 
laments in a pathetic manner his separation from his old friends 
(Letter VII., p. 29). He was accompanied by a few friends, and 
reached Lombardy in May. There he came near losing his mule 
laden with his books and luggage, in a river swollen by the 
melting snow. He reached Milan in safety, which city he calls 



XXVlii EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

" foveam haereticorum " (Letter VII., p. 30), and remained there 
a few days to preach, apparently without success. From Milan 
he proceeded over the old Via Aemilia to Perugia by way of 
Piacenza, Parma, Reggio, Modena, Bologna, Faenza, and Rimini, 
reaching Perugia July 18 (Letter VII., p. 30). On his arrival 
he learned that the Pope (Innocent III.) had died two days 
before. His body was not yet buried, and Jacques de Vitry saw 
it exposed in the church of St. Lawrence, and abandoned by the 
citizens and cardinals, who were busy with the election of a new 
pope. The decomposed body was nearly naked, and had been 
stripped of its rich garments the night before by thieves. Jacques 
de Vitry says (Letter VII., p. 30) : " I entered the church, and 
saw with my own eyes how brief and vain is the uncertain glory 
of the world." On the following day the conclave elected Cardinal 
Savelli, who assumed the title of Honorius III., and was conse 
crated the following Sunday, July 24. A week from that day the 
pontiff consecrated Jacques de Vitry bishop of Acre. He tells 
us in the same letter (p. 31) that he had intended to return to 
France ; but as he was unable to obtain from the pope the office 
of defender of crusaders or legate of crusades, he determined to 
proceed at once to Acre, rather than endure the reproaches of 
those whom he was unable to protect against the oppression of 
the powerful and of usurers. 

At the end of August, when the pope returned to Home, Jacques 
de Vitry set out for Genoa, taking with him no very favourable 
idea of the papal court. He says (Letter VII., p. 31) : " Multa 
inveni spiritui meo contraria, adeo enim circa saecularia et tem- 
poralia, circa reges et regna, circa lites et iugia occupati erant, 
quod vix de spiritualibus aliquid loqui permittebant." While 
three days journey from Genoa, on account of the difficult and 
mountainous road, he took ship at some port, and after a stormy 
passage reached Genoa in safety (Letter VII., p. 32). He found 
the Genoese on the eve of attacking a certain castle belonging to 
the Pisans, and in accordance with their custom they carried oft 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



the stranger s horses, although they gave the owner a friendly 
reception. During the absence of the men, Jacques de Vitry 
preached the crusade to the women and old men, so that, as 
he says, if the men took away his horses he took away their 
wives and daughters. Upon their return many of the war 
riors also took the cross, greatly to Jacques de Vitry s delight, 
for the Genoese were a wealthy people engaged in commerce with 
Syria and Egypt, and were the only mariners who continued their 
navigation during the winter. After remaining at Genoa the 
month of September, Jacques de Vitry hired, at his own expense, 
a ship to take himself and companions to Acre.* 

The voyage was a stormy one, and twice the ship vvas nearly 
wrecked, but on the 5th of November they safely reached Acre, 
where Jacques de Vitry was received by the citizens with due 
solemnity (Letter VIII, p. 36). The new bishop devotes a large 
part of the letter to Lutgarde, to a gloomy account of the moral 
condition of his residence, and describes in detail the various sects 
which divided the city. He endeavoured at once to check the 
licentiousness which reigned and restore unity in the church. 
His efforts were crowned with the happiest results (Letter VIII., 
p. 38) .t The following year he undertook a journey to the mari- 
* Interesting details are given in the same letter (p. 33) of the hire of the 
ship, the stock of provisions needed, &c. The account of the journey, which 
lasted from about Oct. 1 to Nov. 5, is given in Letter VIII, to Lutgarde of 
St. Trond and the convent of Awirs. See Saint-Genois, op. cit., pp. 33-43. 

f In the same letter (p. 39) he gives a most interesting picture of his daily 
life, and, as it will give a better notion of the man than anything else, it may be 
well to transcribe it here in his own words. 

"Ego vero vitam meam donee veniat exercitus sic ordinavi, quod, summo 
diliculo roissa celebrata, peccatores recipio usque post meridiem ; dcuique 
sumpto cibo cum magna difficultate (meum appetitum manducaudi et bibendi 
amisi ex quo terram ultramarinam ingressus sum), infirmos per civitatem 
opportet me visitare usque ad nonam post vesperas. Post hoc vero causas 
orphanorum et viduarum et aliorum, quibus in justicia dicere non valeo, cum 
tumultu et o-ravaminc mngno recipio, ita quod dilecte tempus lectioms non habeo 
nisi ad missam vel ad matutinam vel quum aliquod modicum spacmm me 
abscondo Tempus autem orationis et considerationis quieti noctis tempore 
reservavi, quumque turn ita fessus sum vel turbatus, quod nee orationis nee 
proprie infirmitatis consideration! possum vacare." 



XXX EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

time cities of Syria to preach the crusade, and came near falling 
a victim to an emissary of the Old Man of the Mountain. He 
was everywhere received with great reverence, and his preaching 
produced its usual effect, even converting some Saracens whom he 
baptized (Letter VIII., p. 40). While at Margat, on the point of 
taking ship to Antioch, he was recalled to Acre by the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem by the news that the army of crusaders was ex 
pected. They arrived in the autumn of 1217, and Jacques de 
Vitry seems to have taken part in the expedition they made in 
November and December of that year against the Sultan, Malek 
al Adel, who was encamped at Betsan, on the Jordan, and against 
the fortress constructed five years before by the same prince on 
Mount Thabor (Wilken, GeschicJite der Kreuzziige, Leipzig, 1830, 
vol. vi., pp. 142, 148). In the latter expedition many captives 
were taken, and Jacques de Vitry ransomed the children by his 
prayers and money and sent some to Europe and entrusted others 
to pious women to be educated. 

The following year (1218), after the return of the King of 
Hungary and the failure of the crusade, we find Jacques de Vitry 
engaged in the building of Districtum (also called Castellum 
Peregrinorum), a port south of Acre, and in reconstructing the 
fortifications of Caesarea (Letters I., II., toHonorius III., Martene 
and Durand, Thes. nov. III., pp. 288, 289). He returned to Acre 
with the crusaders to celebrate Easter, which fell that year on the 
13th of April (Letter II., op. cit., p. 290). He was a warm advo 
cate of the plan long cherished of attacking the Saracens in 
Egypt (Letter II., op. cit., p. 290), and after the arrival at Acre, 
in May, of the German and Frisian crusaders (Jacques de Vitry, 
Historia orientalis in Bongars, p. 1132, and Wilken, op. cit., vol. 
vi., pp. 127, 163), it was determined to recover the Holy Land 
through Egypt. Jacques de Vitry equipped two ships at his own 
cost (Letter III., op. cit., p. 296) and sailed from the harbour of 
Districtum the Sunday after the festival of the Ascension (27th 
of May), arriving at Damietta the 30th of May. The other 



INTRODUCTION. xxxl 

crusaders reached there a few days later (Letter II., op. cit., p. 
290; Historia orientalis, Bongars, p. 1132). 

It would be foreign to the purpose of this sketch to narrate in 
detail the events of 1218-1221, including the capture of the tower 
which was built in the middle of the Nile, and connected with the 
city of Damietta by a bridge and iron chains, which prevented the 
crusaders from ascending the river (taken by the crusaders 
August 25th) ; the capture of Damietta by storm on November 
4th, 1219 ; the ill-starred expedition to Cairo in the summer of 
1221 ; and the inundation of the Nile which compelled the cru 
saders to surrender Damietta to the Saracens in return for their 
own deliverance. 

Jacques de Vitry bore a prominent part in all of these events. 
Before the arrival of the legate Pelagius, he appears to have dis 
charged the duties of that office and reported the progress of 
affairs to the Pope. After the capture of the tower in the Nile 
he was anxious to attack the city at once, but he was overruled, 
and the attack was delayed until the arrival of fresh forces of 

crusaders.* 

The privations which he in common with the others suffered 
during this memorable siege he describes in Letters II. and III. 
to Honorius III. To these privations were added the dissension 
between Pelagius and King John and the disheartning delays 
which prevented the capture of the city. At last, by the advice 
of Pelagius, the city was taken by storm, Nov. 4th, 1219 (Letter IV., 
op. cit., p. 301, et seq.). Again, we find Jacques de Vitry ransom 
ing and baptising the children found in the city, and sending 

* This statement is Matter s, op. cit., p. 53. Jacques de Vitry, in the Letter 
II., op. cit., p. 293, simply says : " Nobis valde periculosus ct clifficilis est tran- 
situs propt er fluminis incrementum : undo in festo S. Crucis in Septembri, 
quando has letteras scripsimus, nondum fluvium transieramus, vel civitatem 
obsideramus; sed praeparantes naves et alia vasa ad transitum nccessana, 
novos cxpectamus peregrines, qui sunt ex qualibet mnndi partc cum mnltitudinc 
copiosa et iimumerabili ad obsulionein civitatis, sicut nunliatum est nobis, venire 
festinabunt." 



XXX11 EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

them to his friends to be reared in the Christian faith (Letter 
IV., op. cit., p. 304). 

The winter following the capture of the city was spent by Jacques 
de Vitry in writing his history (see Prologue to the Historia Hier- 
osol. in Bongars, p. 1047, and in Canisius, Lectiones Antiquae, vol. 
vi., pp. 1324, et seq.). It was during this winter also that St. 
Francis of Assisi made his fruitless journey to Damietta. The 
crusaders remained at Damietta in shameful inactivity, sometimes 
cut off by the enemy s fleet from all communication by sea, and 
sometimes besieged in turn on land (Letter V., D Achery, Spicile- 
gium, Paris, 1668, vol. viii., p. 373). 

The legate Pelagius in vain attempted to arouse the crusaders 
to undertake an expedition against Cairo. It was not until the 
following summer (1221) when fresh forces arrived that the ill- 
starred expedition was undertaken. The responsibility for it has 
usually been thrown upon Pelagius, but it seems that owing to 
the lateness of the season he feared the rising of the Nile, and 
advised that Alexandria should be the object of attack (Matzner, 
op. cit., p. 57). Jacques de Vitry, on the other hand, was strenuous 
in favour of Cairo, on account of his hope of a union with the 
fabulous Christian king of the Tartars. The expedition started 
the 8th or 9th of July, Jacques de Vitry remaining in charge of 
the garrison of Damietta. The lamentable result of the expedition 
is well known; and on the 8th of September, 1221, Damietta was 
surrendered to the Saracens. 

Jacques de Vitry returned disheartened to Acre, and henceforth 
made every effort to be released from the burden of his bishopric 
and to return to his beloved friends at Oignies. 

The following year he was summoned by the pope to the council 
at Verona, which came to naught owing to the pope s illness, nor 
did Jacques de Vitry succeed in being released from his bishopric. 
In 1224 he was in Acre again, for the pope wrote him to be of good 
cheer for a fresh band of crusaders was soon to sail for Syria 
(Baronius, Annales ecclesiastic^ ed. A. Theiner, Anno 1224, 11). 



INTEODUCTION. XXX111 

In the autumn of 1226, Jacques de Vitry seems to have been 
again at Rome, and it was on this journey that he came so near 
shipwreck and believed he was saved by the intervention of St. 
Mary of Oignies (Supplementum, cap. iv. 20, 21). It is not certain 
whether Jacques de Yitry was at this time relieved of his bishopric 
as the author of the Supplementum declares, or somewhat later. 

Matzner (p. 61) himself thinks that he was relieved of his 
bishopric by Gregory IX., who succeeded Honorius III. (March 
19th, 1227), and was sent by him back to Syria there to resign 
his office. 

After his resignation had been duly carried out, he returned 
to Rome the same year, and was at once sent by the pope to 
Belgium to preach the crusade against the Albigenses (Baronius 
op. cit. 1228, 23). He returned to Oignies to consecrate the 
church built by Prior Aegidius, and for the adorning of which 
he had already sent gifts from the East (Supplementum, cap. ii., 
13), and where he deposited the remains of St. Mary (Supple 
mentum, cap. iv., 21). t 

Jacques de Vitry continued to preach the crusade diligently 
in the province of Rheims (Supplementum, cap. iv., 21), and seems 
to have had the spiritual charge of the entire diocese of Liege 
(Supplementum, cap. iv., 26). At the end of 1228, Gregory IX. 
created Jacques de Vitry cardinal and bishop of Tusculum. 

Little is known of the remainder of Jacques de Vitry s life. 
In the strife between the pope and the emperor, Jacques de Vitry 
acted as mediator between the two. We also find his name 
appended to various papal documents, dated 1231 and 1237. Pro- 

* Supplementum , cap. iv., 21 : " Non multo autem post (i.e., the journey just 
mentioned) Romam perveniens, a Domno Honorio, hujus nominis Papa tertio, 
Episcopatu absolvi se petiit : quern multarum precum instantia devictus 
absolvit." Haureau, in his article in the Nouvclle biograpliie generate, vol. 
xxvi., p. 2C1, puts it a little later, in 1229. 

f For Jacques de Vitry s generosity towards the monastery of Oignies, see 
Saint-Genois, op. cit., p. 9, and document in Marteue and Duraiid, Ampllsslma 
Coll., Vol. I., pp. 1278-1280. 

c 



XXXIV EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

bably in 1239 he was elected by the clergy of the Orient patriarch 
of Jerusalem. The pope did not approve their choice, as he was 
unwilling to allow Jacques de Vitry to leave him.* 

The date of Jacques de Vitry s death is given variously from 
1240 to 1260. That he was dead in 1240 is shown clearly by the 
letter of Gregory IX. just cited, and which is dated the 14th 
of May, 1240. In it Jacques de Vitry is spoken of as " bonae 
memoriae," which proves that he must have died before that 
time, probably at. Rome. In accordance with his own wish 
(Appendix, 4), his body was transported to Oignies and buried 
in the church, which he himself had consecrated, and where were 
interred Mary and other friends of his.t 

2. Jacques de Vitry s works may be divided into two classes 
historical and concionatory. The first class embraces Vita Beatae 
Mariae Oigniacensis, Historia orientalis, Historia oocidentalis, and 
Letters. The second class comprises : Sermones dominicales, Ser- 
mones de sanctis, Sermones vulgares, and Sermones communes vel 
quotidiani.% These works will now be briefly examined in order. 

* His words are : " Vacante dudum Hierosolymitana Ecclesia, dilecti filii 
capitulum ipsius Ecclesiae bonae memoriae Tusculanum episcopum ad ipsius 
regimen postularunt. Sed cum episcopi ejusdem praesentia non solum llomanae, 
sed etiam Ecclesiae generali apud Sedem Apostolicam utilis haberetur, eum 
ipsorum postulationi merito non duximus concedendum" (Baronius, op. cit., 
1240, 47). 

f Mention is made in the Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. v., p. 582, of a portrait 
supposed to be painted from life which was preserved at Oignies, and a cut is 
given of the image upon his tomb. Du Chesne in his Ilistoire de tons Us 
cardinaux frangais de naissance, vol. ii., p. 176 (cited by Matzner, p. 66), gives 
the following epitaph : 

Vitriacus jacet hie Romana columna Jacobus, 
Quern vivum coluit, colit orbis uterque sepultum. 

$ The work DC arte praedicandi, sometimes attributed to Jacques de Vitry, 
is probably only the prologue to the Sermones vulgar es ; and the Speculum 
exemplorum cited under his name is nothing but the exempla collected from the 
same sermons either by the author himself or by some other hand. Finally, the 
Liber de sanctis mulieri bus Leodlcnsilus is the prologue to the Vita Beatae 
Mariae Oigniacensis. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

We have already seen from Jacques de Vitry s life his relations 
with St. Mary of Oignies, and the profound affection and venera 
tion which he felt for her. He undertook an account of her life a 
few years after her death (which occurred June 23rd, 1213), and 
while the author was preaching the Albigensian Crusade before 
his departure in 1216 for Palestine (Acta Sanctorum, vol. cit. 
p. 546). The work is in two books, the first containing in 
thirteen chapters the history of her outer life and conversion; 
the second, in the same number of chapters, the history of her 
inner life and holy end.* The work is of little historical interest, 
and is merely the record of a life of asceticism, and its accom 
panying recompense of ecstatic vision. 

The second historical work of Jacques de Vitry is usually cited 
as Historia orientalis Libri iii. One of the three books, however, 
does not belong to Jacques de Vitry, and of the other two one is 
devoted to a history of the West. A better division then is : His 
toria orientalis, that is book i. of the Historia orientalis Libri iii. ;f 
and Historia occidentalis, that is book iii. of the work just men 
tioned. J Jacques de Vitry did intend to write a book iii., that is 
a second book of the Historia orientalis, describing events from the 
Lateran Council, 1214, to the capture of Damietta, 1221. Book 

Several other works are mentioned by Daunou in his article in the Hist. litt., 
vol. xviii., p. 220. Two are of a polemical nature, a book against the Saracens 
and a dialogue between a Christian and a Jew. Five others are of a miscel 
laneous character, Moralizationcs (probably a collection of exempla), De con- 
fcssionc, Summa de conversione pcccatoris, De gratia speeiali quibusdam data, 
and proverbs or religious maxims. In regard to these I have been unable to 
obtain any further information. 

* The life of St. Mary is in the Acta Sanctorum, ed. cit., June 23, vol. v., 
pp. 542-572. Potthast, Bibliotheca liistorica, p. 802, cites a French translation, 
Nivelles, 1822, which I have not seen. 

f Edited by Fr. Moschus, Douay, 1597, also in Bongars, Gcsta Dei per 
Francos, Hanover, 1611, p. 1047. 

J To be found only in the edition of Moschus cited above. 

See preface to Ilistoria orientalis, in Bongars, op. cit., p. 1047, and 
Canisius, Lectiones Antiquae, vol. vi., p. 1324. 

c2 



XXXVI EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

iii., attributed to Jacques de Vitry,* is not by him, but is a mere 
compilation from Oliverus Scholasticus, Historia Damiatina, and 
two other sources : a description of the Holy Land, and a histori 
cal sketch of the fate of that country down to 1200. f Jacques de 
Vitry, as he himself tells us in the preface to his work, began his 
history during his sojourn at Damietta (winter of 1219-20), but 
probably did not complete the two books until after his return to 
Europe. J The second book was not finished in accordance with 
the plan announced by the author, and, as we have j ust seen, the 
third book, which was to continue the first, was never written. 
The place of the lacking third book of Jacques de Vitry s history 
is taken, as has already been said, by the same author s letters, of 
which twelve are extant. 

It may be convenient to give here a list of the letters of Jacques 
de Vitry, with the place where they are to be found, and a state 
ment of their relation to each other. 



* Printed in Bongars, op. cit., pp. 1125-45, and in Martene and Durand, 
Thesaurus novug, Paris, 1717, vol. iii., pp. 268-287. 

f See G. Zacher, Die Historia orientalis des Jacob von Vitry. Eln quellen- 
kritischer Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kreuzzuge. Inaugural Dissertation, 
Konigsberg, 1885, pp. 10-13. The author says, p. 9: "Der Verlust dieses 
dritten Buches, wenn Jacob ein solches iiberhaupt geschrieben hat, ist aber 
leicht zu ertragen, da die uns erhaltenen Briefe Jacobs an Pabst Honorius III., 
seine Freunde u. s. w. einen vollstiindigen Ersatz dafiir bieten." 

J M. Barroux, Positions dcs Theses, etc., Paris, 1885, p. 25, places the com 
position of Book I. between 1219-23, and of Book II., between 1223-26. 

The second book was to contain the recent history of the Occident, with an 
examination of the secular and religious orders, together with a consideration of 
the religion of the Crusaders and the advantages of the Crusades. This latter 
topic is not discussed in the finished work, but its place is taken by a liturgical 
disquisition. It is to be regretted that the second book is so difficult of access, 
having been printed but once, in Moschus s edition. It is, however, disappoint 
ing in the entire absence of historical anecdotes which one might have expected 
of an author who avows that his object in writing his work is to facilitate the 
understanding of the Scriptures and to furnish material for preachers. See 
preface to Historia oriental-is, in Bongars. op. cit., p. 1047, and Zacher, op. cit., 
pp. 8, 9. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 

1. To Pope Honoring III. 

Martene and Durand, Thesaurus novus, vol. iii., pp. 288-289. 

2. To Pope Honorius III. 

Martene and Durand, op. cit., vol. iii., pp. 289-294. 

3. To Pope Honorius III. 

Martene and Durand, op. cit., vol. iii., pp. 294-300. 

4. To Pope Honorius III. 

Martene and Durand, op. cit., vol. iii., pp. 301-306. 

5. To Pope Honorius III. 

D Achery, Spicilegium, Paris, 1668, vol. viii., pp. 373-383 ; 
Nova editio, Paris, 1723, vol. iii., p. 801. 

6. To Foulques, Bishop of Toulouse. 

This is the prologue to the Vita B. M. Oign., Ada Sand., ed. 
cit., June 23, vol. v., p. 547. 

7. To his Friends. 

Memoires de VAcademie royale des sciences, des lettres, et des 
beaux-arts de Belgique, xxiii., Brussels, 1849: " Sur des lettres 
inedites de Jacques de Vitry, eveque de St. Jean d Acre, 
etc., ecrites en 1216, par M. le Baron Jules de Saint- 
Genois," pp. 29-33. 

8. To Lutgarde of St. Trond and to the Convent d Awirs. 

Saint-Genois, op. cit., pp. 33-43. 

9. To the Monks, Friends, and Acquaintances of his in Lorraine, 

touching the capture of Damietta. 
Bongars, p. cit., pp. 1146-1149. 
This is the same as 4. Saint-Genois, op. cit., p. 13, says that 

in some MSS. it is addressed to Jean de Nivelle, hence the 

opinion (Hist. Litt. de la France, vol. xviii., p. 216) that it 

was a new letter. 

10. To his Friends. 

Saint-Genois, op. cit., p. 15 (MSS. de la villc et de 1 univer- 
site de Gand, No. 554). 



XXXV111 EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Saint- Genois says that this is the same as 2, with some un 
important differences. The version in Saint-Genois was 
probably a copy sent by Jacques de Vitry to his friends in 
Belgium. 

11. To Lutgarde and the Convent of Awirs. 
Saint- Geiiois, op. cit., p. 16 (MS. cit.). 
Saint-Genois says that this letter is the same as 9. 

12. To Leopold of Austria. 

Saint-Genois, op. cit., p. 17 (MS. cit.). 

Saint-Genois says that this is the same as 5, with the addi 
tion of a long passage upon " David rex Judaeorum, qui 
presbyter Johannes a vulgo appelatus." This passage is 
given in full in Saint-Genois, op. cit., pp. 19-26, and in 
Eccard, Corpus historicum medii aevij vol. ii., pp. 1451-54 
(" Relatio de David, rege Tartarorum Christiano "). 

The contents of these letters and their biographical worth have 
been sufficiently dwelt upon in the sketch of Jacques de Vitry s 
life. 

The second class of Jacques de Vitry s works consists of four 
collections of sermons. 

1. Sermones in Epistolas et Evangelia Dominicalia totius anni* 
These are the usual sermones dominicales, with three sermons 
for each Sunday and feast day, the texts being taken respectively 
from the introit of the mass, the epistle and gospel for the day. 
This use of the introit of the mass as a text was, I believe, 
an innovation by Jacques de Vitry. The author intended this 
work for the first part of the usual collection de tempore et de 
sanctis, with the addition of a collection of sermones vulgares, or, 

* Antwerp, 1575, fol., pp. 931, besides 14, not numbered, of prefatory matter. 
Cardinal Pitra, Analccta novissima Spieilegil Solesmcnsis alteva continuatio, 
vol. ii., p. xxi , says that this edition was reproduced at Venice in 1578, in 4to, 
pp. 1405. and remarks that both editions are very incorrect. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

as they were sometimes called, ad status, or ad omne hominum 
genus* 

Although the sermones dominicales belong to the class of sermons 
intended for the laity,t they are very disappointing, so far as 
materials for the history of the culture of the people is concerned, 
exempla of all kinds (including historical anecdotes) being entirely 
wanting. This is probably due to the fact that the author had 
already determined to write the sermones vulgares, for which he 
wished to reserve such material. 

It is impossible to give the exact date of this or of the following 
collections of sermons. They are supposed to have been written 
late in Jacques de Yitry s life.J 

* Jacques de Vitry expresses this intention in the prooemium to the sermones 
dominicales, which was to serve as a general introduction to the entire work. 
This work he fancifully divided into six parts according to the division of 
the ecclesiastical year into five parts, adding to these the sermones -vulgar cs. 
The five divisions are : " Tempus revocations, quod cst Prophetiae et doc- 
trinae, a principio Adventus Domini usque ad Nativitatem : tempus dcvia- 
tionis, quod est culpae et poenae, a Septuagesima usque ad Octavas Paschae : 
tempus reconciliationis, quod est dilectionis, a Pascha usque ad Octavas Pente- 
costis : tempus peregrinationis, quod est luctae et pugnae, ab Octavis Pente- 
costis usque ad Adventum Domini. Quinta pars (i.e., division of the ecclesias 
tical year) ad Sanctorum solemnitates pertinet,qui nobis sunt exempla justitiae." 
To these the author purposes to add a sixth part : " sextam in Sermonibus 
nostris addidimus partem, secundum diversitatem personarum a se invicem 
diversis officiis, et moribus differentium, proprios ct speciales Sermones subjun- 
gendo : Ad Praelatos, ad Sacerdotes in Synodo, ad Monachos et Moniales, et 
alias Regulares personas, ad Scholares, ad Peregrinos et Cruce-signatos, ad 
Milites, ad Mercatores, ad Agricolas et Mercenaries, ad Servos et Ancillas, ad 
Virgiries et Viduas ct Conjugatas. Secundum enim varietatem personarum 
oportet non solum variare Sermones, sed et sententias, et plerumque loquendi 
modum et scribendi stylum. Non enim competit omnibus morbis unum emplas- 
trum." The Sermones dominicales correspond to the first four divisions, the 
sermones de sanetis to the fifth, and the sermones vulgarcs to the sixth. 

f Prooemiuniy p. 1 : " Quando vero in conventu et congregatione sapientum 
Latino idiomate loquimur, tune plura dicere possumus, eo quod ad singularia 
non oportet descendere : laicis autem oportet quasi ad oculum, et sensibiliter 
omnia demonstrare." 

J The anonymous writer of the brief life of Jaques de Vitry known as 



Xl EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

2. Sermones de Sanctis. 

The only part of Jacques de Vitry s collection which has been 
printed is the first (or, as he considered it, the first four parts), 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The rest have remained 
in manuscripts of rare occurrence. The fifth (really second) part 
which, as we have seen, Jacques de Vitry purposed writing was 
the sermones de sanctis. These I have been unable to examine, and 
cannot pronounce upon their character.* 

3. Sermones vulgar es. 

Of far greater interest are the sermones vulgares, from which the 
exempla in the present work are taken. These sermons belong to 
the class of sermons for the clergy and laity, and are arranged to 
meet the wants of the various divisions or conditions of these 
classes, hence the names applied to these collections: sermones 

Appendix dc Jacobo a Vitriaco scriptorc in Acta Sanctorum, June, vol. v., ed. 
cit., p. 581, says : " Interea vir sanctus crcditur ea tempestatc, qua Romae 
deguit, illos solennes sermones tarn de tempore quam de sanctis confecisse, qui 
usque hodie in ecclesia de Oignies conservantur." As Jacques de Vitry took up 
his residence in .Rome after he had been named cardinal in 1228, the sermons 
would he posterior to that date, and before 1240 the year of the author s death. 
M. Barroux, op. cit., p. 24, places the composition of the sermons after 1226. 
Lecoy de la Marche, op. cit., p. 55, assigns the same date. P. Meyer in his in 
troduction to the Contes moralises dc Nicole Bozon, Paris, 1889, p. xii., says the 
sermones vulgares appear to have been preached before Jacques de Vitry s 
election to the bishopric of Acre, which took place in 1217. No ground is given 
for this statement. 

* The Hist. litt. de la France, vol. xviii., p. 220, indicates where the MSS. 
of these sermons may be found. I am indebted to my friend Prof. Burr, 
of Cornell, for the following reference. The printed catalogue (1875) of the 
University library of Liege contains the title " Jacobi de Vitriaco, Sermones de 
Sanctis per totum annum," and adds that they have never been printed, and are 
different from those in the Antwerp edition of 1575. The MS. which came 
from the Convent dcs Croisiers, at Huy on the Meuse, contains 328 (334) ff., and 
is dated, " Expliciunt sermones Magistri Jacobi de Vitriaco de festivitatibus 
Sanctorum, finiti per fratrcm Christianum Conventus Huyensis, anno Domini 
1475." 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

vulgares, ad status, or ad omne hominum genus* This work, as has 
already been stated in the preface, has been printed only in the 
extracts contained in Cardinal Pitra s Analecta novissima Spicilegii 
Solesmensis.^ 

The sermones vulgares begin with an extensive prologue (fo. 
2 ro -3 ro ) which has been printed in full by Cardinal Pitra (op. cit. 
pp. 189-193). J The sermons are seventy-four in number, and the 

* Saint-Genois, op., cit. p. 21, makes the mistake of supposing that they were so 
called because, " il employait non pas le latin, mais la langue parlee, c est-a-dire 
en France et dans la partie de la Belgique qu il frequentait habituellement, 
1 idiome roman alors en usage. Aussi ses sermons sont-ils designes sous le norn 
de sermones vulgares." 

t The MSS. of the Sermones vulgares are enumerated by Lecoy de la Marche, 
op. cit., p. 514. But two of them, as he says, are complete : Paris, Bib. Nat. 
MSS., Lat. 17,509, and Bib. Sainte-Genevieve, D.L. 26. The MS. Bib. Nat., 
MSS. Lat. 3284 (" finiti ultimo die Februarii anno domini M. quingentesimo 
tricesimo scptimo ") appears to me also complete. The MS. used for the 
present work is the one above cited, Bib. Nat. MSS., Lat. 17,509, thirteenth 
century, parchment ; containing 153 fols., minus fols. 1, 97. On the inside of 
the cover is written, " Cl. Joly, J ay eu ce MSS. a Chaumont en Bassigni en 
1655," and lower down, " A la bibliotheque de 1 eglise de Paris." The other 
MSS., except the Bib. Nat. 3284, I have been unable to examine. 

To the MSS., mentioned by Lecoy de la Marche, must now be added the one 
used by Cardinal Pitra, and in regard to which he gives no details, except that 
it is of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century. 

J It is proper to give here only that portion of the prologue referring to the 
use of exempla, MS. 17,509, fo. 2 VO : " Relictis enim verbis curiosis et politis, 
convertere debemus ingenium nostrum ad edificationem rudium et agrestium 
eruditionem, quibus quasi corporalia et palpabilia et talia que per experientiam 
norunt frequentius sunt proponenda. Magis enim moventur exterioribus ex- 
cmplis quam auctoritatibus vel profundis sententiis. De Joseph quidem legimus 
quod tantam tritici multitudinem congregavit, ut coequaretur arene maris. 
Verba enim sacre Scripture coequanda sunt auditoribus infirmiset rudibus juxta 
capacitatem eorum ; et in III. Reg. X. dicitur, quia Salomon fecit ut tanta esset 
abnndantia argenti in Hicrusalem quantam lapidum et cedrorum prebuit multi 
tudinem, quasi sicomori qui nascuntur in campestribus. Per lapides ct sicomoros 
simplices et laici rudes designantur, quibus coequari et commensurari debct 
verbum Dei, ut rota sacre Scripture ex una parte elcvctur, quantum ad majores> 
ct ex alia parte deprimatur, quantum ad minorcs. In Ezechiel autem legitur 
quod cum ambulabant animalia, ambulabant pariter et rote juxta ea : nam sine 



Xlii EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

following is a list of the classes addressed and the texts of the 



sermons. 



I. [fo. 3 VO ] To prelates and priests. Acts xx., 28 : Take heed therefore unto 
yourselves and to all the flock. 

II. [fo. 4 VO ] Same. Isaiah vi., 2 : Above it stood the seraphims ; each one 
had six wings. 



scientia scripturarum ncc pedem movere debemus. Quibus tamen plerique 
vulgaria exempla ad laicorum excitationem et recreationem sunt interscrenda, 
quo tamen aliquam habcant cdificationem, ne forte illud propheticum nobis 
objiciatur : "Narraverunt mihi iniqui fabulationes, sed non ut lex tua." Dum 
enim contra diabolum pugnaturi, civitatem obsidemus, secundum legis mandiitum, 
infructuosa ligna scindere debemus et non fructuosa. Infructuosas enim fabulas 
et curiosa poetarum carmina a sermonibus nostris debemus relegare. Sententias 
philosophorum in quibus est utilitas, possumus interserere, sicut apostolus ex 
verbis gentilium ait : " Cretenses male bestie, pigri ventres." 

Sed etiam fabulas ex quibus vcritatem edificationis dicimus interserere 
aliquando valemus. Sicut in libro Judicum XX. legimus de rampno et lignis 
silvarum et de situ vite et olivae que lignis silvarum prcfici renuerunt. Similiter 
et IV. Reg. XIV. legimus quod Joas rex Israel dixit ad Amasiam regem Juda : 
" Carduus Lybani misit ad cedrum que est in Lybano, dicens : Da filiam tuam, 
filio meo uxorem, transieruntque bestie saltus et conculcaverunt carduum." 
Licet hec sunt secundum litteram fabulosa, non tamen fabulose dicta, sed 
ad reprehensionem elationis Amasie, qui de viribus suis presumens provocabat 
regem Israel ad prelium sine causa, volens se potentiori coequare. 

Haec diximus contra quosdam neophytos, qui sibi videntur scioli, nee repre- 
hendere formidant illos qui per experientiam noverunt quantus f ructus proveniat 
ex hujusmodi fabulosis exemplis laicis et simplicibus personis, non solum ad 
edificationem, sed ad recreationem, maxime quando fatigati et tedio affecti 
incipiunt dormitare. Dicunt tamen predicti rcprehensores : " Musica in luctu 
importuna narratio." Ad luctum non ad risum menandi sunt audi tores, sicut in 
Exodo X. dicitur quod tubis ululantibus convocata est populi multitudo. 
[fo. 3 r ] Objiciuntinsuper illud quod in Ecclesiastes X. Salomon ait : " In risu 
faciuntpanemetvinum." Quis dubitat quin ad luctum incitandi sint auditores ? 
Qui tamen ne nimio merore confundantur, vel nimia fatigatione torpere incipiant, 
aliquando sunt quibusdam jocundis exemplis recreandi et expedit quod eis pro- 
ponatur fabulosa, ut postmodum evigilent ad audiendum seria et utilia vcrba. 
" Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit utile dulci." Experto credite : cum aliquando 
protraherem sermonem, et viderem populi multitudinem affectam tedio et dormi- 
tantem, uno modico verbo, omnes incitati sunt et innovati ad audiendum. 
Exempli gratia, aliquando mcmini me dixissc : " Ille qui in loco illo dormitat, 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

III. [fo. G vo ] Same. Genesis xliii., 11 : Take of the best fruits in the land. 

IV. [fo. 8 VO ] To prelates. Proverbs vi., 1 : If thou be surety for thy friend, 
if thou hast stricken thy hand with a stranger. 

V. [fo. 10] To prelates and priests. St. Luke xvi., 2 : How is it that I hear 
this of thee ? give an account of thy stewardship. 

VI. [fo. 11 VO J Same. Isaiah Ixi., 6 : But ye shall be named the priests of the 
Lord. 

VII. [fo. 14] Same. Ezekiel xxxiv., 15 : I will feed my flock, and I will 
cause them to lie down. 

VIII. [fo. 15 VO ] Same. Isaiah Ixii., 10 : Go through, go through the gates. 

IX. [fo. 17] To secular canons and other clergy. Numbers xviii., 20 : Thou 
shalt have no inheritance in their land. 

X. [fo. 18 VO ] To canons and secular clergy. Numbers xviii., 5 : And ye shall 
keep the charge of the sanctuary. 

XL [fo. 20 VO ] Same. Lamentations v., 18 : Because of the mountain of Zion, 
which is desolate, the foxes walk upon it. 

XII. [fo. 23] To secular canons on elections. Numbers xxvii. 16 : Let the 
Lord, the God of the spirits. 

XIII. [fo. 24 VO ] On orders, or on the ordaining of clergy. 1 Kings x.. 4 : 
And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon s wisdom. 

XIV. [fo. 27 V ] On the ordaining of clergy. Daniel iii. 88 : Benedicite 
Anania, Azaria, Misael Domino (Vulgate). 

XV. [fo. 28 VO ] That we should refresh ourselves in the treasury of the 
Scriptures before refreshing others. Ecclesiasticus vi., 36 : Et si videris sensa- 
tum, evigila ad eum (Vulgate). 

XVI. [fo. 31] To scholars. Exodus iii., 21 : When ye go, ye shall not go 
empty. 

XVII. [fo. 33] To judges and lawyers. Proverbs xxvi., 10 : Judicium 
determinat causas (Vulgate). 

secrcta mea vel consilium meum non revelabit." Unusquisque autem pro se 
dictum credens oculos aperiebat, et facto strepitu, postmodum in silentio utilia 
et seria verba attente audicbant : " Sapicntia igitur justificata est a suis filiis." 
Quamvis de intentione eorum qui talia interserunt, quidam audacter nimis 
judicare presumant, dicentes : Deus non indiget mendaciis nostris. 

Scurrilia tamen aut obscena verba ve.1 turpis sermo ex ore predicatoris non 
procedant. Illud insuper in hujusmodi proverbiis similitudinibus et vulgaribus 
cxemplis adtendendum est, quod non possunt ita exprimi scripto, sicut gestu et 
verbo atque pronuntiandi modo, nee ita movent vel incitant auditores in ore 
unius, sicut in ore alterius, nee in uno idiomate, sicut in alio. Aliquando qui- 
dem cum audiuntur, placent ; cum scripta leguntur, non delectant. Expedit 
tamen ut scribantur, ut habeant materiam hii quibus Deus dat gratiam auditores 
incitandi ex modo pronuntiandi." 



EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

XVIII. [fo. 34 VO ] Same. 1 Corinthians vi., 4 : If then ye have judgements 
of things pertaining to this life, set them to judge who are least esteemed in the 
church. 

XIX. [fo. 36 VO ] To theologians and preachers. Ezekiel iii., 1 : Eat this roll. 

XX. [fo. 38 VO ] Same, Song of Solomon vii., 13. All manner of pleasant 
fruits, new and old, which I have laid up for thee, O my beloved. 

XXI. [fo. 40] Same. Jeremiah xxix., 5 : Build ye houses and dwell in 
them. 

XXII. [fo. 42 VO ] To the Benedictines. Ezekiel xli., 21 : The posts of the 
temple were squared. 

XXIII. [fo. 44 VO ] Same. Song of Solomon v., 11 : His locks are bushy 
(Comae ejus sicut elatae palmarum. Vulgate). 

XXIV. [fo. 4G VO J To the Cistercians. Numbers xxiv., 5 : How goodly are 
thy tents Jacob. 

XXV. [fo. 46 VO ] Same. Isaiah Iviii., 13 : If thou turn away thy foot from 
the sabbath. 

XXVI. [fo. 50 VO ] To the Benedictine nuns. Jeremiah ii , 32 : Can a maid 
forget her ornaments. 

XXVII. [fo. 51 VO ] Same. Exodus xxxv., 25 : And all the women that were 
wise hearted did spin with their hands and brought that which they had spun. 

XXVIII. [fo. 53 VO ] To the white nuns of the Cistercian order, to the gray 
and others. Esther ii., 2 : Let there be fair young virgins sought for the king. 

XXIX. [fo. 55 VO ] Same. 2 Kings iv., 9 : I perceive that this is an holy man 
of God. 

XXX. [fo. 57 VO ] To regular canons. Isaiah xi., 15 : And shall smite it in 
the seven streams. 

XXXI. [fo. 59 VO ] Same. Numbers vi., 2 : When either man or woman shall 
separate themselves to vow a vow. 

XXXII. [fo. 62] Same. Ecclesiastes ii., 4 : I made me great works ; I 
builded me houses. 

XXXIII. [fo. 63 VO ] To hermits and recluses. Job xxxix., 5 : Who hath 
sent out the wild ass free ? 

XXXIV. [fo. 65 VO ] Same. Ezekiel viii., 1 : As I sat in mine house. 

XXXV. [fo. 67] To the Franciscans. Proverbs xxx., 24 : There be four 
things which are little upon the earth. 

XXXVI. [fo. 69] Same. Jeremiah xxxv., 6 : Jonadab the son of Rechab 
our father. 

XXXVII. [fo. 71] To the military orders. Zechariah ix., 8 : And I will 
encamp about mine house. 

XXXVIII. [fo. 73 VO ] Same. Song of Solomon i., 9 : I have compared thee, 
O my love, to a company of horses in Pharaoh s chariots. 

XXXIX. [fo. 75 VO ] To the hospitalers and nurses of the sick. Psalms xli., 1 : 
Blessed is he that considereth the poor (or sick). 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

XL. [77 VO J Same. Proverbs xvi., 6 : By mercy and truth iniquity is purged. 

XLI. [fo. 80] To lepers and other sick. James v., 11 : Ye have heard of the 
patience of Job. 

XLII. [fo. 82 VO ] Same. Ecclesiasticus, xxxviii. 9 : My son, in thy sickness 
be not negligent. 

XLIII. [fo. 84] To the poor and afflicted. Wisdom of Solomon iii., 5 : And 
having been a little chastised, they shall be greatly rewarded. 

XLIV. [fo. 86 VO ] Same. Isaiah xxxviii., 14 : O Lord, I am oppressed ; 
undertake for me. 

XLV. [fo. 88 VO ] To those grieving for the death of relatives or friends. 
1 Thessalonians iv., 13 : But I would not have you to be ignorant. 

XL VI. [fo. 90 VO ] To those grieving for the death of relatives. St. John xi., 
25 : I am the resurrection and the life. 

XLVII. [fo. 93] To crusaders, or those about to be crusaders. Eevelation 
vii., 2 : And I saw another angel ascending. 

XL VIII. [fo. 94 VO ] Same. Jeremiah iv., 6 : Set up the standard toward 
Zion. 

XLIX. [fo. 98] To pilgrims. Galatians iii., 1C: Now to Abraham and his 
seed were the promises made. 

L. [fo. 100] Same. Zechariah, xiv., 18 : There shall be the plague, where 
with the Lord will smite the heathen. 

LI. [fo. 102 VO ] To the mighty and to soldiers. Psalms ii., 10 : Be wise now, 
therefore, ye kings. 

LII. [fo. 104] Same. St. Luke iii., 14 : And the soldiers likewise demanded 
of him. 

LIII. [fo. 107] Same. Ecclesiastes x., 17 : Blessed art thou, land, when 
thy king is the son of nobles. 

LIV. [fo. 109] Citizens and burghers. Psalms iv., 2 : O ye sons of men, 
how long will ye turn my glory into shame ? 

LV. [fo. Ill] Same. Eevelation xviii., 4 : Come out of her (Babylon). 

LVI. [fo. 113 VO ] To merchants and money-changers. St. Luke xix., 13 
Occupy till I come. 

LVII. [fo. 115 VO ] Same. Ecclesiasticus xxvi., 28 : A merchant shall hardly 
keep himself from doing wrong. 

LVIII. [fo. 117 ro ] Same. Psalms xxxvii., 21 : The wicked borroweth and 
payeth not again. 

LIX. [fo. 120] Same. Psalms Ixxii., 14 : He shall redeem their soul from 
deceit and violence. 

LX. [fo. 122] To husbandmen, vinedressers, and other labourers. Zechariah 
xiii., 5 : I am an husbandman. 

LXI. [fo. 124] To husbandmen and other labourers. Proverbs xxiv. 27 : 
Prepare thy work without. 

LXII. [12G VO ] To artificers. Psalms cxxviii., 2 : For thou shalt eat the 
labour of thine hands. 



Xlvi EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

LXIII. [fo. 12S VO ] To sailors and mariners. Psalms cvii., 23 : They that go 
down to the sea in ships. 

LXIV. [fo. 130 VO ] To manservants and maidservants. Psalms cxxiii., 2 : 
Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand of their masters. 

LXV. [fo. 132 VO ] Same. Proverbs xxx., 21 : For three things the earth is 
disquieted. 

LXVI. [fo. 135] To the married. Genesis ii., 18 : It is not good that the man 
should be alone. 

LXVII. [fo. 137 VO ] Same. Psalms xlix., 12 : Nevertheless man being in 
honour abideth not. 

LXVIII. [fo. 139] Same. Song of Solomon vii., 1 : The joints of thy thighs 
are like jewels. 

LXIX. [fo. 141] To widows and the continent. 1 Timothy v., 5 : Now she 
that is a widow indeed, and is desolate. 

LXX. [fo. 142] Same. Song of Solomon i., 10 : Thy cheeks are comely. 

LXXI. [fo. 145 VO ] To virgins and young girls. Song of Solomon ii., 1 : I 
am the rose of Sharon and the lily of the valleys. 

LXXII. [fo. 147 VO ] Same. Wisdom of Solomon iv., 1 : quam pulchra est 
casta generatio (Vulgate). 

LXXIII. [fo. 149 VO ] To boys and young men. Proverbs xxii., G : Train up 
a child in the way he should go ; and when he is old, he will not depart 
from it. 

LXXIV. [fo. 151 VO J Same, llevelation xvi., 15 : Blessed is he that 
watcheth.* 



4. Sermones communes vel quotidicmi. 

These sermons, intended for general use as their title indicates, 
I know only from the references in Barroux, op. cit., p. 26, and 
Lecoy de la Marche, op. cit., p. 514, who states that MSS. of 
the work are to be found at Liege and Brussels, 

3. The fame of Jacques de Vitry as a preacher, and the attractive 
character of the illustrative stories employed in his sermons, must 

* In Cardinal Pitra s list, op. cit., p. 347, there is a seventy-fifth sermon : 
On confirming ecclesiastical elections, 1 Timothy, v., 22 : Lay hands suddenly 
on no man. Cardinal Pitra says of this sermon : " Appendix cst addititia, 
brevis et imperfecta." The explicit of MS. Bib. Nat. 17,500 [fo. 153] is : 
" Expliciunt sermones ad status, qui sunt numero Ix. et xiiii. in volumine 
isto. Amen." 



INTRODUCTION. 

soon have led to a demand for some convenient edition of the 
exempla alone. Probably the first form was a collection of exempla 
accompanying the sermons, as was later the case with the promp- 
tuaria of Herolt and Martinus Polonus. Such an edition occurs in 
the MS. Bib. Nat. anc. fonds, 3283 (xivth cent.), where in the 
same hand are sermons and exempla. There is no table of con 
tents, or index, and no references from sermons to exempla, or vice 
versa. 

Whether Jacques de Vitry himself made a collection of the 
exempla used by him in the sermones vulgares is doubtful, and the 
existing collections are so irregular in their form and contents that it 
seems more likely that they were made by other preachers for their 
own use. The exempla in the MS. just cited are given in the baldest 
form, a line or two for each story, and were undoubtedly mere 
memoranda to be expanded at the preacher s will. This same 
collection of exempla is apparently reproduced alone in Bib. Nat. 
MS. Lat. 16, 529 (xiiith cent.), fols. 137-161. Usually the exempla 
in the independent collections are given as in the sermons. The 
number and choice of the exempla vary with the taste and object 
of the different collectors. Sometimes moral reflexions, etc., are ! 
considered exempla, and sometimes mere references to biographical 
or historical fact are so treated. The order of the exempla in the 
sermons is usually followed unless fresh material is interpolated. 
The MS. Bib. Nat. 16,515 Lat. (xiiith cent.) contains, beginning 
with fo. 66 VO , one hundred and twenty exempla; the beginning is 
as follows, the corresponding stories in the present edition being 
in brackets: i. (viii.), ii. (ix.), iii., De quatuor osculis sacerdotum, 
iv. (xi.), v. (xvii.), vi. (xviii.), vii. (xix.), viii. (xx.), ix. (xxii.), 
x. (xxv.), xi. (xxvii.), xii. (xxviii.), xiii. De Hieronimo verberato 
ab angelo (for reading Cicero), xiv. (xxxi.), etc. 

Still closer is the extensive collection of Jacques de Vitry s 
exempla (with the exception of the Harl. MS. 463, and the Vatican 
MS. to be mentioned later, the most extensive which I have 
yet seen) contained in the Bib. Nat. MS. Lat. 15, 661 (about 



EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITKY. 

1300), fols. 129-162. The work is entered in the catalogue as 
" Exempla Archiepiscopi Tyrensis (Jacobo de Vit.)". There is no 
indication of author or source of exempla at either beginning or 
end. The exempla follow exactly the order in the sermons. The 
first sixteen, for instance, are the same as the first sixteen in the 
present edition, except that xii., which, properly speaking, is not 
an exemplum, is omitted. 

Of a similar nature is the collection in the Brit. Mus. MS. 
Harl. 463 (xivth cent.), the source of which is not indicated.* 
The order is as follows, it being evident that the beginning of the 
collection has been lost: i. Ixxxi. (Ixxiii. cliii.), xci. xciv. 
ccxix. (cliv. ccxcvi.), Ixxxii. Ixxxv. (ccxlvii. ccc.), Ixxxvii. 
xc. (ccci. ccciii.)t 



* From this MS. Mr. Thomas Wright took thirty-six exempla for his Latin 
Stories (Percy Society, vol. viii.), but was unaware of their source. 

"f Some of the exempla of the Harl. MS. are not found in the present edition, 
consisting in moral sentences or in interpolations peculiar to this collection. I 
am indebted to Mr. Ward s notes for the following list of such differences. 
Harl. iv. (fo. 1, b), Devil only appears to the very good or very bad ; xiv. (fol. 3> 
b, col. 2), Joseph in prison in Egypt and the Macabees ; xxiii. (fo. 5, b.), St- 
Paulinus of Milan sells himself to redeem a widow s son (Gregory, Dialogues, 
iii., 1); xxvi., A Hermit is asked who has stripped him half naked and he 
answers : " The Gospel " ; xxxviii. (an insertion on the upper margin of fols. 
8, b, 9, and 9, b), A chaplain in Sussex named Godfrey sees his dead mother appear 
in church telling him that it is only worse torment to have mass said for her ; 
xlviii., A moral sentence relative to the first-born son of a king, imprisoned by 
the subjects whom he comes to protect : inserted in the upper margin of the 
page : and an incident from a vision of hell, introducing two lovers, half-buried 
face to face, introduced on the lower margin of fo. 10, b ; li., Confessing sins 
compared to currying a horse, a moral sentence inserted in the upper margin of 
fo. 11 ; Hi. (fo. 11), Christ rescuing sinners from the devil compared to a tigress 
pursuing the hunter who has stolen her cubs and rushing upon the hunting 
spear for their sake ; Ixxxvi. (fo. 14, col. 2), Note on the fawning dog that bites; 
xcii. (fo. 14, b), Note on four animals symbolical of sinners ; xciii. (fo. 14, b, 
col. 2), Note on the three chief teachers : Fear, Shame and Love ; ciii. (fo. 15, 
col. 2), The horse-dealer who used to wink at his customers (Wright, No. 90, 
and cccix. of present edition, added later) ; civ. (fo. 15, col. 2), is cccx. of 
present edition, added later ; cxx. (fo. 16, b), A jongleur in danger of drowning 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

The most extensive collection of Jacques de Vitry s exempla is 
that contained in the Vatican MS. 9352, parch., xivth cent., fols. 
1-88, which contains practically all the exempla of the sermons. 
As an analysis of this MS. has been given by Cardinal Pitra in 
his Analecta novissima Spicilegii Solesmensis, ii., p. 443, it is un 
necessary to dwell upon it here. 

Other thirteenth century collections are contained in the Bib. 
Nat. MS. Lat. 16,515, fols. 66 VO -91 VO ; same collection, MS. 2042, 
anc. fonds, fols. 165-182.* There is also a collection of Jacques 
de Vitry s exempla in the library of Troyes, MS. 1750, xiiith 
cent., 128 in number, which I have been unable to examine. 
There is a brief collection in the Brit. Mus. MS. 26,770, fols. 75- 
80, Exempla magistri JacoU de Vitriaco (begins : " De profundis 
clamavi," and ends " mutuans participes sunt lueri"). It con 
tains 23 exempla, and is the briefest collection I have seen. 
Several of the exempla in it are not in the present edition. 

The collections thus far examined have consisted of exempla 

says to a lord : " To-day we must both drink of the same cup and wash in the 
same bath ;" cxlix. (fo. 19), St. Germanus tracks a horrible serpent to the 
tomb of a wanton ; cli. (fo 19), Lion always kills an adulterer when he meets 
one, part of ccxxxiv. of present edition ; civ. (fo. 19, b), the author professes to 
be ready to speak well of women ; clvii. (fo. 19, b), the wife who took the place 
of a maid servant, with whom her husband used to commit adultery ; clxi. (fo. 
19, b, col. 2), a saying that those priests may be supposed to have concubines 
who have " manicas ad cubitum perforatas "; clxviii. (fo. 20, col. 2), the woman 
who stored up the knives of her lovers, as reminders when they should be grown 
old ; clxx. (fo. 20, b), sentence relative to procuresses ; clxxxviii. (fo. 22), 
sentence against those who assert that only near relations will recognise each 
other at the day of judgment ; cxci. (fo. 22, col. 2), the woman who placed the 
holy wafer in a hollow tree and forgot it for some time, and who then found it 
closed up with honeycombs in the forms of a pixis and capsula : cii. (fo. 22, b, 
col. 2), a detractor compared to an ape that befouls an image of the cross. 

* Lecoy de la Marche, op. cit., p. 59, cites Bib. Nat. MS. Lat., ] 5,972, which 
seems, however, to be a collection of extracts from sermons, not of exempla. 
The same author also cites MS. 581 (fo. 174) of the library of the Arsenal at 
raris. I was unable to find this MS. in the catalogue, but I noticed there MS. 
540 (595, T.L.), Sermones vulyares magistri Jacobi de Vitr.iaco, fifteenth 
century. 

d 



1 EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITKY. 

taken from the sermons of Jacques de Vitry, more or less exten 
sive, and following more or less closely the order of the exempla in 
the sermons themselves. In these collections the exempla are in 
the same form as in the sermons, although in some of the collec 
tions already noticed the exempla are given in a condensed shape. 
It would not be surprising if, under the literary conditions of the 
times, there should soon be attributed to Jacques de Vitry stories 
which he had never related, or at all events had not related in the 
sermones vulgares. That this was later the case we shall see when 
we come to examine the great collections of exempla made in the 
xivth century. This false attribution of stories began, however, 
in the same century in which Jacques de Vitry lived, and is found 
to a remarkable extent in a collection of exempla purporting to be 
taken from his sermons. The collection in question is found in 
the Bib. Nat. MS. Lat. 18,134 (xiiith cent,). The table of con 
tents, " Incipiunt capita exemplorum magistri Jacobi de Vitriaco 
que narrat in sermonibus suis," begins at fo. 173 ro and extends to 
end of fo. 175, giving titles of 137 exempla. The first 39 are 
not found in Jacques de Vitry s sermones vulgares ; the xl. is 
Jacques de Vitry s cclxxii. ; the two following exempla are not in 
the sermons, and with the xliv. begin, properly speaking, the 
extracts from Jacques de Vitry.* This collection seems to have 

* The correspondence is as follows, the exempla of Jacques de Vitry in 
brackets : xliv. (xix.), xlv. (xiv.), xlvi. (xxxi.), xlvii. (xxxix,), xlviii. (xlii.), 
xlix. (xlvii.), 1. (li.), li- (lii.)> 1". (liii.), hii. Oii.), Hv. (Ivii.), Iv. (lix.), Ivi. 
(Ixi.), Ivii. (Ixiv.), Iviii. (cccvii.), lix. (Ixx.), Ix. (Ixvi.), Ixi. (Ixvii.), Ixii. 
(Ixviii.), Ixiii. (Ivi.), Ixiv. (Ixxii.), Ixv. (Ixxv.), Ixvi. (Ixxvi.), Ixvii. (Ixxviii.), 
Ixviii. (Ixxxii.), Ixix. (xciii.), Ixx. (xciv.), Ixxi. (xcv.), Ixxii. (xcvii.), Ixxiii. 
(xcix.), Ixxiv. (ciii.), Ixxv. (civ.), Ixxvi. (cvii.), Ixxvii. (cix.), Ixxviii. (cxiv.), 
Ixxix. (cxvi.), Ixxx. (cxix.), Ixxxi. (cxxi.), Ixxxii. (cxxviii.),lxxxiii.(cxxxiii.), 
Ixxxiv. (civ.), Ixxxvi. (clxviii.), Ixxxvi. (clxix.), Ixxxvii. (clxx.), Ixxxviii. 
(clxxvi.), Ixxxix. (clxxvi.), xc. (clxxxi.), xci. (ccxxxvii.), xcii. (ccxx.), xciii. 
(ccxxi.), xciv. (ccxxii .), xcv. (ccxxviii.), xcvi. (ccxxxi.), xcvii. (ccxxxii.), 
xcviii. (eel.), xcix. (ccxxxi.), c. (ccxxxiv.), ci. (ccxxxvi.), cii. (ccxlv.), ciii. 
(ccxlvi.), civ. cclxxxii.), cv. (ccci.), cvi. (cclxxxviii.), cvii. (ccxlvii.), cviii. 
(cxcvi.), cix. (cc.), ex. (cciii.), cxiv. (ccxii.), cxv. (cclxxiii.), cxxviii. (cclxxxix.) 
cxxxv (ix.), cxxxvi. (cxxxiv.), cxxxvii. (cclxix.). 



INTRODUCTION. H 

been made by some preacher for his own use and to have been 
put together with little system. The stories in it, not found in 
Jacques de Yitry s sermons, are the usual monkish stories taken 
from Gregory, Caesar of Heisterbach, etc. There was undoubtedly, 
as we shall see later, a large mass of stories in circulation attri 
buted to Jacques de Yitry, and some of them may have been told 
by him in his sermons while preaching the Crusade in France, and 
have been noted or remembered by his hearers.* 

The above are all the independent collections of Jacques de 
Yitry s exempla which I have seen, and I do not find any mention 
of such collections in the catalogues of the library of Munich or 
Berlin, and I have myself searched in vain the British Museum, 
Bodleian, Cambridge University Library, all the Florentine libra 
ries, and the ducal library at "Wolfenbiittel. 

It will be the object of the following pages to trace the influence 
of Jacques de Yitry s use of exempla upon the preachers of his 
own and succeeding ages ; for the sake of completeness I shall 

* This is not the place to examine in detail the stories not contained in Jacques 
de Vitry. Among them are : i., De abbate et monachis quibus demones 
illuserunt, " Convent of Demons," see Eticnne de Bourbon, 79, p. 75, where 
Jacques de Vitry is cited as authority ; v., Exemplum de Aristotile et uxore 
Alcxandri, " Aristotile saddled and ridden by queen," see Dunlop-Liebrecht, 
and Benfey, Pantschatantra, i., p. 462. The same story is given by Herolt 
(Discipulus) Promptuarium,M. 67, where Jacques de Vitry is cited as authority; 
vii., Exemplum do heremita cui diabolus in specie hominis ministrabat et 
quomodo decipit cum, " Devil gives hermit cock and hen, and so leads him to 
sin carnally," see Legrand d Aussy, v., p. 179, and Contcs moralises de Nicole 
Bozon, pp. 18G, 297 ; xvii., De diavolo qui duxit uxorem cujus litigium non 
potuit sustinere, " Belphegor," see Dunlop-Liebrecht, p. 273 ; xxx., De symia 
que dcnarios projectit in mare, " Ape steals purse and throws money unjustly 
acquired into the sea," see La Fontaine, xii. 3, Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, 375 ; 
xlii., De duobus burgensibus et de rustico, " Bread to be eaten by one who has 
the most remarkable dream," see Petrus Alphonsi, xx., ed. Schmidt, p. 63 ; cxi. 
De duobus amicis, Petrus Alphonsi, ed. cit., p. 35, etc. 

These exempla cxtravagantla will be mentioned from time to time when 
we come to speak of the various printed collections in which they are found. A 
certain number of these cxem-pla arc discussed by K. Godeke in an article in 
Orient und Occident, vol. i., p. 530, which we shall have occasion to mention 
again. 

d2 



Hi EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

here briefly refer to the history of the recent interest in his 
exempla. 

Aside from the references to Jacques de Vitry in the class of 
works containing stories for the use of preachers, no mention of 
him, except as a historian, is to be found until a very recent date.* 
None of the writers like Wright {Latin Stories, pp. vii.-viii.), 
Douce {Illustrations of Shakespeare, ii., p. 335) or Warton {Disser 
tation on the Gesta Eomanorum, in the third volume of his History 
of English Poetry) allude to Jacques de Vitry, and it was not until 
1861 that K. Godeke, in an article {Asinus vulgi) in Orient und 
Occident, vol. i., p. 531, first called attention to the exempla. 
Godeke himself had never heard of the sermones vulgares, or seen 
any of the collections of Jacques de Vitry s exempla, which are to 
be found in Paris and elsewhere. He only knew that the author 
of the Scala Celi had used a Speculum exemplorum Jacobi de 
Vitriaco, and he also learned from the catalogues that a MS. in 
Troyes contained : " cxxviii. exempla sumpta ex sermonibus 
Jacobi de Vitriaco," and a Paris MS. 3283 (xivth cent.) con 
tained : " sermones et exempla Jacobi de Vitriaco." From a 
comparison of the stories in the Scala Celi attributed to Jacques 
de Vitry with those in Wright s Latin Stones, Godeke inferred 
that of the 225 exempla of the Harl. MS. 463 many were by Jacques 
de Vitry.f Godeke s valuable article does not seem to have 
aroused any interest in Jacques de Vitry s exempla, and it was not 
until 1868 that scholars were finally enlightened in regard to the 
mysterious exempla and their whereabouts. In the first edition of 
his admirable work on the French pulpit in the Middle Ages {La 
Chaire frangaise au moyen age, Paris, 1868), Lecloy de la Marche 

* The articles in the various biographical and bibliographical dictionaries 
refer, of course, to his sermons also. In the Biographic universelle (Michaud) 
there is no reference to sermons or exempla, in the Nouvclle Vwgraplile generate 
the sermons and extracted exempla are briefly mentioned, and in Ersch and 
Gruber the printed sermons alone are named. 

f In fact, thirty-six of Wright s stories are by Jacques de Vitry, although 
Wright was unaware of it. 



INTRODUCTION. Hii 

gave for the first time a satisfactory account of the exempla of 
Jacques de Vitry, showing that they were originally contained in 
the sermones vulgar es, and were afterwards, by various hands, 
gathered into partial collections.* 

A few years later the same writer edited a work of almost equal 
value for the history of mediaeval fiction and culture, Anecdotes 
Mstoriques, legendes et apologues tires du recueil inedit (FEtienne de 
Bourbon (Societe de Vhistoire de France), Paris, 1877. In this 
work Jacques de Vitry is constantly cited by the author, and the 
learned editor has occasionally printed in a note the original story 
by Jacques de Yitry. 

Since Lecoy de la Marche all that has been said about Jacques 
de Vitry has been based upon the two works just mentioned. f 

Such is a brief sketch of the fate of Jacques de Vitry s illustra 
tive stories in modern times ; their vicissitudes during a more 
remote period, and the use made of them by mediaeval collectors of 
anecdotes, will be described in the following pages. 



III. 

The use of exempla in sermons posterior to those of 
Jacques de Vitry. 

It is impossible within the limits of this article to give a com 
plete history of the use of exempla in sermons succeeding those of 
Jacques de Vitry, and it is also difficult to distinguish between 
sermons intended for the use of preachers and independent collec 
tions. The latter difficulty is, however, not one of great moment, 
as it is probable that all collections of sermons by well-known 
preachers were used as magazines, from which less competent 

* A second edition of this invaluable book, corrigee et augment ee, has since 
appeared, Paris, 1886, which is the one cited in the present work. 

f I have been unable to see the thesis of M. Barroux on the subject of Jacques 
de Vitry, presented to the Ecole des Chartes in 1885. An analysis of it is given 
in the Positions dcs theses for 1885. 



v EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

preachers drew. The illustrations for this section are largely 
taken from German sources. This class of works was especially 
popular in that country, and the collections of sermons by 
preachers of other lands were often first printed in Germany.* 

The earliest complete course of Latin sermons for Sundays and 
festivals of the whole year (usually denominated " sermones de 
tempore et de sanctis ") is that of Brother Peregrinus, a Domini 
can and provincial of the order in Poland.f He was prior of the 
monasteries of Ratisbon and Breslau, where he probably preached 
and composed his work at the end of the xiiith century. The 
sermons are, properly speaking, mere sketches, and the exempla 
are not reserved for the end of the sermon, but are sparingly em 
ployed wherever the preacher sees fit.J 

The legends in the Sermones de sanctis, so far as I have com 
pared them, seem to follow very closely the Legenda aurea of 
Voragine. 

An extensive collection of sermons was left by the celebrated 
Dominican chronicler, Martin of Troppau (in Bohemia), generally 
known as Martinus Polonus, because the Bohemian Dominicans 
belonged to the Polish province of the order. He was of a noble 

* The presses of Hagenau, Strassburg, Nurembnrg, etc., fairly teemed with 
such works ; see Cruel, op. cit., p. 468. 

f Quetif andEchard,i.,p. 551; Cruel, p. 336 ; Linsenmeyer, p. 372 ; Fabricius, 
Bibliotheca latino, mediae et infinac aetatis, Florence, 1858, vol. v., p. 215. 
Hain cites seven editions before 1500; my copy is without date, place, or printer 
(Hain, 12,580, " Typis Kyserianis "), fol. 

$ The following are all the exempla I have noted : fo. 4 VO , Phaeclrus, ii., 6, see 
Kirchof ed. Oesterley, 7, 173; fo. 16 r , Jacques de Vitry, cclxxxvii. ; fo. 18 ro , 
Gesta Eomanorum, 33 ; fo. 20 V0 ., fo. 24 ro , Vitae Pat. ed. Lyons, 1616, p. 286 ; 
fo. 25 VO , fo. 41 V , fo. 42 VO , fo. 43, fo. 51 ro , fo. 55 VO , Jacques de Vitry, cxxxv. \ 
fo. 60 ro , Jacques de Vitry, xcvi., or rather Etienne de Bourbon, 144, not men 
tioned by oversight in my notes, p. 175; fo. Gl v , Jacques do Vitry, cclxxxviii., 
fo. 61 VO , fo. 63 ro , fo. 65 ro , Jacques de Vitry, cclvii.; fo. 6G ro , Pauli ed. Oesterley, 
435 ; fo. 67 ro , Jacques de Vitry, ix. ; fo. 68 ro ; fo. 69, Vitae Pat., given as 
authority ; fo. 75 ro ; fo. 78 ro , Jacques de Vitry, cxx. ; fo. 80 ro ; fo. 81 ro ; fo. 82 ro ; 
fo. S7 ro . The exempla for which I have found no parallels are the usual 
monkish stories and possess little value or interest. 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

family of the name of Strepus, and was distinguished as a preacher 
and became papal chaplain and penitentiary. In 1278 he was 
made Archbishop of Gnesen, but died (1279) on the way to his 
see, and was buried at Bologna. Martinus Polonus is chiefly 
known for his historical work, Chronica summorum pontificum 
imperatorumque, which, although possessing no independent worth, 
was for centuries the chief source of historical knowledge.* The 
first edition of the sermons appeared at Strassburg in 1480. f In 
the edition of 1484 the sermons are 321 in number, and constitute 
the usual course known as De tempore et de sanctis. Each Sunday 
and feast day, however, has at least two sermons devoted to it, one 
taken from the Epistle, the other from the Gospel for the day (in 
some cases there are two sermons from the Epistle and one from 
the Gospel), and there are two or more sermons for each saint. 
As the work is provided with a storehouse of exempla, reference is 
made in the sermons to the Promptuarium (not vice versa), where 
the suitable exemplum may be found. The sermons of Martinus 
Polonus were not very popular, and had but a slight influence on 
the diffusion of exempla. 

A more popular collection is that known as " Thesaurus novus 
sive Sermones de tempore per totum annum in tres partes divisi, 
hyemalem, aestivalem, et quadragesimalem." J The author is 

* For life of Martinus Polonus see Quetif and Echard, i., p. 361 ; for history 
see Potthast, Itib. hist., p. 435, and Wattenbach, DeutsclilancVs Gescliichts- 
quellcn im Mittelalter, 2 d ed. Berlin, 1874, ii., p. 326. 

f Hain registers four editions before 1500, two of which are clearly accom 
panied by the Promptuarium to be mentioned later. It is impossible to tell from 
Hain whether the editions of Strassburg, 1480 (the first) and 1486 (the third) 
contain the Promptuarium > but I am inclined to think they do. My copy is 
Strassburg, 1484 (Hain, 10,854). 

\ Graesse, Literargescliichtc, ii., ii., i., p. 165, cites editions of Antwerp, 1571, 
Venice, 1584, and Cologne, 1 608. I have noted the following: Sermones quadra- 
gcsimales, Nuremburg, A. Koberger, 1496 (Panzer, ii., p. 222, No. 275); Strass 
burg, 1485 (in Bib. Naz. Florence), ibid., 1487, 1488, 1493 (all in Wolfenbiittel) ; 
DC Sanctis, Nuremburg, 1496 (Bib. Naz., Florence); DC tempore,, Nuremburg, 
1496 (Bib. Naz. Florence). I have myself the Sermones quadra gcsimales, 
Nuremburg, A. Koberger, 1496, and DC Sanctis, an incomplete copy, probably 
same place and date. 



Ivi EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

supposed to be Pierre de la Palu, or Petrns Paludanns of Bur 
gundy or, according to others, of Bresse, in France, a Dominican, 
licentiate of theology at Paris in 1314, and Patriarch of Jerusalem 
from 1329 to his death in 1342.* 

The Sermones de sanctis contain a number of exempla, e.g., xxx., 
A, from Etienne de Bourbon ; Ixiv., U, from Vincent of Beauvais, 
Spec. hist. ; cxix., K, from Pliny s Hist. not. ; cxx., G. ; ibid. K., 
anecdote of Queen Theodosia from Paulus Diaconus ; ibid. L, from 
Gregory s Dialogues. Exempla are also very sparingly introduced 
into the sermones quadragesimales (Ixxxvi., the story of Solomon 
and the worm, the blood of which cracked glass, with allegorical 
explanation) ; they are usually historical or taken from the com 
mon ecclesiastical sources, Gregory, etc. 

One of the most famous preachers of his order was St. Vincent 
Ferrer, a Spanish Dominican, born at Valencia in 1355, and died 
at Vannes, in France, in 1419, leaving sermons, letters, and several 
treatises. f The sermons are the usual de tempore et de sanctis. I 
have seen only the first part, the hyemales, in the edition of Lyons, 
1539. Exempla are very sparingly used by St. Vincent, only 
twenty-six are given in the Tabula, to which may properly be 
added some sixteen others mentioned under the heading historia. 
These are of little interest, and are usually given in a very bald 
and concise form ; among them are : fo. 41 VO , " King for a year," 
Jacques de Vitry, ix. ; fo. 104, man hung on spot where he had 
once beaten his mother ; fo. 183, story of the woman who was a 
sinner who expired in church from contrition, etc. 

The most popular, perhaps, of all the preachers whom we shall 
consider in this connection is John Herolt, a Dominican monk of 

* Quetif and Echard, vol. i., p. 603, do not accept the Sermones thesauri novi 
as Pierre de la Palu s, for various reasons, among them the facts that the autho 
rities cited are later than Pierre, and Franciscan writers are cited more 
frequently than Dominicans. 

f Quetif and Kchard, i., p. 763, ii., pp. 338, 812, and Graesse, op. cit. p. 85. 
The most popular of his works after the sermons is the Ojniscnlnm de fine 
miindi. See Hain for eaily editions of this and of sermons. 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

Basel, who flourislied during the first half of the xvth century.* 
The date of the composition of his sermons is given in Sermo 
Ixxxv. (detempore et de sanctis), " a Christo autem transacti sunt 
mille quadrigenti decem et octo anni; " but in Sermo vi. of the de 
sanctis he mentions as heretics Huss, Jerome, and Procopius, the 
latter of whom did not assume the leadership of the Hussites 
until 1424, and was not killed until 1434, in the batble of 
Boemischbrod. This discrepancy can easily be explained, on the 
supposition that Herolt inserted in his collection his earlier ser 
mons, and either forgot to change the first date or purposely left 
it.f The collection was probably published between 1435-40, 
and this will also be the date of the Promptuarium (to be de 
scribed later), as constant reference is made in it to the sermons, 
and vice versa, and its object was undoubtedly to afford the 
preachers who used the sermons a wider range of exempla.% The 
author modestly styles himself " Discipulus," and his work is 
usually cited under that name. He himself explains it as 

* Scanty notices of him will be found in Fabricius, op. cit., Graesse, op. cit., 
ii., ii., 1, p. 169 ; Cruel, p. 480, and Val. Schmidt in his edition of the Dis- 
clplina clericalis, Berlin, 1827, p. 99, note 3. 

f Cruel, p. 480. 

| The enormous popularity of the Sermoncs de tcmpore et de sanctis, in 
cluding the Promptiiarium, may be seen by a glance at Hain and Panzer; the 
former registering twenty-nine editions with place and date, and seven without, 
before 1500, the latter, fifteen editions after the above date. The edition cited 
in this work is Strassburg, 1495, M. Elach, fol. (Hain, 8505). It contains the 
above mentioned sermons, the Promptuarinm, and a collection of miracles of 
the Virgin filling thirty-one pages. I have also a very convenient edition, 
Venice, 1606, 4to., which besides the above works of Herolt contains also Scr- 
inoncs Discipuli in quadragcsima. The latest edition of Herolt s sermons seems 
to be that edited by another Dominican, B. Elers, Augsburg, 1728, 4to. In 
spite of the " Divisio et series operis " on p. ii., in which the editor announces 
all the above mentioned sermons of Herolt and the Promptuarium and miracles 
of the Virgin, he has reprinted only the scrmones de tempore, omitting all the 
others. The editorial work consists in a Directorium and some indexes, with 
marginal references. The reprint so far as I have compared it follows the 
original exactly, and is valuable only as showing how long Herolt s influence 
lasted. 



Iviii EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

follows, at the end of the Sermones de tempore : " Finiunt sermones 
collecti ex diversis sanctorum dictis et ex pluribus libris, qui inti- 
tulantur sermones discipuli ; quia in istis sermonibus non subtilia 
per modum magistri, sed simplicia per modum discipuli conscripsi 
et collegi." Nothing is known of Herolt s life ; besides the works 
above mentioned, he left a collection of sermones super epistolas, 
and a treatise entitled Liber de eruditione Cliristi fidelium* 

The most important of Herolt s works is the collection of 
sermones de tempore et de sanctis, to which the Promptuarium (to 
be examined later) is appended. The sermones de tempore are 
164 in number, the de sanctis 48, in all 212. As is usually the 
case, two sermons are given to each Sunday or festival, but one, 
however, is devoted to each saint. The exempla are regularly 
introduced at the end of the sermon, although they are occa 
sionally found elsewhere also. Sometimes more than one is 
given at the end, and in a few cases none at all is employed. 
The Promptuarium is to be regarded as a storehouse containing 
an extra supply of exempla. We have seen in the sermons of 
Martinus Polonus that the exempla were contained entirely in 
the Promptuarium also appended to them, and that reference was 
made in the sermons to the Promptuarium. This is not the case 
with Herolt, whose Promptuarium registers all the stories in the 
sermons, but is not referred to in the sermons. The sermons are 
preceded by an elaborate table of the exempla in the sermons, 
283 in number. They are of the same character as those in the 
Promptuarium, and will be examined in detail when that work is 
later examined. 

The Sermones in quadragesima are 47 in number, containing 52 
exempla of the same character as those in the other sermons. 

* There is a copy of the sermones super epigtolas, without date or place, in 
the Astor Library, New York. It is of no interest in this connection. The 
second work I have not seen. To Herolt is also ascribed a history of the Albi- 
gensian war, but no such work has been found by Potthast, Monod, or Franklin, 
and its existence was earlier doubted by Quetif and Echard (i., p. 7G2). 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

One of the most extensive collections of sermons which we shall 
encounter is that of Meffreth, a priest of Meissen, of whom nothing 
is known except that he finished the sermones de sanctis in 1443, 
and began at once the sermones de tempore, on which he was working 
until 1447.* He calls his work Hortulus Reginae, in honour of the 
church represented by the Queen of Sheba,f and was led to com 
pose it because it is the duty of priests to teach the faithful, and 
this he was prevented from doing in the pulp it. J His work con 
sists of the usual sermones de tempore et de sanctis, arranged, how 
ever, in three parts, one containing the de tempore, pars aestivalis ; 
the second, the de tempore, pars Jiyemalis ; and the third, the de 
sanctis. Cruel (op. cit. p. 486) says that three or four sermons 
are given to each Sunday in the de tempore ; in the de sanctis two 
or more are given to each saint. Cruel gives an elaborate account 
of the de tempore and the wide range of the author s citations. 
He does not expressly mention the exempla, but I presume they 
are of frequent occurrence. This is the case at least with the de 
sanctis, of which alone I can speak of my own knowledge. Here 
exempla (i.e., stories, properly speaking, and not mere extracts 

* Cruel, p. 486. Fabricius says he was living in 1476. Hain registers ten 
editions before 1500. I have been able to use only the de sanctis, without place 
or date (Hain, 11,000). 

f The author says in a verse at the end of the de sanctis : 

" Hortulus iste quidem de cujus gramine pascit 
Se regina Saba, sponsaque sancta Dei." 

In the prologue the author makes the usual statement in regard to the value of 
exempla : " Insuper in his hujus operis sermonibus exempla aliqua inserui 
legendarum quae ab auditoribus audientur et magis memoriae commendentur, 
quod secundum Augustinum, lib. vi., De doctrina Christiana : Plus decent 

exempla quam verba subtilia Quare et ego hoc perpendens exemplis 

hinc inde repertis hanc materiam pro profectu pauperum studentium exornavi 
subtilia evitando." 

J What the cause was we do not know. He says : " Et cum omnium ego 
abortivus sum et indignus Christi sacerdotum, ne nomen subirem quod debet 
officium perdi et inciderem in dictum hujus doctoris gloriosissimi, hujus operis 
onus suscepi docens collectione quod non potui sermone." 



Ix EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VTTRY. 

from works on natural history, etc.) are of constant occurrence.* 
Meffreth s work is of considerable importance and deserves further 
study. 

We have already had occasion to notice the sermones quadra- 
gesimales of Herolt. These sermons for Lent arose from the 
custom of daily preaching during that season which prevailed in 
Italy from the beginning of the thirteenth century. This custom 
extended into Germany in the following century, and in the 
fifteenth century had become so prevalent that it was necessary to 
make provision for it in the collections of sermons for the use of 
preachers, which now often consisted of three parts, de tempore et 
de sanctis, and quadragesimale, the latter frequently appearing as 
a separate work.f The most popular of these independent collec 
tions is the Quadragesimale of Johan Gritsch, a Franciscan, of 
whom we know nothing but that he was a native of Basel and 
famous as a pulpit orator during the Council held in that city 
(1431-1449).:]; He left sermones quadragesimales and de passione 
Domini. The former alone have been printed, and were written 
shortly before 1440. The work contains forty-eight sermons, the 
themes for which are taken from the gospel for the day. In order 
to make the work serviceable for the whole year (for which its 
extent and variety of contents fitted it), the author added at the 
end a set of outline sermons for the whole year, with references 

* Among these are Serm. xxxvii., B. miracle of St. Appolonia ; xxxix., C.. 
miracle of St. Matthew; xlii., B., story of Armenius from the Vltae Pat mm 
xlv., K., what happened to one who took the Host unworthily; xciii., F., story of 
Theophilus on the authority of Voragine and Vincent and Sigibcrtus ; xcv., L., 
stor) of the thief miraculously supported on the gallows from Vincent ; 
cxiii., L., story from Jacques de Vitry s prologue to life of St. Mary; cxiii., L., 
certain relics of one of the virgin martyrs of Cologne returns to that city, 
because the abbot to whom they were sent neglects to enclose them in a proper 
shrine ; cxv., B., story of Monk Felix in Longfellow s Golden Legend, etc. 

f See Cruel, p. 556, Linsenmeyer, pp. 131, 134, 1G6, and Lecoy de la Marche, 
p. 220. 

t A brief notice of him may be found in the Allge-meine dcutsche Biograpltie 
by Kellner. See also Cruel, p. 558. For editions of the Quadragesimale see 
Hain, who registers 26 before 1500. My copy is the second (Hain, 8058). 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

to the place in the Quadragesimale where the material proper for 
the expansion of the outline could be found. The sermones quadra- 
gesimales themselves are of unusual length, and divided into three 
pai ts, each of which may be still further sub-divided. Our 
interest in the work is solely from the standpoint of illustrative 
stories, and it is indeed rich in these. A pecularity of the work 
is the extensive use of Ovid s Metamorphoses, with moralizations 
(see iv., 2, of this introduction), and at times euhemeristic 
explanations.* Exempla are also found frequently, 34 are 
registered in the index, but a much larger number is to be found 
in the sermons. A comparatively small number of Jacques do 
Vitry s exempla is to be found in Gritsch (for these see Index to 
Notes of present work), but a considerable number of the most 
popular stories of the middle ages is to be found in the Quadra- 
gesimale.-f Gritsch s work, in short, is one of the most original 
and entertaining of its kind, and from its enormous popularity 
contributed largely to the diffusion of stories. 

Our attention is next attracted by an Englishman, John Felton, 
a fellow of St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford, and vicar of the 
church of St. Mary Magdalen- without- the- walls, Oxford. He 
nourished about 1430, and was so famous for his preaching that 
he gained the name of "homiliarius," or " concionator."^ He 
left several works : AlpJiabetum theologicum ex opusculis Hobt. 
Grostvte collection ; Lccturae Sacrae Scripturae ; Pera Peregrini, and 

* These are entered in the index under Fcibula ; among them are : <; Tabula 
Castoris et Polucis et amore Christi ;" " Tabula Laomedontis promittante et 
foyente et non solvente ; " " Tabula Priami amoris et compassione Christi ; " 
" Fabula Cassandre de incredulitate ; " " Tabula Lichanois in lupum conversi de 
pietate Christi, et ingratitudine et dolositate ; " " Tabula Phebi et Clytie et facti 
amoris," etc. Cruel, pp. 559-60, gives several examples in full, 

f The following stories in the three great collections are also in Gritsch : 
Gesta Ilomanontm, 9, 11, 17, 35, 36, 41, 42, 45, 48, 50, 60, 61, 67, 71, 77, 97, 
108, 112. 126, 137, 138, 174, 231, 253 ; Pauli s Scldmpf imd Ernst ,7, 26, 32, 84, 
116, 135, 169, 226, 359, 392, 412, 433, 481, 487, C31, 625, 647 ; Kirclihof s 
Wcndnnmuth, 1, 57 ; 3, 203 ; 5, 121 ; 5, 124 ; 6, 73 ; 7, 39 ; 7, 73. 

\ See Dictionary of English Biography and sources there cited (Pits, Bale, 
Tanner, and Leland), to which may be added Oudin and Tabricius. 



x EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITJJY. 

sermons, in which alone we are at present interested. The 
scrmones dominicales (I have not seen the " two other volumes of 
sermones " referred to in the Dictionary of English Biography) are 
frequently found in English libraries.* They are the usual 
sermones dominicales, 58 in number, and at the end is the table of 
contents, sometimes of sermons, sometimes of texts. The exempla 
are gathered together under the letter N". (Narracio) in the index 
and are about 67 in number, and others are doubtless to be found 
scattered through the sermons in other places. Among these 
exempla are : The angel who stopped his nose at sight of sinful 
youth (Jacques deVitry, civ.) ; Man fleeing from unicorn (Jacques 
do Vitry, cxxxiv.) ; True son refuses to shoot at father s body 
(Gesta Eom. 44) ; Guy of Warwick in Constantinople and the 
lion ; Jew in the temple of Apollo, and temptation of Andrew, 
bishop of Fundi (Jacques de Vitry, cxxxi.) ; Atlanta; Codrus, 
king of Athens ; Alexander bearing thirst ; Death of Alexander 
and vanity of the world ; Titus and Pilate ; Darius fleeing from 
Alexander ; Xerxes weeping at sight of his army, etc. Besides 
these Oesterley in his notes to the Gesta Romanorum cites the 
following : Enmity between two brothers and their reconciliation 
(Gesta Rom., 39) ; Socrates marries emperor s daughter (Gesta 
Rom., 61) ; Princess hangs up in chamber weapons of knight who 
restored her to her kingdom but dies in so doing (Gesta Rom., 66) ; 
King gives kingdom to most indolent one of his three sons (Gesta 
Rom., 91) ; King gives to rich and noble temporal gifts, to the 
poor his dominion over the rich and noble ; these buy it and give 
it back to the king (Gesta Rom., 131). 

One of the most popular collections of the time we are now 
considering (the middle of the xvth century) is the anonymous 

* I have consulted the following in the Brit. Mus., 20,727 ; 22,572 ; Harl. 
238 ; 868. There is a copy also in Corpus Christi library, Cambridge, Parker 
collection, ccclx. (cod. memb. in 4to., sec. xv. script). The prologue found in 
all of these is as follows : " Penuria studencium in materia morali, paupertasque 
juvenum qui copia privantur librorum, ac importuna sociorum meoruin instancia, 



INTRODUCTION. 

one known as Paratus de tempore et de sanctis* The name comes 
from the first word of the opening texts of each part : " Paratus 
est judicare vivos et mortuos " I. Peter, iv., 5) and " Paratus sum 
et non sum turbatus ut custodiam mandata tua" (Psalms, cxviii.,60, 
Yulgate; cxix., CO, Authorised Version.) There are 157 sermones 
de tempore, and 78 de sanctis. Two sermons are usually given for 
each day, and these two sermons consist of three parts : a sermon 
on the epistle, a commentary (expositio textualis) on the gospel, 
and a sermon on the same. The sermons are short and practical, 
and owed their great popularity to this fact and also to the 
frequent use of exempla. One is generally given in each sermon, 
sometimes two or more (in the cxxxii. no less than fourteen are 
given, but this is an exceptional case). I have counted 50 
exempla, properly so called, in the first hundred sermons, besides 
other illustrative stories not introduced by the word exemplum.1i 

Still more popular although less valuable for our purpose, was 
the collection of sermons by another German, John of Werden, a 

non temeritatis audacia, induxerunt me ut de singulis evangeliis dominicalibus 
que per anni circulum leguntur aliquam facerem compilacionem sermonnm. 
Hinc est quod de micis quas collegi que cadebant de mensa dominorum meorum, 
scilicet Januensis, Parisiensis, Lugduncnsis, Odonis et ceterorum, quorum 
nomina scribuntur in margine libri, unum opusculum compilavi ad laudem Dei 
et gloriose Virginis Marie et Sancte Marie Magdalene, omniumque sanctorum et 
ad legentium utilitatem et mihi adjuvamentum. Amen." 

* Hain registers 17 editions before 1500. My edition is not in Hain, and is 
without year, place, or printer, 4to. 

f The majority of the exempla are the usual monkish tales devoid of interest. 
The exempla in the de sanctis are miracles of the saints (in xxiii. is story of 
Theophilus). Of the exempla in the de tempore the following are the most 
popular : ii. (Gesta Mom,, 22-i) ; x. (variant of Jacques de Vitry, Ixvi.) ; xxv. 
( O-eista Rom., 66) ; xxviii.. Cock comes to life to refute blasphemers who said 
that neither Peter nor Christ could restore it to life (for extensive literature of 
this story see F. J. Child, English and Scottish Popular Ballads, i. pp. 238, 
505) ; xxxiv., Philosopher prefers to give daughter to man needing money rather 
than to money needing a man ; Ixiv. (Pauli, 6-17) ; Ixxix. (Jacques de Vitry, 
ccxlvi.) ; Ixxx. (Jacques de Vitry, cxxviii.) ; cix. (Jacques de Vitry, cxx.) ; 
cxxxii. (Jacques de Vitry, clxxiv.); cxxxii. (Jacques de Vitry, cii.); cxlv. (Gesta 
Rom., 143). 



Jxiv EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Franciscan, of Cologne, who nourished about the middle of the xvth 
century. They are usually known as the Sermones Dormi secure, 
from the words in the introduction : " Sermones dominical es cum 
expositionibus evangeliorum per annum, satis iiotabiles et utiles 
omnibus sacerdotibus, pastoribus et capellanis, qui alio nomine 
Dormi secure vel dormi sine cura sunt nuncupati, eo quod absque 
magno studio faciliter possint incorporari et populo praedicari, 
incipiunt feliciter." * The sermons (71 in number) are the usual 
dominicales with the theme taken from the Gospel. The author 
makes the common renunciation of originality at the end : " Ex- 
pliciunt sermones Dormi secure, ex variis diversorum doctorum 
sermonibus collecti et in unum compilati." In one case (JDe Pas- 
sione Domini sermo xxiv.) an entire sermon from Jacobus de Vora- 
gine is inserted.t John of Werden s sermons are remarkable for 
the allegorical or figurative exposition of the Scriptures, and the 
frequent use of the material found in the mediaeval works on 
natural history (see iv., 2, of this introduction). Exempla pro 
perly speaking are seldom used, and the work is not of much 
importance for the diffusion of stories. 

In this connection may be briefly mentioned the sermons of 
Michael Lochmair, canon of Passau, who nourished about 1430, 
and left among other works sermones de tempore et de sanctis. I 
have been able to see only the latter. J Exempla are sparingly 
used, 26 being cited in the index, and are of little interest. 

* Hain registers 25 editions before 1500 ; my copy is Hain ; 15,9G9 (without 
year, place, or printer, but Ulm, J. Zainer). Eor John of Werden see Cruel, p. 
478, and Hist. Hit. de la France, vol. xxiv., p. 373 ; xxv., p. 81 ; and xxix., p. 
G14. In a recent catalogue of incunabula belonging to M. Madden the Sermones 
Dormi secure are attributed to a certain Matthew Heer, a German Franciscan, 
about whom I can find nothing. 

t Cruel, p. 478, mentions other cases of wholesale borrowing ; but with the 
exception of the one mentioned above they are not acknowledged. 

My copy is Hagenau, John Byuman, 1507, fol. The sermons are 114 in 
number, 23 of them written by Lochmair s colleague Paul Wann, himself a 
famous preacher (see Cruel, p. 517). 

Among them is the fable of the wolf and the lamb (Jacques de Vitry, 
cxxxv.). 



INTRODUCTION. IxV 

Our attention is next attracted by a group of famous Italian 
preachers, the earliest of whom, San Bernardino da Siena, was 
born in 1380 and was renowned for his charitable work during the 
pestilence of 1400. Two years later he assumed the habit of St. 
Francis, and was conspicuous as a reformer of that order and the 
founder of an enormous number (300) of convents. He died at 
Aquila in 1444, and was canonised by Pope Nicholas V. in 1450. 
He left a number of sermons, religious treatises, and commentaries 
upon the Apocalypse. Forty sermons in Italian preached at Siena 
in 1426 have been preserved.* The exempla are 39 in number 
(one is omitted in the printed edition), and are mostly local anec 
dotes or monkish tales of no value. t 

The most famous preacher of the xvth centry in Italy, and one 
of the most famous in Europe, was Gabriel Barletta or Bareleta 
or Bareletta, an Italian Dominican, who either took his name from 
the city of Barletta, or, as Quetif (i. p. 844) thinks, was born at 
Aquino from a family by the name of Barletta. He preached with 
great applause in several cities in the kingdom of Naples during 
the second half of the xvth century, and probably lived until 1480 
(until 1470, according to Quetif). His popularity was so great 
that it gave rise to the proverb, " Nescit praedicare, qui nescit bar- 
lettare." He preached in Italian, but his sermons have reached 
us only in a Latin translation.! Barletta has achieved an unfor- 

* The illustrative stories contained in these sermons have been collected and 
published by F. Zambrini in the Scelta di curiosita letterarie, Disp., xcvii., 
under the title : Novellette, esemjri morali e apologhi di San Bernardino da 
Siena, Bologna, 1868. 

f Besides those in Jacques de Vitry, the following are of general interest : 
iii. QLa Fontaine, iii., 1, the famous apologue of the miller, his son, and the 
ass) ; vi. (La Fontaine, xi., 6, the wolf and the fox in the well); ix. (Lion 
hearing confessions of other animals and pronouncing judgment, see Voigt, 
Kleiner e lateinische Dcnkmaler der Thicrsage, Strassburg, 1878, pp. 81, 138) ; 
xiv. (Etienne de Bourbon, p. 393, No. 456). 

J Quetif (i., p. 844) says his sermons were taken down by an amanuensis and 
afterwards interpolated, etc., in the editing. Ifain mentions but two editions of 
his Scrmoncs quadragesimalcs et de sanctisbeione 1500. My copy is Lyons, 1505, 
small 4to. In this edition the frequent citations from Dante, which apparently 
were in Italian in the earlier editions, have been translated into Latin. 

e 



Ixvi EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

tunate reputation by his apparent levity and fondness for jesting 
in the pulpit. His printed sermons, however, do not differ 
materially from those already examined in regard to the exempla 
which they contain. These are not as numerous as in some col 
lections, and do not occur in the regular place at the end of the 
sermon but are introduced at the will of the preacher, who some 
time relates several in one sermon and omits them altogether in 
others.* It may be said in conclusion that the exempla of Barletta 
are neither numerous nor original, and possess little value for 
comparative storiology. 

Another Italian preacher who enjoys a reputation of somewhat 
the same character as that of Barletta is Bernardiiius de Bustis, a 
Franciscan of Milan, who nourished at the end of the fifteenth 
century (Fabricius puts his death after 1550), and left a large 
number of edifying works. He was famous for his preaching and 
for the share he took in establishing the Festival of the Holy 
Name of Jesus, and founding the Italian monts-de-piete. Of his 
many sermons we are here interested only in the Rosarium 
sermonum praedicabilium.-f The author says in the introduction 
that if any one wishes to preach the whole year with few books he 

* The usual sources are cited (quite often the sermones Thesauri Nom attri 
buted to Pierre de Palu, and the CJironica ordinis, i.e., the Dominican order), 
and the stories are given in the concise form common to the collections of ser 
mons, where they undoubtedly were intended as memoranda for the use of 
preachers, to be developed at will. Besides the exempla found in Jacques de 
Vitry, the following are a few of the most interesting stories in Barletta s 
sermons : fo. xii v0 ., story of Thais from the Vitae Patrum; fo. xv., story of 
Midas ; fo. xvii., story of St. Martin bestowing half his cloak on the beggar ; 
fo. xli., Ass punished for trivial cause, wolf allowed to go free, Pauli, 350; 
fo. lii v0 ., Murderer thinks it time to repent when his child finds grey hairs in 
his head, Pauli, 292 ; Sermones de sanctls, fo. Ixxxii., Diogenes at Alexander s 
tomb, Gesta Rom. 31 ; fo. Ixxxii., Jacques de Vitry is cited as authority for 
story found in Pauli, 388, persons who danced at Christmas miraculously com 
pelled to dance the whole of following year ; fo. lxxxiv vo ., Damon and Pythias, 
Gesta Rom., 108. 

f Hain registers two editions before 1500. My copy is the first (Hain, 4163), 
Venice. 1498, 2 parts in 1 vol., 4to. 



INTRODUCTION. LxvH 

should have the author s Mariale and both parts of the Rosarium, 
together with the Defence of the Monts-de-piete, and then he can 
preach not only one year but three or four in the same place. 
Then follows a table for the whole year, with directions for using 
the above-mentioned work. The sermons are of inordinate length 
and crammed with every species of authorities. Exempla are 
frequently used, among them many local anecdotes from the 
preacher s own experience. A curious feature of the work is the 
copious quotation in the second part (Sermons xv.-xxx.) of Italian 
hymns (sometimes a Latin one, the " Stabat Mater," Sermon xv.), 
and passages from Dante, Ovid, etc. The exempla are in many 
cases of general interest, and the work of Bernardinus must have 
had considerable influence on the diffusion of tales.* 

I shall close this very unsatisfactory review of sermons con 
taining exempla with a notice of the most remarkable production 
in the entire field. I allude to the Sermones super Epistolas Pauli 
of Gottschalk Hollen (or Holem or Hollem).t He Avas born at 
Corvey at the end cf the fourteenth century, and took the habit 
at Herford (he was a member of the order of the Hermits of 
St. Augustine). He was educated in Italy, and after his return 
to Germany distinguished himself as a preacher, and was present 
at the Council of Osnabriick, where he died in 1481. He left a 
number of edifying works, of which have been printed : Sermons 
on the Virgin Mary (Hagenau, 1517, 1520), Sermones dominicales 
super Epistola Pauli.$ and Preceptorium (to be mentioned later, 
iv., 3, of this Introduction). 

* It is impossible to enter into detail here in regard to the exempla of Ber 
nardinus de Bustis. It may be said, however, that 21 of his exempla are found 
in the Gcsta Ilomanorum, 39 in Pauli, and 5 in Kirchhof. 

f See Allgcmeine dcutsche Blofjrapliie^ and Cruel, p. 502. 

J My copy is Hagenau, Henry Gran, 1517, fol. There is an edition of the 
pars hy emails, 1519, same place and printer, and of the pars acstivalis, 1520, 
same place and printer. 

The Allfjemelne dcutsche B wg. says that a work, De Fcstis mobilibus et 
astronomia clericali, is said to have been printed at Florence in 1514. 



Ixvlii EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

The sermons in question are the usual dominicales, the texts, 
however, being confined to the Epistles of St. Paul. The work 
is divided into the usual two parts hy emails and aestivalis, the 
former containing 73 sermons (besides three by Johannes de 
Sancto Greminiano, see iv., 2, of this Introduction), the latter, 107 
(besides 16, de dedications ecclesiarum) . The number of exempla 
contained in these 199 sermons is simply enormous, and exceeds 
all other works, with the possible exception of Bromyard s Summa 
Praedicantium (see iv., 3, of this Introduction). Every possible 
source is drawn upon, and in addition to the hackneyed stories 
of the earlier collectors, Hollen gives countless anecdotes from 
his own experience. Besides exempla properly so called, Hollen s 
work is a perfect mine for the study of mediaeval superstitions.* 
It is impossible to give here even a brief selection from Hollen s 
innumerable exempla, or to do more than direct the attention of 
students of Folk- Lore to the unusual importance of Hollen s 
sermons for their investigations. 

This is the proper place perhaps to allude briefly to the later 
fate of exempla in sermons. There was always a great tempta 
tion for certain preachers to amuse their congregations by the 
recital of stories unsuited to the sanctity of the place and 
occasion. As early as the beginning of the fourteenth century 
we find in Dante a passionate outbreak against the preaching of 
his day.f The abuses which must have arisen everywhere in 

* I can call attention here to but a few points. Sermon xv. for Christmas is 
full of superstitions and customs connected with that night : gamesters think 
that if lucky then they will be so all the year, use of disguises (Indus larvarttm), 
etc. Sermon xlvii. is devoted to the use of charms written in secret characters ; 
some seventeen cases are given in which they are wont to be employed. Sermon 
liii. contains much curious lore concerning physicians and medicines. Abuses in 
dress, colouring the hair, &c., are mentioned in Sermon iv. ; prejudices of various 
classes of persons concerning times and seasons in Sermon ix. ; condition of 
infants after death in Sermon xix., etc. 
f Paradiso, xxix., 103-120 (Longfellow s translation) : 
" Florence has not so many Lapi and Bindi 
As fables such as these, that every year 
Are shouted from the pulpit back and forth, 



INTEODUCTION. Ixix 

this respect attracted the attention of the church, and we find 
allusions to the matter in various councils, although the word 
exempla is not specifically mentioned. At the Council of Sens, 
1528 (cap. xxxvi. in J. Harduin, Ada Conciliarum, Paris, 1714), 
it was decreed : " Quod si secus fecerint, aut si populum more 
scurrarum vilissimorum, dum rediculas et aniles fabulas recitant, 
ad risus cachinnationesque excitaverint, .... nos volumus tales 
tarn ineptos et perniciosos concinnatores ab officio praedicationis 
suspendi," etc.* 

The decrees of the councils were aimed at the improper use of 
illustrative stories, and probably checked to some degree the 
abuses which had arisen in this regard. That exempla continued 
to be used to a late date (in fact are still employed) will be 

In such wise that the lambs, who do not know, 

Come back from pasture fed upon the wind, 

And not to see tbe harm doth not excuse them. 

Christ did not to his first disciples say, 

Go forth, and to the world preach idle tales, 

But unto them a true foundation gave ; 

And this so loudly sounded from their lips, 

That, in the warfare to enkindle Faith, 

They made of the Evangel shields and lances. 

Now men go forth with jests and drolleries 

To preach, and if but well the people laugh, 

The hood puffs out, and nothing more is asked. 

But in the cowl there nestles such a bird, 

That, if the common people were to see it, 

They would perceive what pardons they confide in." 

* At the first Council of Milan, 1565 (Harduin, x., p. 641, cap. vi., Do praedi- 
catione verbi Dei) similar expressions are used : " Ne historias ex apocryphis 
scrip toribus populo narrent. Neve miracula, quae probate scriptoris fide non 
commendentur. Si quae tamen auditoribus salutaria judicarint, ita commemo- 
rent, ut a certa affirmatione abstineant. Ne ineptas et ridiculas fabulas recen- 
seant ; neve supervanea et parum fructuosa." In Spain the same prohibition 
was necessary, as is seen by the provisions of the Council of Burgos, 1624 
(Harduin, vol. xi., p. 95, cap. viii.) : " Quae autem concinatori sunt fugienda, 
multa esse norunt omnes, sed haec dumtaxat praescribamus. Ne igitur certum 
tempus Antichrist! extremi judicii, apocrypha, falsa miracula, fabulas. profana, 
ambigua, obscura, dubia, dificilia, ac supra plebis captum afferat concionator." 



xx EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

shown when we examine in the following section (iv., 1) the 
collections of cxempla made for the use of preachers. 



IV. 

Collections of cxempla for the use of preachers. 

1. The demand for exempla soon led to the preparation of col 
lections varying in size and contents. Although there is a general 
resemblance between the manuscript collections now to be men 
tioned, there does not seem to have been any model ; but each 
monkish compiler followed his own caprice. Some of the collec 
tions, as we shall soon see, became popular and were frequently 
reproduced. 

The sources of these collections are to be found in a prodigious 
number of works.* In reality, however, a comparatively small 
number were in constant use. These were : the Vitae Patrum, the 
Dialogues of Gregory, the Dialogue Miraculorum of Caesar of Heis- 
terbach, and various collections of legends of the saints (later 
Yoragine s Legenda aurea). For historical anecdotes Valerius 
Maximus was frequently cited, as well as the various historical 
compends of the middle ages. This material is of little worth, 
except so far as it shows what the popular literature of the day 
was, and did the collections of exempla contain no more they 
would be of slight value. They do, however, contain in addition 

* See list of Etienne de Bourbon s authorities, ed. cit., p. xiii.; Johannes 
Major gives a long list of his sources in his edition of the Speculum Excm- 
plorum, ; Holkot s are given in the prefatory matter of Ryter s edition. See also 
Cruel, pp. 244, 451, and Linsenmayer, p. 168. A classification of the cxempla 
is given by Lecoy de la Marche in La Chaire frangaise, p. 302 (see also the 
same author s L esprit de nos awux, Paris, p. vii.), as follows : exempla drawn 
from history or legend, especially from the ancient historians, chronicles of 
France, lives of the saints, historical books of the Bible ; cxempla taken from 
contemporary events, anecdotes which were public property or recollections of 
the writer; fables; and, finally, exempla taken from media; val works on natural 
history. 



INTKODUCTION. Ixxi 

a certain amount of historical anecdote not found elsewhere, and 
an enormous mass of material concerning the popular beliefs and 
superstitions of the middle ages. 

The form of these collections is usually alphabetical (although 
there are many exceptions), and they are designated as Alphdbe- 
turn exemploriim or narrationum. The arrangement is by topics. 
The following beginning of the Brit. Mus. MSS. Add. 11,284 will 
give an idea of bhe topics usually treated : Abstinentia, adquisicio, 
advocatus injustuSj adulterium, amandus est deus, amor mundi, amor 
carnalis, amicitia, adulator, apostasia, avaricia ; Balivus, etc. The 
choice of topic varies, as has been said above, and some of the 
collections are of enormous length. The Brit. Mus. MS. just cited 
has 572 exempla, and the Harl. MS. 268 contains 792. 

These collections are anonymous ; the author of one, however, is 
known, and as his compilation is frequently found in European 
libraries, I shall briefly mention him here. Etienne de Besan9on 
was born about the middle of the xiiith century, at Besan9on. 
He studied at Paris, and became, in 1291, provincial of the Domi 
nican order in France, and a year later was elected general of the 
entire order. During a visit to Italy he died at Lucca, the 22nd 
of November, 1294. He was the author of a commentary on 
Ecclesiastes and the Apocalypse, an AlpJiabetum auctoritatum, ser 
mons, and the work in question, the AlpJiabetum narrationum.* 
This extensive work occupies in the Harl. MS., fols. 45-201 vo , and 
contains 320 chapters or titles, and 792 exempla. The arrange 
ment differs from the usual one in that the stories are frequently 

* For Etienne de Besanon see Quetif and Echard, i., p. 429, and Histoire 
litteraire do la France, xx., p. 266. The prologue to the AlpJiabetum narra 
tionum may be found in Quetif and Echard, vol. cit. p 430, and partially in the 
Hist, litt., vol. cit. p. 273. I have seen the following MSS. of this work : 
Paris, Bib. Nat. MS., 15,255 (thirteenth century), 12,402 (fourteenth century) ; 
London, Brit. Mus., MS. Harl. 208, Arund., 378, both of the fifteenth century. 
There are also copies of this collection at Oxford, Coll. Universitatis, Ixvii., 1 
(fourteenth century) ; Munich, Royal Lib., 7,995 (Kaish, 95), 14,752 (Em. b. 5), 
both of the fourteenth century ; and Florence, Bib. Naz. Cat. sup. monast., 1269, 
A. 7 ; Laurcnz, 188, Cod. cxcvi. 



Ixxii EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

not grouped under a general heading, but constitute separate 
groups by themselves. The sources are mentioned by the com 
piler.* This collection, one of the most extensive and varied, was 
translated into English and Catalan in the xvth century.f 

The most interesting of the anonymous alphabetical collections 
is the MS. 11,284 of the Brit. Mus., mentioned above. It bears in 
the catalogue the title : " Fabularum anecdotorumque collectio ad 
usnm Praedicantium, in seriem alphabeticam digestam," and is a 
small folio volume of the xivth century, parchment, containing 
91 folios. J The extensive character of this collection may be seen 
by the fact that it contains 572 stories arranged under 91 headings. 
The value of the collection, however, consists in the fact that the 
compiler was undoubtedly an Englishman, and put into his work, 
besides the hackneyed monkish tales from the usual sources, a 
large number of anecdotes of a local character, and often imparted 
a local colour to one of the old stories. The work is also rich in 
allusions to English mediaeval superstitions. This collection is one 
of the most interesting I have examined, and deserves to be more 
widely known. 

* The principal ones are : Caesar of Heisterbach, Vitae Patrum, Jacques de 
Vitry, Gregory, Etienne de Bourbon, Petrus Damianus, Valerius Maximus, 
Petrus Alphonsi, Jacobus de Voragine and Helinandus. 

f These translations are described in the following section (v.) of this Intro 
duction. 

J This MS. formerly belonged to Mr. W. J. Thorns, and was purchased from 
him by the British Museum in 1837. Mr. Thorns sent 19 of the cxcmpln in the 
volume to M. Haupt and A. W. Hoffman, who published them in their Alt- 
dvutsche Blatter, Leipzig, 1840, vol. ii., pp. 74-82 (story 16 is Jacques de Vitry, 
cclxxxviii, and 19 is Jacques de Vitry, clviii.). The same collection is found in 
Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 17,723 (fifteenth century), and, according to Mr. Ward, 
an apparent abridgment in Harl. MS. 665, and MS. Add. 16, 167. 

The British Museum possesses other alphabetical collections : MS. Add. 21, 
144, " Summula secundum ordinem alphabeti que dicitur habundantia exem- 
plorum " (fourteenth century). The cxempla fill fols. 1-146, and consist almost 
entirely of moral sayings. A similar collection is in MS. Add. 10, 381, " Exempla 
de habundantia exemplorum " (a copy also in Wolfenbiittel, MSS. Helmst., 
fifteenth century ; the works just cited are not to be confused with the Tractates 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxiii 

The collecftons for the use of preachers would naturally be more 
convenient when arranged in alphabetical order by topics, and 
that we shall see is the usual arrangement of the later printed 
collections. There are, however, many collections of exempla not 
alphabetical, and these will be briefly described now. One of the 
most extensive collections in the British Museum is the Harl. 
MS. 463, which, as has already been shown, is a collection of 
Jacques de Vitry s exempla. Another important collection is Brit, 
Mus. MS. Add. 27, 336 (xvth century), containing 375 exempla, the 
sources of which are seldom mentioned (in the first twelve folios 
Gregory is quoted once, Vitae Patrum four times, Infantia Salva- 
toris, Josephus, Ambrose, Augustine, Cassianus, Abbot Peter, Liber 
translatus de greco in latino, each once). Other shorter collections 
in the same library are : Harl. 3244 (xivth century), 158 stories; 
Add. 18,364, fols. 1-88 VO , 307 stories; Add. 15,883, fols. 81-176 VO , 
166 stories; Arund. 506, 249 stories; Add. 21,147 (xvth century), 
133 stories. Besides these there is a multitude of shorter collec 
tions. 

It is impossible to describe here even briefly the great number 
of similar collections in Paris, Munich, and elsewhere. Most of 

de abundantia exemplorum, i.e. the compcnd of Etienne de Bourbon s work, to 
be mentioned later, which I have in print, and which exists in manuscript in 
Brit. Mus. Sloane, 3102). 

It is not my purpose to give here a bibliography of the alphabetical collections 
of exempla existing in manuscript form. I shall mention here only those which 
I have seen or noted for some particular purpose : Oxford, Bod. Rawl. MS. C. 
899, fols. 127-218 (fifteenth century), 145 exempla; the MSS. of Etienne de 
Besaneon s collection in the Brit. Mus., Bib. Nat., and elsewhere have already 
been mentioned ; the Munich Royal Library is very rich in collections of 
exempla, and among them are a number of alphabetical collections, see Halm 
and Laubmann, Cat. cod. manu scriptorum Sib. Rcgiac Monacensis, Munich, 
1868, Cod. Lat. (Cod. vet. bib. Elect.), 587, Alphdbet umnarrationumA.tantum 
letteram complectitur ; 3232, Alpliabetarius (Abstincntia-Zelus ) ; 9598, 
Exempla ord. alpli. ; finally, I may add the two collections of mediaeval 
moralized tales in the Diocesan library of Derry, described in a paper read before 
the Royal Irish Academy, April 10, 1882, by J. K. Ingram, Vice-President 
R.LA., both of which are arranged in alphabetical order. 



BXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

these, as has been said, have little value, drawing always from the 
same sources. Occasionally a collection like that in the Brit Mus. 
Add. 11,284 has a local character and contains historical or quasi- 
historical anecdotes. Such a collection is that in the library of 
Tours (205, xvth century), probably made in the second half of 
the xiiith century by a Dominican well acquainted with Touraine, 
Maine, and Anjou. The work is divided into nine parts, and deals 
with the various classes of the community as does Jacques de 
Vitry in his Sermones vulgares* 

With the invention of printing the variety which had prevailed 
in this department of literature, as in all others, disappeared, 
and the numerous older manuscript collections were replaced by 
a few printed ones which enjoyed enormous popularity, and 
the influence of which is still felt. These printed collections 
were fresh compilations and not reprints of the earlier manuscript 
ones. Their sources were the same, and that the printed 
collections drew from the manuscript ones is beyond doubt 
(among the sources cited in the prologue to the Scala Geli is an 
Alpfiabefaim narrationum). I shall divide the printed works into 
two classes : those containing exempla pure and simple, and those 
containing exempla moralised, or particular classes of exempla 
(moralised natural history, etc.).f 

The first collection of the former class which I shall mention is 
the Speculum Exemplorum, an anonymous work.J The author 

* A description of this MS. is given in the Bibliotlicque de VEcole des 
Cliartcs, serie vi., tome iv. (18G8), pp. 598-608, and a number of the exempla 
contained in it have been published in a French translation by Lecoy de la 
Marche in L csprit dc nos a teux. 

f Some of the works about to be mentioned undoubtedly existed in manuscript 
from before the invention of printing (this is the case with the Scala Cell, etc.), 
but as they survive in print alone I have classed them here. 

J The editor of the enlarged edition to be mentioned presently, Johannes 
Major, did not know who the collector of the original edition was. It is some 
times attributed to a Carthusian monk, Aegidius Aurifabcr, who died in HGG. 
The author was probably a Belgian, or from the adjacent German provinces, 
and nourished about 1480 (this is the opinion of Quetif and Echard, i., p. 907, 
who do not think him a Dominican, although his work is largely compiled from 



INTRODUCTION. IxXV 

explains in the prologue the title of his book : " Et hnnc librum 
non abs re, nt arbitror, Speculum exemplorum statui nominarc, 
eo quod facile quicunque in eo legere contenderit, tanquam in 
purissimo speculo, aut decorem suum poterit, aut deformitatem 
conspicere," and wonders that although the art of printing was 
so widely spread no one had thought of collecting in one work 
exempla from the writings of various authors. It did not occur 
to him to arrange his material alphabetically (except in one 
chapter) ; but like Caesar of Heisterbach he divided it into 
distinctiones, of which there are ten, each taken from but one 
source (except in the cases mentioned below) named under each 
distinctio* The only original material in the book is found in 
the last distinctio^ but the thirty exempla, there cited are all 
monkish tales, worthless for comparative storiology. 

A new lease of life was given to the Specuhim Exemplorum by 
the revision it underwent in 1603 at the hands of Johannes Major, 
a Jesuit of Douay (born at Arras in 1542, died at Douay in 1608), 
who added 160 exempla to the 1215 of the original work and 
arranged the whole in alphabetical order, placing at the end of 
each exemplum the source from which it was taken.f The revision 

works by Dominicans). The first edition was printed at Deventer by Richard 
Paefroed in 1481 (Hain, 14,915). This was followed by editions at Cologne, 
1485, Strassburg, 1487, 1490, 1495, 1497, and Hagcnau, 1512, 1519. My own 
copy is Strassburg, 1487 (Hain, 14,917), and I have also used the first edition at 
the Bib. Nat., Paris. 

* These sources are : (i.) Gregory s Dialogues ; (ii.) Vitae Patrum ; (iii.) 
Bede, Chronicle of tlie Cistercian Order ; (iv.) Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum 
Ilistoriale ; Helinandus, Historia scliolastica ; (v.) Thomas Cantipratanus, 
Liber de apibus ; (vi.) Caesar of Heisterbach ; (vii.) Life of St. Francis and 
various legendaries ; (viii.) various legendaries ; (ix.) 218 exempla from 
various writers arranged alphabetically by topics ; (x.) 30 exempla " que aut 
verissima relatione didici, aut in libris theutonicis scripta inveni, vel ipse facta 
cognovi," arranged in five categories. 

f For Johannes Major and bibliography of his work see A. de Backer, Biblio- 
tlieciue dcs Ecrivains de la Comparjnie de Jesus, Liege, 1869, vol. ii., p. 1013. 
Seventeen editions (and one Polish translation), the last in 1718, are there 
enumerated. My edition is Douay, 1610. The editor gives a long list of his 
authorities and an interesting bibliography of those who " ex professo exem 
plorum libros scripserunt, vel suis operibus crebra exempla intersperserunt." 



Ixxvi EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

was entitled Magnum Speculum, Exemplorum, and was deservedly 
popular on account of the convenience of its arrangement and the 
variety of its contents. 

Besides such independent collections as those just mentioned, 
several preachers took the trouble to append to their collected 
sermons a promptuarium or repositary of exempla, the object of 
which was partly to enable the user of the sermons to vary the 
stories contained in them, and partly to afford preachers in general 
a magazine of illustrations. The earliest of these appendixes is 
that of the Dominican, Martin of Troppau (Martinus Polonus), 
whose sermons have already been examined (in Section iii. of this 
Introduction). The Prompttiarium follows the sermones de tcmpore 
et de sanctis, and is brief in extent, occupying 42 pages, and is 
without any table of contents. This work, like the famous 
Chronicle of the same author, has no original worth, being merely 
an abstract of Etienne de Bourbon s Tractatus de diversis materiis 
praedicabilibus (described in detail in the third division of this 
section of the Introduction).* The work of Martin apparently 
enjoyed little popularity and deserves but a brief mention here 
for its influence, not great in truth, in diffusing a certain number 
of exempla. 

The most famous Promptuarium is that of Herolt (Discipulus), 
whose sermons have been described in the preceding section. f 
Herolt s work, in the edition cited below, fills folios 315a-387b, i.e., 

* The correspondence is as follows, Etienne de Bourbon s work in brackets : 
i. (i., Tit. iii.) ; ii. (Tit. iv.) ; iii. (Tit. v.) ; iv. (Tit. vi.) ; v. (Tit. vii.) ; vi. 
(Tit. viii.) ; vii. (Tit. x.) ; viii. (ii., Tit. i.) ; ix. (Tit. ii) ; x. (Tit. iii.) ; xi. 
(Tit. iv.) ; xii. (Tit. v.) ; xiii. (Tit. vi.) ; xiv. (Tit. vi.) Then follow four 
short chapters : DC annunciatione, dc gloria etcrna, de virginibus, and quod 
bonum sit missas aiidirc, probably based also upon Tit. vi. of Etienne de 
Bourbon. 

f The enormous vogue of Herolt s Proinptuar mm may be seen from the fact 
that Hain registers 34 editions before 1500, and Panzer, H down to 1520. My 
copy is Strassburg, 1495 (Hain, 8505). So far as I can learn, the Promptuarium 
was never printed separately. The sermons, on the other hand, were sometimes 
printed without the Promptuarium (see Hain, 8478-9). 



INTEODUCTION. 

143 pages. The arrangement is the usual alphabetical one by topics, 
and the work contains 114 chapters, under 20 letters, embracing 
917 exempla, of which 283 are found in the sermons and only- 
referred to in the Promptuarium. The authorities most fre 
quently cited are, Arnoldus Geilhoven de Roterodamis, Gnotosoli- 
ttis sive Speculum conscientiae, Caesar of Heisterbach, Gregory, 
Thomas Cantipratanus, and the Vitae Patrum. A large number 
of other authorities are cited, or at least drawn upon. Jacques 
de Vitry is mentioned three times, and twice the story is not 
found in the present collection (M. 67, "Aristotle and the queen;" 
V. 11, "A preacher saw a demon in church and asked him what 
he was doing; the demon replied, closing people s ears, and said 
that he had with him three companions closing hearts, lips, and 
purses.") Barlaam and JosapJtat is cited once, the Discipline 
clericalis once, and one story ("Weeping dog") is from the Seven 
Wise Masters. A large number of stories is given without any 
authority, but they are mostly monkish tales, and the collection 
as a whole has little value for the history of mediaeval culture or 
for comparative storiology.* 

Before considering another class of collections of exempla, it 
may be well, for the sake of completeness, to notice briefly here 
the later imitations of the class just passed in review. 

In 1555, John Herold, the great scholar and editor of Basel, 
collected and published what might be called a corpus of 
historical exempla under the title : Exempla virtutum et vitiorum, 
atque etiam aliarum rerum maxime memorabilium, futura lectori supra 
modum magnus Thesaurus, Basel, 1555, 3 vols., fol. The contents 
of this vast work are the following : Nicolaus Hanapus ; Valerius 
Maximus ; Aelianus, de varia historia, graece et latine ; Marcus 
Antonius Coccius Sabellicus ; Aristoteles, Oeconomicorum dispen- 

* Herolt s Promptuarium is followed by a sort of appendix, entitled Promp- 
tuarium Diaoipuli de miracnlis Bcatc Mario Viryinis, which contains ICO 
miracles from the usual sources : Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum historiale, 
Caesar of Heisterbach, etc. 



EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

sationum liber ; Baptista Campofulgosis ; Parthenius Nicensis 
graeco et latine ; Guido Bituricensis ; M Marulus Spalatensis ; 
Heraclicles graece et latine ; and Sextus Julius Frontinus. 

Anotlier extensive historical collection is the Promptua/riwn 
Exemplorum of Andreas Hondorff: (also written Hondorf and 
Hohndorff), a Lutheran pastor at Ciistritz from 1563, and at 
Droissig, near Weissenfels, from 1572. He died in 1572. He was 
the author of a history of the martyrs (Frankfort, 1575), which 
was translated into French and Dutch, of the Theatrum histori- 
cum (Frankfort, 1575), translated into German, and of the 
Promptuarium Exemplorum (Leipzig, 1580).* 

This great collection is in the form of a commentary upon the 
Decalogue, and from its subject would properly belong to the 
class of systematic treatises (see third division of the present 
section). It is, however, merely a collection of exempla of a 
historical nature (a long list of the principal authorities is given 
, at the beginning), with many local anecdotes, and is of consider 
able value for the history of the culture of the time. 

Of even vaster extent is the Fleurs des Exemples ou Catechisme 
historial of Antoine d Averoult, born at Aire in Artois about 1554, 
and rector of the " College du Faucon," at Louvain, until his 
entrance into the order of Jesuits in 1600. The rest of his life 
was consumed in the duties of his order until his death at Tournay 
in 1614.f The gigantic work above mentioned, occupying 1,405 

* See article in Ersch and Gruber s Encykhyadie. The Promptuariwn 
appears to have been originally written in German ; at least, I can find no trace 
of a Latin edition earlier than the German one cited above and printed eight 
years after the author s death. That it was not the first edition is shown by the 
words on the title page : " Nun aber mit vielen Historien vermehrt, und in cine 
newe richtige Ordnung bracht. Auch mit schonen Figuren gezicrt. Durch Vin- 
centium Sturmium, etc." 

f For life and bibliography of d Averoult, see De Backer, op. cit., i., col. 337. 
The Flews des Exc.mplcs, first printed at Douay, 1603, 2 vols. 8vo., was trans 
lated by the author himself into Latin under the title, Flares Exemplorum sive 
Catcckismus historialis (Douay, 1614, Cologne, 1616, 4 vols. 4to., and fre 
quently). I have the edition of Cologne, 1685, 4to., with a Part V., "hactenus 



INTRODUCTION. 

pages in the edition cited below, is, as the sub- title indicates, an 
exposition of the Romish Catechism, and the exempla are arranged 
to illustrate its various precepts. These exempla are purely 
historical, or quasi-historical, in character, and are of no interest 
for the purpose of the present work. 

The same may be said of a brief collection of exempla (177 in 
number), made by Janus Nicius Erythraeus, the Latinised name 
of Giovanni Vittorio Rossi, a Roman scholar, born in 1577, and 
who died in 1647. He occupied a high place among modern 
Latinists, and left a number of orations, dialogues, epistles, 
homilies, and the work in question, Exempla virtutum et vitiorum* 

It remains to say a word in regard to modern collections of 
stories for the use of preachers. The only one bearing the old title 
is : The Preacher s Promptuary of Anecdote, by Rev. "W. F. Shaw, 
London, 1884. It contains 100 stories, and differs from its pro 
totypes in being arranged neither alphabetically nor topically. 
Curiously enough it contains at least six stories which are found 
in the older collections. f 

Similar works are : Things new and old, or a Storehouse of 
Illustrations by John Spencer, to which is added a treasury of 
similes by Robert Candry, London, 1880, 4th ed. ; Dictionary of 

nunquam edita." There are also German and Polish translations, and a Latin 
compcnd in two vols. Svo., Cologne, 1614. De Backer says the f lores Excmplorum 
was partly reprinted in Major s Magnum Speculum, Exemplorum, and thence 
translated into Polish. I think this must be a mistake. I find no trace of 
d Avcroult s work in Major s collection ; on the contrary, my edition of the 
Flores Exemplorum says on the title page : " Aucta ex Magno Speculo Exem- 
plorum Joannis Majoris excerptis selectioribus." 

* I have the second edition, Cologne, 1645, 8vo. The exempla fill 235 pages, 
and are, for the most part, edifying anecdotes collected by the author. 

t These are : No. 43, " The wife that would gossip " (Scala Cell, 50) ; 47, 
"The man and his three friends" (Scala Cell, 9, Speculum Exemplorum, 4, 
17) ; 50, " Oh, Adam ! " (Scala Celt, 136v,Herolt, Surmones dc tempore, 60, F.); 
51, " The murderer and his mother " (Liber cle abundantia exemplorurn, 34) ; 
and 73, " The dog and his shadow (Scala Cell, 19). Story, No. 42, " The 
three black crows," is found in the Gesta llomanorum. 



1XXX EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Religious Anecdote by Rev. W. Baxendale, London, 1888 ; Clerical 
Library, New York, 1886, vol. vii., " Platform and Pulpit 
Aids ... To this is added a selection of pithy and striking 
anecdotes," vol. viii., "Anecdotes illustrative of Old Testament 
texts." 

The task of studying the use of stories in modern sermons I 
shall leave to another, and content myself with this brief mention 
of the survival of a time-honoured custom. 

2. The exempla which we have thus far examined have been 
illustrative stories intended for insertion in sermons. The moral 
lesson to be drawn from them was left entirely to the judgment of 
the preacher. In other words, the exemplum was a story which 
had no independent value, and, as we have seen, was usually given 
in a very concise form to be expanded at the preacher s will. We 
have now to consider an entirely different class of exempla in 
which the story has appended to it a moral conclusion, or an 
explanation of the hidden or allegorical meaning of the story. 
The Christian Church has always made extensive use of allegory 
and symbolism, which was greatly fostered by the attempt to 
explain Old Testament customs and events as types and symbols 
of Christ. As early as the second century of the Christian era 
this tendency produced the Physiologus, the influence of which 
will be later examined. Just when the allegorising propensity of 
the middle ages seized the class of stories now under consideration 
it is difficult to say. The Physiologus was enormously popular 
throughout the whole period, and it was easy enough to apply 
the same principle of symbolical interpretation to stories in which 
animals were introduced as actors. As a matter of fact this 
system of interpretation was first applied, so far as I know, to 
fables, towards the end of the twelfth century, and rapidly 
extended to other classes of exempla. The result of this method 
was to render the exemplum more independent by appending to it 
an allegorical or symbolical explanation, and thus investing the 
story with a certain interest of its own. From this time more 
care is taken with the form of the exemplum ; it is given in a less 



INTRODUCTION. 

concise shape, and the great collections gradually assume the 
appearance of collections of entertaining stories. 

The first person who seems to have applied this method to fables 
and other exemplavras an English Cistercian monk, Odo de Ceritona 
(Eude de Cheriton), who nourished in the last quarter of the xiith 
century, and left a collection of moralised fables and parables 
most industriously copied by later writers in this field.* The value 
of Odo s work consists in the large number of fables which it aided 
most powerfully to diffuse through later collectors and preachers. 
Although his work was not made specifically for the use of the latter 
class, its didatic tendency and allegorical character made it enor 
mously popular.f Although Odo s work consists chiefly of fables, 



* The few details of Odo s life are collected, and the authorities given in 
Oesterley s edition of the Narratloncs in the Jalirbuch fur romanisclie und 
englisohe Litteratur, ix., p. 121 ; xii., p. 129 ; and in Voigt s Kleinere 
lateinisclic Dcnkmaler tier Thiersage aus dem xii. bis xiv. Jalirliundert, 
Strassburg, 1878, p. 45. Paul Mayer, in his introduction to the Contcs moralises 
de Bozon, p. xii., says that he took his surname (incorrectly written Shirton, 
Sherstou, Cherrington, Sherington), from Cheriton in Kent. The Narrationcs 
of Odo (45 in number), from the Brit. Mus. MS. Arund., 292, were first printed 
by Oesterley in the JaUrTtu-ch just cited ; to these he added (JaJwluch, xii., p. 
129), 47, contained in an Italian MS. (now in the library at Wolfenbiittel). 
Later Voigt, in the work cited above, gave 30 parables of Odo (ten of them 
doubtful, in the opinion of the editor), with critical text, and a comparative table 
containing the 76 fables, etc., attributed to Odo, according to their manuscript 
sources. Thirty-seven additional fables from MSS. in Munich were also pub 
lished by Voigt in ZeitscJirift fur deutsches Alterthum, xxiii., p. 283 (" Odo 
de Ciringtonia und seine Quellen "). A valuable review of Voigt s first 
mentioned work may be found in the Anzeigcr fur deutsches Alterthum und 
deutsche Litter atur, v., 2, April, 1879, p. 99 . Finally Hervieux, in Les Fabulistes 
Latins, vol. i., pp. G44-689, has re-examined the whole field, and printed in 
vol. ii., pp. 587-713, the first complete edition of Odo s fables and parables. 

f Odo says in his prologue (Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 588), " Et quoniam, ut 
dicit Gregorius, plus quam subtili dogmate sive typo [verba, compungunt 
exempla], aperiam in parabolis os meum et similitudines et exempla quae 
libentius audiuntur, proponam, quibus intellcctis sapiens sapientior erit." The 
allegorical explanation is usually introduced by the word mistice (the verb 
mysticarc was used during the Middle Ages with the meaning to symbolise), 
sometimes oonstruotio, and cxpo.ntio, once moral-Mas. The last word was the 



EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

many interesting exempla are scattered through it : among these 
may be mentioned the curious story (Hervieux, op. cit., p. 592) of 
Thcodosius, Bishop of Sion (Switzerland), who went to the Rhone 
to see his fishermen. They drew in a large block of ice instead of 
a fish, whereat the bishop rejoiced, as he suffered from heat in 
his feet. As he rested his feet upon the block of ice a voice issued 
from it, saying that the soul of a sinner was tormented within it, 
and could only be liberated if the bishop would say mass for it 
thirty days in succession. The bishop begins his task, but is inter 
rupted twice by riot within the city and war without, and is com 
pelled to begin over again. The last day the whole city seemed 
to be in flames, and the bishop s servants besought him to fly. 
He answered that he would not cease even if the whole city should 
be consumed. When the mass was finished the ice melted, the 
soul was freed, and the flames disappeared, having done no harm.* 

Other interesting exempla are : (Hervieux, op. cit., p. 595) " Le 
Lai de 1 Oiselet" (p. 596); u Man and Unicorn," from Barlaam 
and Josaphat (p. 614) ; " True and Untrue " (p. 675) ; Parnel s 
" Hermit."t 

one employed by later writers, and we have moraluatio for a moralised story, 
and the verb moralizarc. 

* This interesting legend is also found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 3244, fo. 85, 
col. 2 ; MS. 11,284, fo. 22, b ; and in Libro de los Enxemplos in Romania, vii., 
p. 502, No. 28. A similar story, so far as the interrupted service is concerned, 
is that of the " Knight in the Chapel," see Kohler s article in Jahrlucli fur 
romanische und englische Lit., vi., p. 326 (and ix., p. 351). 

f Although it is the purpose of this introduction to examine only such works 
as have a bearing upon the use of stories in sermons, still, for the sake of com 
pleteness, it may be well to mention here two curious productions which belong 
to the class of moralised tales. They are the Speculum Sapient iac attributed to 
a certain Bishop Cyril, and the Dialogue Creaturarum (the authorship of which 
will be considered in a moment), accessible to the student in the recent edition 
by Dr. J. C. Th. Graesse, under the very misleading title, Die bciden dltestcn 
lateinisclien Fa~bclbuclicr dcs Mlttelalters. Bibliothek des litterarischen Vereins 
in Stuttgart, Bd. 148, 1880. The author of the Speculum Sapicntiac is. accord 
ing to the printed editions (I possess the rare one of the fifteenth century, 
without place, year, or printer (Hain, 5904). but said by Ebert, i., 432. to be 
printed at Strassburg by Eggesteyn), Bishop Cyril, but what bishop of that name 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxiii 

A short but important collection of moralised stories was made 
by Robert Holcot (or Holcoth, Holkott, Olchot, as the name is 
variously spelled), an English Dominican, born at Northampton, 

is intended we do not know. In a manuscript of the university of Prague the 
attribution is, "Editus a Cirillo episcopo alias Gwidenon laureate poeta." and 
Graesse, for some unaccountable reason, sees in this ground for stating that the 
author was a certain Cyrillus de Quidenon. a Neapolitan from Quidone, a small 
town of the province of Capitanata, in the kingdom of Naples. The author was 
probably an Italian ecclesiastic of the fourteenth century, or one who had there 
received his training (see E. Voight, Kleiner e lateinische Dcnkmaler dcr 
Thiersage, p. 57, and P. Rajna in the Giornale storico delta littcratura italiana, 
iii., p. 2). The author, whoever he was, was a learned man. He cites anecdotes 
from Sallust and Valerius Maximus, and quotes Virgil and Horace. Graesse 
has taken the trouble to note the numerous passages from the Bible cited by the 
author, who was an acute scholastic philosopher, as well as a learned theologian. 
He was not acquainted with Aesop, and from a remark which he makes in Bk. i., 
cap. 18. it is evident he knew no Greek. His work is of little importance for the 
history of mediaeval fiction, for it did not exert the slightest influence. Graesse 
says, p. 291, " Im Mittelalter selbst kann er von seinen Zeitgenossen nicht benutzt 
worden sein, demi ich habe nirgends wo in den aus dem 13-16 Jahrhundert 
crhaltenen Schriften sein Werk citert oder benutzt gefunden." It is, how 
ever, interesting in itself, and was translated into German, Spanish, and 
Bohemian. The author in the prologue makes the usual apology for the form 
of his work : " Secundum Aristotelis sententiam in Problematibus suis quam- 
quam in exemplis in discendo gaudeant omnes, in disciplinis moralibus hoc 
tamen amplius placet, quoniam structura morum ceu ymagine picta rerum simi 
litudinibus paulatim virtutis ostenditur. eo quod ex rebus natural ibus, animalibus, 
moribus et proprietatibus rerum quasi de vivis imaginibus humanae vitae qualitas 
exemplatur. Totus enim mundus visibilis est schola et rationibus sapientiae 
plena sunt omnia." A glance at the contents of the book will show that the 
author was more concerned with the moral of his fables than with the fables 
themselves. No attention, except in a few rare cases, is paid to the nature of 
the animals brought upon the scene, and they are made to utter the most arbitrary 
and incongruous lessons. Scarcely a thing to which the adjective fabulous will 
apply is to be found in the work. Graesse mentions only the story of Gyges 
(iii.. 4). the Indian gold mountains (iii., 10). and the death of the viper (iii., 
26 ; iv., 8, 10). which is found in all the liestlaires. There are also some fox- 
fables {e.g. i.. 24), which resemble some of the episodes of the Roman du Rcnart, 
and a number of the fables have a certain similarity to those in well-known 
collections. 

Of much greater literary interest, although by no means so profound or original. 

/a 



IxXXl v EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITKY. 

and professor of theology at Oxford, where he died of the plague 
in 1349, leaving a large number of commentaries on various books 
of the Bible, the best known one on the Wisdom of Solomon, 
which will be soon examined. The work in question is variously 
entitled : Liber de moralizationibus, or de moralitatibus, or Morali- 
tates, or Liber moralizationum historiarum* The exempla are 47 
in number (in the edition of 1586), and each is followed by an 



is the Dialogus Crcaturarum, attributed by Graesse, on the strength of an 
explicit in a Paris MS., to Mcolaus Pergamenus. an otherwise entirely unknown 
author. The subject of the authorship of this work is elaborately discussed by 
Pio Eajna in a learned article in the Giornale storlco della litteratura italiana, 
iii., 1, x., 42 (since published separately under the title, Intorno al cosiddetto 
Dialogus Creaturarum cd al suo autore, Turin. 1888). in which it is shown 
with reasonable certainty that the author was an Italian physician of Milan 
named Mayno do Mayneri, born between 1290 and 1295. The form of this work 
closely resembles that of the Speculum Saplcntiac ; there is the same apologetic 
prologue (not found in the MSS., and probably not by the author of the book), 
and the same arbitrary treatment of the subject ; but already the desire to interest 
has assumed prominence, and the fable proper is followed by a mass of sentences, 
anecdotes, etc. The work contains 122 dialogues not divided into books. The 
author was familiar with the whole range of mediaeval literature, including the 
classic authors popular at that time. He does not seem any more acquainted than 
Cyril with the great Oriental collections of fables as such, although separate fables 
from the Pantschatantra may have reached him through Occidental channels, as 
Graesso remarks, p. 304. Instead of the half-dozen fables in Cyril s work which 
may be compared with those of other collections, the Dialogus Creaturarum 
offers rich material for the student of comparative storiology. An English trans 
lation of this work was published, under the title The Dialogues of Creatures 
Moralysed. without place, date, or name of printer. Lowndes supposes it to have 
been printed, if not translated, by John Rastell. The Huth catalogue says it was 
probably printed at Paris, and later than 1520, the date assigned to the work in 
the catalogue of the British Museum. There is a reprint of this edition. London, 
1816, also very scarce, as about half of the limited edition (90 copies) was destroyed 
by fire. 

* The work occurs frequently in MS., see Oesterley s edition of the Gesta 
Romanorum, p. 246, where the bearing of Holcot s work on the Gesta Roman- 
ovum is considered. I have noticed the folloAving MSS. in the Brit. Mus. : Reg. 
6. E. iii., 55 ; Add. 27,583; Eg. 2258 (incomplete, fifteenth century). The work 
has been printed often : Venice, 1505 ; Paris, 1507, 1510, 1513, and at the end 
of the Libur Sapientiae, Basel. 1586, ed. llyter, which I possess. 



INTRODUCTION. LxXXV 

elaborate cxpositio moralis, or tropologia* The cxempla themselves 
aro of little interest, and are taken largely from classical sources 
(Ovid, Pliny, Valerius, ancient history, etc.). 

To the class of moralised stories belongs also the most famous 
of all mediaeval collections, the Gesta Romanorum, which is too 
well known to be examined here in detail, and which I shall 
briefly mention for the sake of completeness. No new light has 
been thrown on the question of the time and place of this remark 
able collection since Oesterley s edition of 1872. The results of 
this editor s painstaking investigations are chiefly negative.! 
This is not surprising to those who are acquainted with this kind 
of literature, and who know how impersonal and vague it is. It 
is nowhere stated that the Gesta Romanorum was compiled for the 
use of preachers, but it was probably intended for that purpose, 
although its arrangement is exceedingly inconvenient, and I do 
not know of any MS. or printed edition provided with a topical 
index. It is doubtful whether at the probable date of the com 
pilation (end of the xiiith or beginning of the xivth century) 
such a work could have been designed for the general reader. 
The Gesta Romanorum does, however, reveal a distinct tendency in 
that direction. The form of the stories has entirely changed from 
the bald versions in the older collections, and we have interesting 
stories, often of considerable length and narrated with no slight 
skill. More than this, the character of the stories has totally 
changed also, monkish tales are almost wholly lacking, Gregory 
and Caesar of Heisterbach are not once cited, the Vitae Patrum 
but twice. Over 90 of the 283 stories in Oesterley s edition are 
-Prom pagan (classical) sources. J 

* The number of the cxempla varies in the different MSS. and printed 
editions. In the Cod. Confluent, 116, cited by Oesterley. op. cit., p. 248, there are 
75 cxempla ; in the Paris edition, 1510, there are 52. 

j- They may be conveniently found by the English reader in Ilerrtage s intro 
duction to the Early English Versions of the Gesta Ilomanorum {Early English 
Text Society. Extra Series, xxxiii., 1879). 

It should be remembered that it was at the close of the thirteenth or 



EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

The connecting link, however, between the earlier collections 
and the class we are now examining is a work in which the 
exempla are arranged alphabetically according to topics, and 
frequently accompanied by a brief moralisation. The author 
names himself, in his prologue, " Frater Johannes Junior, ordinis 
fratrum predicatorum."* He nourished about the middle of the 
fourteenth century, and composed a work entitled Scala Celi 
(I have followed the mediaeval spelling of the word as it appears 
in all the printed editions), which he dedicated to Hugo do Colu- 
beriis, provost of the church of Aix (" sancte Aquensis ecclesie 
proposito").f 

This " Ladder to Heaven," the author says in the prologue, he 
composed so that by means of it, " Postposito alio studio terreno 
et curioso ascendamus ad contemplanda aliqua de eternis." The 
sides of the ladder are two, " Cognitio supernorum et amor eorum 
ex quibus excluduntur diversa peccata et secundantur virtutes." 
The rounds of the ladder are, u Diverse materie que secundum 
alphabeti ordinem contexuntur." Then follows the list of the 
books from which the author drew his material : Vitae Patmm 
Dialogues of Gregory, Legenda aurea, Historia scJiolastica, Jacques 
de Vitry s Speculum exemplorum, Jerome s Comment on the Bible, 
Vincent of Beauvais, Etienne de Bourbon, Mariale Magnum, Liber 
de vita et perfectionefratrumpraedicatorum, and AlpTiabetum narratio- 
num (Etienne de Besan9on s ?). He adds, " Verum aliquid interdum 



beginning of the fourteenth century that purely secular collections of stories were 
made. This is the date assigned to the Italian Novcllino by D Ancona (Studj di 
Critica e atoria letteraria, Bologna, 1880. p. 252), who assumes the influence of 
the Latin collections, especially of the work of which we are now speaking. 

* His surname was Gobii. and he was of a family from Alais, in the south of 
France, see Quetif and Echard, i., p. 633. 

| The name of this dignitary is omitted in the Gallia Christiana, according 
to Quetif and Echard, who place him between 1320 and 13G3. Hain cites editions 
of Liibeck, 1476 ; Ulm, 1480 ; Strassburg. 1483 ; Louvain, 1485 ; and Seville. 
1496. My copy, cited in the text, is the edition of Ulm (Hain. 9406), a reprint 
of the first. 



INTRODUCTION. IxXXVU 

inserui applicando ad mores vel recitando que ita conscripta non 
reperi ; sed in predicationibus aliorum audivi."* 

The work contains 122 chapters arranged alphabetically, accord 
ing to topics, e.g., abstinentia, accidia, adulatio, adulterium, etc. The 
exempla are not given independently, as in the earlier collections, 
but are connected by a very slender thread of discourse, too 
slender to make the book one of the class of systematic treatises 
to be treated presently. The moralisation (omitted in a great 
number of cases) is not formally introduced by such words as 
mistice, as in Odo de Ceritona, or moralizatio, as in the Gesta 
Romanorum, and is usually very brief .t The stories are usually 
given in an interesting form, and, in some cases, are taken from 
works now unknown. { 

A considerable number (47) of exempla in the Scala Cell are 
attributed to Jacques de Vitry, which are not to be found in the 
present edition. Some of these are contained in the MS. collection 
of Jacques de Yitry s exempla in the Bib. Nat., Paris, 18,134 (Scala 
Celt, fo. 37 VO = fo. 182 ro ). Others are anecdotes attributed to 

* Many other authorities are cited in the course of the work, although not men 
tioned in the prologue, among them Valerius Maximus, Petrus Alphonsi, Caesar 
of Heisterbach, Helinand, Petrus Damianus, Bede, etc. A large number of 
exempla, are introduced by a simple " legitur." 

f The following (fo. 6) is the explanation of the fable of the fox, crow, and the 
cheese (Jacques de Vitry, xci.) : Corvus est nobilis, vulpis est hystrio et adu 
lator, pecia carnis (vel caseum) sont bona temporalia ad que habenda fingunt 
dolos et mendacia." 

J This is the case with the curious version of the Seven Wise Masters found 
under Femina (fols. 87 vo -96) ; see Goedeke in Orient uncl Occident, iii., p. 385, 
where the version is reprinted from the edition of Liibeck, 1476. Still more 
interesting is that fact (which I first pointed out in 1885 in the Germania, vol. 
xviii. (N.F.), P- 203) that the Scala Ccli contains fragments of several fairy 
tales ; these are : fo. 54 (cited from fitienne de Bourbon), and fo. 99*, the latter 
an incomplete version of Grimm, Household Tales, No. 97, " The Water of 
Life." Another story of Grimm s, No. 124, " The Three Brothers " (comp. No. 
129, " The Four Skilful Brothers ") is also in the Scala Ccli, fo. 99. So far as 
I know, this is the first appearance of the Fairy Tale in modern European litera 
ture. 



Ixxxviii EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Jacques do Vitiy, of which, large numbers must have been in 
circulation in the last half of the thirteenth century, and many of 
which, as has already been said, may have been told by him in 
sermons preached in various parts of France and elsewhere, which 
have not been preserved.* 

* A number of these exempla extravagant la have been examined by K. 
Goedeke in Orient und Occident, i.. 543. It may be well to pass in review here 
all the stories in the Scala Cdi attributed to Jacques de Vitry, and not found in 
the present edition. Scala C eli, fo. 33 ro , from Vita B. M. Oign., Prolog, cap. v., 
fo. 37 VO , priest unable to say a single paternoster without thinking of horse 
promised him if he can control his thoughts, see Goedeke, in Orient und 
Occident, vol. cit., p. 543, no. 5 ; fo. 49, husband disguised as priest hears 
wife s confession, see Goedeke, loc. cit.. no. 7, Kirchhof, Wendunmuth, 3245 ; 
fo. 49 VO , sick man allowed to drink wine mixed with water ; takes wine first, 
does not care for water then, see Lecoy de la Marche, IS Esprit de nos Aieux, 
p. 84 ; fo. 55, woman dies in church from contrition, great light seen ascending 
to heaven ; fo. 55 VO , father commits incest with daughter, and kills wife ; 
is in turn killed by daughter, who, later, dies of contrition, see Etienne de 
Bourbon, 174. Gering, Islendzlt Aeventyri, ii., p. 395, Rccull de Eximplis. 
clxxvii., Passavanti, i., 133 ; fo. 57, a clerk of unclean life sees in a vision his 
name written often in the Book of Life, and as often blotted out on account of 
his sins ; fo. 62 VO , two stories illustrating the sinfulness of dancing ; fo. 63 VO , bees 
build a tabernacle of wax about a pyx lost by careless priest, a similar story is in 
Caesar of Heist., ix., 8. see also Prompt. Exemp., E., 36, Etienne de Bourbon, p. 
265, no. 317, and Thomas Cantipratanus, Bonum universale de apibits, 2, 40, 1 ; 
fo. 83, king extorts money from merchant, is advised by queen to bestow an equal 
amount upon the poor during a famine ; fo. 84, bishop in purgatory can only be 
released when his relatives give from his estate as much in alms as lie had 
expended in vanities ; fo. 84 VO , woman tempted to hang herself delivered by sound 
of bell at elevation of the Host ; fo. 85, executors likened to a black dog which 
carried food to a child ; fols. 100 VO -101, seven stories of thieves and robbers, one 
of which is found in Pauli, Anhang, 17 ; fo. 103 VO , a heretic feigns madness to 
escape the Inquisition and is chained in the church, other madmen break their 
chains and burn the pretended one ; fo. 104 VO , priest gets rid of minstrel, whose 
vigils the saint does not need ; fo. 104 V0 . thieves visit at night house of minstrel, 
who says he does not know what they can find there at night when he can find 
nothing by day ; this old joke is found also in Bebclius,bk. i.; fo. 107 VO , a certain 
wrathful count refused to forgive his humble servants and was destroyed by a 
thunderbolt ; fo. 126, three stories of physicians who cure their patients of 
gluttony ; fo. 12G VO , a knight tells his squire to exaggerate what he says at court ; 
when asked why he does not take off cap, knight says his head is somewhat 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxxlx 

Some idea of the popular character of the contents of the Sccda 
Celi may be formed from the fact that of the excmpla contained in 
it 40 are found in the Gesta Romanorum, 59 in Panli s, and 17 in 
Kirchhof s collections. The Scali Geli is after the Gesta Bomanorum 
the most interesting of all the medieval story books, and a selec 
tion of the stories not duplicated in the above-mentioned collec 
tions would be a valuable contribution to popular tales. 

In the works thus far considered the story has been the import- 
* ant thing, the morality something adventitious and perfunctory. 
In some cases the collector did not trouble himself to add the 
moralisation, but simply remarked at the end of his story: " Mo- 
raliza, sicut vis " (Odo de Ceritona, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 
708). We have now to consider a class of works in which the 
allegory assumes greater importance and the stories are introduced 
only by way of illustration. These works all belong to the domain 
of moralized natural history and are derived from the Physiologus 
mentioned above.* The earliest of these is the Bonum universalo 



sore, the squire says his whole head is scabby ; fo. 126 vn , a man whose house was 
burned down asked a neighbour to give him shelter, and then refuses to leave or 
rebuild his house ; fo. 127, horse jockey lies about his horse, see Pauli, 112. and 
Kirchhof, 1, 185 ; fos. 127-127 VO , five stories of knights, one is in Pauli, 93, another 
in Dialogue creaturarwn. 75, Bromyard, D. 12, 15, and nxemplog,25; fo. 180, a 
father forgives the reaper who innocently killed his son. and the image of Christ 
in the Church embraces and kisses the father, a variant of the legend of St. John 
Gualberto, the founder of the order of Vallombrosa ; fo. 133 VO , a story found also 
in Gcsammtalentheucr, 35 ; fos. 134-134 VO , four stories of women, one of which 
occurs also in Pauli, G57 ; fo. 135, a story found also in Pauli. 577 ; fo. 137, a 
dying monk drives away demons by his prayers ; fo. 166 V0 . a woman gives away 
all she has in charity : a hare miraculously brings her money ; fo. 166 V0 . a story 
found also in Etienne de Bourbon, 79, Islendzk Aeventyri, p. 124, Martinus 
Polonus, Prompt, viii., 1. ; fo. 168, two eagles carry off body of usurer who did 
not make restitution at death. 

* The history of the Physiologus has recently been written by Dr. Fricdrich 
Lauchcrt, Gcscliichtc (leg Physiologus, Strassburg, 1889. His treatment of that 
branch of tbe subject we are now considering is unsatisfactory, and the student 
must supplement it by the admirable work of J. V. Cams, Gcscliickte der 
Zoologic, Munich, 1872, and the special treatises soon to be mentioned. 



XC EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

de apibus by Thomas Cantipratanus, a Belgian Dominican.* He 
was born at Leeuw- St. -Pierre, near Liege, about 1210, and entered 
as canon the monastery of Augustinian monks at Cantimpre, near 
Cambray, whence the name by which he is usually known. His 
first writings were of a hagiographical character, consisting of lives 
of St. Christine (written in 1232) and St. Lutgarde (written in 
1247 or 1248). t He is, however, better known by his work De 
Naturis rerum, of which only the chapter on bees has been pub 
lished in the form of the Bonum universale (the date of the com 
position of which is doubtful, it was between 1245-1263). Thomas 
spent, he says, fifteen years on the work De Naturis rerum (1233- 
1248), attended the lectures of Albert the Great at Cologne, and 
visited Paris. The contents of his great work are given in Carus 
(op. cit. p. 213), and need not be repeated here. The portion pub 
lished is only a moralised paraphrase of a small part of the original 
work, and has no value whatever for natural history. It is, however, 
of the greatest importance for the history of the culture of the times. 
The work is divided into two books (containing respectively 
25 and 57 chapters), the first devoted to the prelates of the church, 
the second to the laity. Each chapter is headed by a statement 

* Material for the life and works of Thomas Cantipratanus may be found 
(besides the usual ecclesiastical historians, notably Quetif and Echard, i.. p. 250) 
in the notice by George Colvener prefixed to his edition of the Bonum universale, 
Douay, 1605 ; in Carus. op. cit., p. 211 ; Bormans, Bulletin de V Academic royale 
de Belgique, xix., l e Partie, 1852, pp. 132-159 ; P. Kirsch, DCS Thomas von 
Cliantimpre Buck der Wundcr und denkmurdigen Vbrlilder, Gleiwitz. 1875 ; 
and Hist. litt. de la France, xxx., p. 365 (L. Delisle. Traites divers snr les 
proprietcs deft clioses). The Bonum universale is a rare book. Hain registers 
but one edition (a copy of which is in the library at Wolfenbiittel). I have used 
an edition unknown to Hain at the Bib. Nat., Paris (Reserve D. 5685), printed at 
Paris evidently in the fifteenth century, but with no place, date, or printer. 
Quetif and Echard cite editions of Deventer, 1478 ; edition without year, place, 
or printer, perhaps German : Paris about same time ; edition of Colvener, Douay, 
1597, 1605. 1627. The second of the Colvener editions I possess and cite in text. 

f He is possibly the author also of the Supplementum ad vitam S. Mariae 
Oigniac., which has been examined above among the material for the life of 
Jacques de Vitry. 



INTRODUCTION. XC1 

concerning the natural history of the bee, which then is referred 
to some quality or duty of clergy or laity. An example or two 
will show this: Book i., chap. i. (ed. cit. p. 3), "Quod Praelatus 
debet esse bonae vitae et bonae famae. Cap. primum, quod in 
quinque partes dividitur. Rex apum mellei coloris est, ex electo 
flore, et ex omni copia factus." Then follows a disquisition upon 
the character of the prelate in general, in the midst of which is 
inserted the story of the wonderful election of Mauritius, bishop 
of Le Mans in France. Some other headings are: "Rex apum 
nullum habet aculeum, maj estate tantum armatus. Quod Praelatus 
debet esse clemens " (i. 4); "Apesquae aculeum perdunt, mella 
de cetero facere non possunt. De periculo carentium zelo correc- 
tionis " (ii. 17), etc. The number of illustrative stories is very 
great and their value consists in the fact that they are almost 
wholly of the nature of historical anecdotes the commonplaces of 
the older collectors of exempla being few in number (the exemplum 
de duolus amicis, p. 228, for example, is taken from Petrus Alphon- 
si s Disciplina clericalis, ed. Schmidt, p. 36). The exempla cover 
almost every condition of society and contain precious material 
for the history of superstitions.* 

The work of Thomas Cantipratanus called forth a century later 
a similar book, in which the ant takes the place of the bee. The 
author, Johannes Mder (or Nyder), was born at Isny, in Swabia, 
between 1380-90. f He was educated at the school of the Bene 
dictine monastery of his native place, and later entered the Domi- 

* A convenient analysis of the contents of the work in relation to the history 
of society may be found in the work of Paul Kirsch cited above. 

f Material for Nider s life may be found in the ecclesiastical biographers, and 
especially in the extensive work of K. Schieler, Magister Johannes Nider aus 
dem Orden dcr Prediger-B ruder, Mainz, 1885. Nider s own work, the Formi- 
carius, contains many biographical details, and the life in Quetif and Echard, i., 
p. 792, is made up almost exclusively from this source. The bibliography of the 
Formicariiis may be found in Schieler, p. 373. I own the Strassburg edition of 
1517, 4 to. edited by J. Wympfeling, which seems to be the best of the older 
editions ; and the last edition by Hardt, Helmstiidt, 1692. I have also used at 
Paris an edition apparently of the fifteenth century, without date, place, or 
printer, not cited by Hain. 



EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

nican order at Colrnar. His philosophical and theological studies 
were made at Vienna and Cologne, at which latter place he was 
consecrated priest. At some unknown date he visited the Council 
of Constance, and made a journey to the north of Italy, He 
then returned to Vienna, where he took his academic degree (in 
1425-26) and taught theology until called to JSTuremburg as prior 
in 1427. Four years later he was chosen prior at Basel, where 
the general council was held. He played an important part in 
this assembly, and undertook at its instance several legations. He 
abandoned the Council in disgust at the difficulties which arose in 
consequence of its reformatory tendency and opposition to the 
Pope (Eugene IV.), and gladly obeyed the call of his superiors to 
return to Vienna and resume his professorship of theology at the 
university. He died at Nuremburg in 1438, while on a journey 
for the affairs of his order. His life, although a short one, was 
unusually busy, and he played an important part in the reforma 
tion of the order to which he belonged. He was celebrated as a 
preacher, and wrote a number of works which enjoyed the greatest 
popularity. Among these were the Formicarius ; a work on the 
Decalogue ; Consolatorium timoratae conscientiae ; a work of ascetic 
nature in German, " Vier und zwanzig Guldin Harfen halten den 
nachsten Weg zum Himmel," and many sermons. The author, in 
the prologue, says that during his travels, especially in Germany, 
he has heard complaints that God did not fortify his church with 
miracles or revelations as formerly. These murmurs the author 
proposes to subdue by relating what miracles and revelations he 
has seen or heard during the present time or shortly before. The 
work which follows does not differ materially from the Bonum 
universale de apibus of Thomas Cantipratanus. It is in five books 
instead of two, and is thrown into the form of a dialogue between 
Pigcr (the " sluggard " of Proverbs vi., 6) and his master Theo- 
logus* The latter, in the first chapter, explains that there are 

* The subjects of the five books are : the extraordinary examples and works 
of good men ; of genuine good revelations ; of false and deceptive visions ; of 
the good works of the perfect ; of sorcerers and their deceits. 



INTRODUCTION, XClll 

sixty qualities or properties possessed by the ant, and proposes to 
discuss twelve of these in each book. The exempla are introduced 
from time to time to illustrate the master s precepts, and, like 
those in the Bomtm universale, are historical anecdotes, arid throw 
much light upon the history of mediaeval superstitions. This is 
especially true of book v.* 

The books of Thomas Cantipratanus and Nider are constantly 
cited as typical examples of the medieval passion for allegory. 
They are not, and the nature of the two Avorks is constantly mis 
understood. They are quasi-historical works, and the moralisa- 
tion does not at all affect the story, but serves simply as a frame 
work in which to enclose it. Their relation to other works derived 
from the Physiologus is also peculiar, for while the latter embrace 
usually the whole field of natural history, or some one extensive 
division of it (as zoology, etc.), the former are confined to a single 
example each from the particular branch of natural history 
selected by the authors. This is not the place to examine the 
remarkable series of works which, starting with the Physiologus, 
ended with such works of pure entertainment as Richard de 
Fournival s Bestiaire d Amour. Two compilations of an allegorical 
nature should, however, be mentioned briefly, as they were the 
storehouses from which preachers drew this class of material. 

The author of the first work to be mentioned was an English 
man, Alexander Neckam, born at St. Albans in 1157.f He was 
educated at Paris, and became Abbot of Cirencester in 1213. He 
died at Kempsey, near Worcester, in 1217. His most important 
work is the De Naturis rerum, and a Latin poem in ten distinc- 

* The whole of this book is published in the Malleus Maleficanim, ed. L. 
Zetzner, Frankfort, 1588, 2 vols. 8 V0 ., vol. i., pp. 694-806. It has lately been 
translated into Spanish and published in the BlUiotcca de las Tradiciones 
popularcs espanoltn, Madrid, 1881, in vols. ii., iii., iv. 

f The few details oi: his life may be found in the preface to Thomas Wright s 
edition of the De Naturis rcrum and Do laudilnis divinac Saplcntlao in the 
Rolls series, London, 1863. Neckani s fables in Latin verse may best be found in 
Hervieux, op. eit. ii., pp. 787-812. 



XC1V EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

tiones, De laudibus divinae sapientiae, which is a paraphrase of the 
prose work. As Neckam s work is easily accessible in Wright s 
edition, and as the editor has given an elaborate analysis of the 
whole work in the preface, it is not necessary to dwell upon it 
here. I may say, however, that in Neckam s work the allegorical 
tendency is subordinate, and the stress is laid upon the supposed 
scientific value of the contents. Mingled with the usual scraps of 
natural history borrowed from earlier writers are many interesting 
stories and references to contemporary superstitions.* 

Of more extensive range is a work by an Italian Dominican, 
Johannes de Sancto Geminiano, who nourished in the first half of 
the xivth century, and left a book entitled : Summa Magistri 
Johannes de Sancto Geminiano ordinis fratrum predicatorum de 
exemplis et similitudinibus rerum."\ This work was distinctly in 
tended for the use of preachers, as is shown by the incipit : 
" Incipit summa insignis ac perutilis predicatoribus de quacumque 
materia dicturis." It is encyclopeediac in its character, and dis 
cusses, in ten books, Heaven and the elements, metals and stones, 
vegetables and plants, fish and fowls, land animals, man and his 
members, visions and dreams related by the scriptures, canons and 
laws, artificers and things artificial, and human acts and manners. 
An illustration or two will show the character of the work. In 
Book III., 33, the just man is likened to the palm tree, and then 
follow five reasons : ibid. 34, the tears of the penitent are like the 
juice of the aloe, then follow the various properties of the aloe. 

The two works just mentioned belong, as has been seen, to the 
class of allegorical or moralised works dealing with natural his- 

* Ncckam s work De Naturls rerum contains, for example, the earliest 
reference to the Man in the Moon (ed. cit. p. xviii.). The great importance of 
the same work in the diffusion of the Virgil legend is too well known to dwell 
upon it here (see Tunison s Master Virgil, Cincinnati, 1890, p. 10). 

f In some of the earlier editions the work is attributed to a certain Helwicus 
Teutonicus, but even in these the author s true name is revealed in the course of 
the work (see Quetif and Echard, i., p. 528). The work was very popular. 
Hain registers six editions before 1500. My copy is Basel, 1199 (Hain, 7546). 



INTRODUCTION. XCV 

tory. It remains to notice briefly a work on natural history, in 
which the allegorical tendency is lacking. The book is mentioned 
here because, although not avowedly composed for the use of 
preachers, it was constantly cited by them. I refer to the De 
proprietatibus rerum of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, generally, but 
incorrectly, called Bartholomew Glaiiville. He was a Franciscan, 
born probably in England, as his surname would seem to show, 
but who lived in France and flourished between 1226 and 1248.* 
The work is divided into nineteen books, and embraces, besides 
natural history, geography, phenomena of nature, the angelic 
hierarchy, etc. Although it has no real scientific worth, merely 
repeating the ideas of earlier writers, it is an advance over the 
works just mentioned, f 

3. Besides the above collections of exempla, with or without 
moralisations, there are certain systematic treatises for the use of 
preachers which also contain large numbers of exempla. The 
earliest and most interesting (from the author s connection with 
Jacques de Vitry) is the work of Etienne de Bourbon, a Dominican 
of the thirteenth century, whose treatise, for reasons soon to be 
mentioned, is generally known as the Liber de septem donis Spiritus 
sancti.^ The real title is : Tractatus de diversis materiis predicabi- 
libus ordinatis et distinctis in septem paries, secundum septem dona 

* Nothing was known with certainty of Bartholomew until L. Delisle estab 
lished the facts mentioned above in his article in the Hist. litt. de la France, 
xxx., p. 355 (" Traites divers sur les proprietes des choses "). The work was 
exceedingly popular (Hain registers twenty-six editions before 1500, including 
the various translations) and was early translated into French. English, Dutch, 
and Spanish. My copy is Strassburg, 1505, 4to. 

f If space permitted I should like to show the influence of the works mentioned 
in the last section upon works composed in the modern languages of Europe. The 
field is too extensive, however, and I must pass over without a mention the long 
series of Sestiaires and Lapidairef, and such works as the Poeme moralise siir 
les propribtbs des choses (see Delislc s article just cited, p. 388. and Romania, 
xiv., p. 442). 

Etienne s work has been partially edited by A. Lecoy de la Marche for the 
Societe de Vhistoire de France under the title : Anecdotes historiques, Ugcndes 
et apologues tires du recuell inedit d Etienne de Bourlon. Paris, 1887. The 



XCV1 EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Spiritus sancti, etc.* The work unhappily is incomplete, the 
author having been arrested, probably by death, in the midst of 
the fifth division. So we have (in the inverse order in which they 
are given in the Yulgate) the divisions concerning the gifts of 
fear, piety, knowledge, might, and about the half of counsel ; the 
gifts of understanding and wisdom are lacking. The exempla are 
connected by a running comment, which sometimes is merely 
accessory, and sometimes assumes the proportions of an inde 
pendent treatise. Etienne de Bourbon, himself an inquisitor and 
preacher of the crusade against the Albigenses, was naturally 
brought into contact with Jacques de Vitry, whom he constantly 
cites as one from whom he had heard many of his exempla.^ 
What, however, distinguishes Etienne de Bourbon s work, and 
imparts to it a great and peculiar value, is the large number of 
exempla drawn, not from the usual magazines, but from the writer s 
own experience. Many deal with the superstitions of the day, 
and are thus a precious source for the history of this branch of 
mediaeval folk-lore. As they are now accessible in Lecoy de la 
Marche s edition, I shall dwell no longer on this most interesting 
and valuable work. 

Etienne de Bourbon s treatise was extremely popular and is 
constantly cited (as Liber de septem donis Spiritus sancti, or, more 
commonly, from the subject of the first division, Liber de dono 
timoris) in all later collections, and was the medium through 
which Jacques de Vitry s stories obtained a wide circulation. It 
also called forth an imitation known as Liber de abundantia 

editor has included (with rare exceptions) only the exempla which Etienne relates 
de visu or de auditu. A sufficient life of Etienne de Bourbon will be found in 
the edition just cited, see also Quetif and Echard, i.. pp. 184-194, where are given 
the prologue (partly) and copious extracts from the work. 

* See Isaiah, xi., 2, 3. In the Authorized Version the sixth gift, *pi/rituspietatif, 
is omitted. 

f The large number of Jacques de Vitry s excmpla, cited by Etienne, may be 
seen from the second index of this work, and others are, probably, to be found in 
the portion of Etienne s work not edited by Lecoy de la Marche. 



INTRODUCTION. XCV11 

exemplorum, attributed, without cause, to Albert the Great.* 
This work is based upon the first division of Etienne de Bourbon s 
treatise, de dono timoris, which it closely follows. t A widespread 
influence was exerted by the work of another French Dominican, 
William Perrault, or Perauld, or Guilelmus Peraldus (or 
Paraldus), as he is usually termed, who died about 1275. J He 
was administrator of the diocese of Lyons during the absence of 
the archbishop, Philip of Savoy, whence Peraldus is supposed by 
some to have been suffragan bishop or co-bishop. He wrote a 
number of sermons and treatises, the best known of which is the 
one entitled : Summa virtutum ac vitiorum. The work, as the 
title indicates, is a treatise upon the virtues and vices, and is 
divided into two parts. The first part is subdivided into five 
treatises : of virtue in general ; of the three theological virtues 
(faith, hope, charity) ; of the four cardinal virtues ; of gifts ; and 
of the beatitudes. Each of these treatises is still further divided 
into a multitude of sections treating of forty virtues, or re 
lated topics. The second part consists of nine treatises on vice 
in general, gluttony, sensuality, avarice, sloth, pride, envy, wrath, 

* There is but one edition of this work, of which I possess a copy, without place, 
year, or printer (Hain, 484. Ulm. J. Zainer). The question of the authorship of 
the work is discussed by B. Haureau in the Hist. lift, de la France, xxix. 546 
(see note by writer of this Introduction in The Academy, Feb. 20, 1886). The 
work is also attributed with greater reason to Humbertus de Romanis, see Quetif 
and Echard, i., pp. 147, 186. 

f It is impossible from the nature of Lecoy de la Marche s edition to compare 
the two works exactly ; but apparently the Liber de abundantla exemplorum has 
no independent value, and has borrowed its materials almost entirely from Etienne 
de Bourbon. This is also the case with the Promptuarium of Martinus Polonus 
mentioned above (iv.. i). 

t Tor life of Peraldus see Hist. lltt. de la France, xix., 307. An elaborate 
article is to be found in Quetif and Echard. i., pp. 131-136, especially valuable for 
the bibliographical notice which it contains. 

Contemporary MSS. are very common (Quetif and Echard, i., p. 132 : " Sum- 
mae intcgrae innumera prostant in Bibliothecis MS. exempla." The first printed 
edition with a date is Cologne, II. Quentell. 1479 (Hain, 12, 387). My copy is 
Cologne, 1629. and is provided with excellent indexes. 



XCV111 EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

and sinful speech. Forty-one vices, or kindred subjects, are 
treated in the second part. The author s method is the one 
generally followed in such works and in their later imitations 
(examples of which will be mentioned in the following section), 
and consists in stringing together sententious extracts from 
Christian and pagan authorities. The use of exempla is not so 
frequent as in later writers, and the chief sources are the Vitae 
Patrum and Gregory s Dialogues.* The work of Peraldus is also 
of value for the history of mediaeval culture, see, for example, in 
the second part (De superbia, p. 213) many interesting details in 
regard to women s dress, use of rouge, false hair, etc.t 

"We have already examined the Liber moralizationum Mstoriarum 
of Robert Holkot, whose treatise or commentary on the Wisdom of 
Solomon (Opus super sapientiam Salomonis, or Praelectiones ccxiii. 
in librum sapientiae regis Salomonis) deserves mention here.J The 

* A few exempla not in these two works may be mentioned here : Part i., 
p. 108, legend of Theophilus ; p. 213, ape tears off woman s false hair (see 
Bourgoin, La cliairefranqa i&e, etc., p. 12, n. 4 ; the same story is in fttienne de 
Bourbon, p. 228); p. 227, scholar at Paris ashamed of his father, who in return 
refuses to give him any money, Pauli, 643 ; p. 307, true son refuses to shoot at 
father s body, G-esta Rom., 45. 

f For the extensive use of Peraldus s work by Brunetto Latini (in his Trcsor ) 
see Sundby, Brunetto Latinos Levnet og Skrifter, Copenhagen, 1869, p. 187. 
The influence of the Summa may also be seen in the work of Nicolaus de 
Hanapis (or Hanapus) : Virtutum v\tiorumc[uc exempla ex imiversae divinac 
scripturae promptuario desumpta. The author was also a French Dominican, 
who became bishop of Acre (1288) and patriarch of Jerusalem, dying at Acre in 
1291. For details of his life see Quetif and Echard, i., p. 422, and Hist. lift, do 
la France, xx., pp. 61-78, 785-786. The work abounds in MS., and was 
frequently printed. I have the edition of Antwerp, 1535. An elaborate analysis 
and bibliography of the work may be found in the Hist. lltt. de la France, vol. 
cit., pp. 64-78. As the title indicates, the work consists of the events of the 
Scriptures arranged under various headings for convenience of reference. The 
events are given in the baldest form, and the author seldom adds a remark of 
his own. 

% llain registers eight editions before 1500. 1 have the third mentioned by him 
(8757), Spires. Peter Drach, 1483, and also the edition of Basel, 1586. ed. J. 
Eyter, referred to earlier, containing the Liber moralizationum liistoriarum. I 
shall cite the last-named edition as the more accessible. 



INTRODUCTION. XC1X 

work consists of 213 lectiones (postillas), as they were earlier called, 
remarkable for the extraordinary number of citations from pagan 
authorities, especially the poets. The work is a vast repertory of 
exempla and historical anecdotes embedded in the most elaborate 
metaphors. A good example of Holkot s method may be found in 
the Lectio Ixiv., where he discusses chap, v., v. 9-10 of his text: 
" All those things are passed away like a shadow, and as a post 
that hasteth by ; and as a ship that passeth over the waves, which, 
when it is gone by, the trace thereof cannot be found, neither the 
pathway of the keel in the waves." As there are three kinds of 
sin, original, venial, and mortal, so there are three kinds of 
shadows corresponding in shape to the cylinder, cone and inverted 
cone (chilindroydes, conoydes and calathoydes) . In speaking of the 
simile of the ship, Holkot quotes from Jerome s epistles, cxv., the 
story of Xerxes weeping because none of those he beheld at a 
review of his army would be alive in a hundred years. He then 
compares penitence to a ship on account of its figure, capacity for 
carrying, and possibility of wreck. This affords Holkot an oppor 
tunity, after citing Job, Boethius, and Gregory, to describe the 
Sirens and Ulysses adventure with them. His sources are, as he 
states, Alexander in scintillario poesis (this is Alexander Neckham, 
see Leyser, Hist, poetarum et poematum medii aevi, Halle, 1721, 
p. 993), and Boethius, de Consoled, iii., 3. In the third lectio, 
Holkot mentions Alexander and the pirate (Gesta Rom., 146) ; in 
the ninth occurs the fable of Jupiter and the farmer (La 
Fontaine, vi., 4) ; in the fourteenth, the story of Atalanta (Gesta 
Rom., 60), cited from Ovid ; in the forty-fifth, the story of the two 
snakes (Gesta Horn., 92), cited from Valerius Maximus, 4, 6, 1 ; 
in the seventieth, the sword of Damocles (Gesta Rom., 143), 
cited from Macrobius, Somn. Scip., i., 10 ; in the eighty- second, the 
poisoned wine (Gesta Rom., 88), cited from Frontinus, Strateg. 2, 
5, 12 ; in the eighty-sixth, the judge flayed (Gesta Rom., 29), cited 
from Helinandus, Bk. xv. ; in the one hundred and thirteenth, the 
ring of forgetfulness and memory (Gesta Rom., 10, of the Emperor 



C EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Vespasian), cited from "magister in historiis super Exodus," the 
story is told of Moses ; in the one hundred and thirty- seventh, 
story of Merlin ; in the one hundred and forty-first, the story of 
Phalaris and the brazen bull (Gesta Rom., 48), cited from Ovid; 
in the one hundred and fifty-sixth, story of Narcissus (from Ovid) 
and Paris ; in the one hundred and seventy-fifth, the story of 
Coriolanus (Gesta Rom., 137), cited from Val. Max., 5, 4, 1 ; in the 
one hundred and eighty- eighth, the fable of the animals and the 
plague (La Fontaine, vii., 1) ; in the one hundred and ninetieth, 
the legend of Silvester II. (Grerbert) ; ibid., wax image of husband 
shot at by wife s lover (Gesta .Rom., 102). I have mentioned but 
a few of the stories most popular during the Middle Ages, and the 
above citations can give only a feeble idea of the mass of historical 
and mythological references to be found in this work of Holkot. 

The most extensive and important work of the class we are now 
considering is without doubt the Summa Praedicantium of John 
Bromyard.* The author was an English Dominican, who took 
his name from his birthplace in Herefordshire.! He was educated 
at Oxford, where he was celebrated as both jurist and theologian, 
and later was professor of theology at Cambridge. He was an 
ardent opponent of "Wyclif, and is said to have opposed him at 
the fourth Council of London (1382). His name, however, does 
not appear in the lists of those present. He died in 1418, leaving 
besides the Summa some writings against Wyclif, theological 
treatises, and a work entitled Opus trivium sive tractatus juris civilis 

* The first edition, of which I have a copy, is without year, place, or printer 
(probably 1485, Basel, see Hain. 3993). Other editions are : Nuremburg. 1485, 
1518, 1578; Paris, 1518 ; Lyons. 1522; Venice, 1586; and Antwerp, 1614. I 
have also a copy of the last-named edition, to which, for greater convenience, 
reference is here made. 

f The most recent account of Bromyard will be found in the Dictionary of 
National Biography under John de Bromyarde, where the various ecclesiastical 
historians are cited, see also Goedeke in Orient und Occident, i. p. 537, and 
Wright in the preface to Latin Stories, p. viii. A list of Bromyard s other 
works will be found in Quetif and Echard, i., p. 701. and a few additional ones 
in Pits. 



INTRODUCTION. Cl 

et canonici ad moralem sensum applicati secundum ordinem alphabet! 
(ascribed in the earlier editions to Philip de Bronnerde, but in 
the Paris edition of 1500 to Joannes Bromyard). 

Some idea of the extent of the Summa Praedicantium may be 
formed, from the fact that the edition of 1614 consists of two parts 
containing 971 folio pages, exclusive of the indexes. The arrange 
ment is the usual one by topic in alphabetical order. There are 
nineteen letters (or twenty-one, distinguishing j and v) comprising 
189 topics in as many chapters. The author says in the prologue : 
" In hoc etiam opuscule non videtur vanum dicta et exempla 
insereredediversisfacultatibus .... Nam de f abularum Grentilium 
moralitate forma quandoque eruditionis elicitur, et fas etiam est 
ab hoste doceri, et ditare Hebraeos de spoliis Aegyptiorum etc." 
(ed. cit., p. 2). Bromyard s exempla are culled from every imagin 
able source, profane and sacred, and belong to every class of 
fiction from fables to jests. They are, as is usual in works of this 
order, given in brief and dry versions, to be expanded undoubtedly 
at the will of the preacher. The sources are not cited, unless the 
exemplum belongs to the class of historical anecdotes. 

It is impossible here to give even a brief selection from the 
enormous number of exempla contained in Bromyard.* Those 
cited by Wright in his Latin Stories will give those who do not 
have access to the original some idea of its varied contents, and a 
glance through Oesterley s references to his editions of Pauli, 
Kirchhof, and the Gesta Romanorum, will show that Bromyard 
has absorbed into his vast encyclopaedia most of the popular 
stories of his day.t As Wright (op. cit. p. viii.) well says: 

* Goedeke, op. cit., p. 538, says their number is over a thousand, and remarks : 
" Kaum irgend ein anderes Werk des Mittelalters ist so reich an Fabeln und 
Geschichten als das seinige, und kaum ein anderes von dieser Bedeutung so 
wenig bekannt." 

f About one hundred and fifty of Bromyard s stories are found in those collec 
tions, and of the one hundred and fifty-nine stories given by Wright, over fifty 
are taken from Bromyard, and eleven from the Promptuariwn Excm^iUrwn of 
Herolt. 



Cll EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

" Perhaps no work is more worthy the attention of those who are 
interested in the popular literature and history of England in the 
fourteenth century." 

Finally may be mentioned a treatise by Gottschalk Hollen 
(whose sermons have already been examined in the third section 
of this Introduction) on the Decalogue, under the title : Pre- 
ceptorium novum et perutile cum suo registro clero et vulgo deserviens 
studiosissime collection* Exempla are rather sparingly used by 
Hollen (especially in the second part, which contains command 
ments iv-x), and the most interesting and valuable part of the 
work is the portion treating of the first commandment, which 
contains some material of importance for the study of necromancy. 
Caesar of Heisterbach, Gregory, Valerius Maximus, and Vincent 
of Beauvais are cited, and I have found one fable (fo. Ixxxvi.), 
" Ass caressing master" (Jacques de Vitry, xv.).t This work of 
Hollen does not, however, compare in value and interest with his 
sermons. 



V. 

Collections of exempla not in Latin, but based upon the Latin 
collections and intended for the edification of the general 
reader. 

Although the work of Valerius Maximus, the Vitae Patrum and 
the Dialogues of Gregory offered earlier models of collections of 
historical anecdotes and edifying stories, still the arrangement of 
the great Latin collections, described in section ivth, was so 

* The Preceptorium, was the most popular of Hollen s works. Hain registers 
six editions before 1500. The Allgemeine dcutsclic Blog. cites, on the authority 
of Ossinger. two later ones. 1503, 1521 ; the Bodleian has the one of Nuremburg. 
1521, 4to. My copy is Cologne, 1481, Johan Guldenschacf (Hain, 87G6), with 
out the index, which some editions possess. 

f Of the exempla in the Preceptorium, fifteen are in the Gesta Romanorum, 
twenty-five in Pauli, and two in Kirchhof. 



INTEODUCTION. Clll 

convenient, and their vogue so enormous, that they must have led 
at an early date to the formation of similar collections in the 
vernacular, not for the use of preachers exclusively, but for the 
edification of the general reader. We shall see in the course of 
the present section that the Latin collections were sometimes 
translated in their entirety ; but most of the works which we are 
about to examine are imitations and not translations. 

The best and most extensive of these collections in the 
vernacular are found in Spain, a land early distinguished for its 
fondness for moral stories and the important role it played in 
introducing Oriental fiction into Europe.* The first Spanish 
collection is known as El Libro de los Enseemplos, and was first 
published by Don Pascual de Gayangos in Rivadeneyra s 
Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles, vol. li., pp. 443-542 (Madrid, 
1860). It contains 395 stories alphabetically arranged; but as 
the first begins with the letter c it was evident that the collection 
was incomplete. The missing stories as well as the name of the 
compiler were discovered in 1878 by M. Morel-Fatio in a MS. of 
the Bib. Nat. of Paris (No. 432, Fonds espagnol), and published 
in the Romania, vol., vii. (1878), pp. 481-526. The stories lacking 
in the Madrid edition are 71 in number, and the compiler proved 
to be Climente Sanchez, archdeacon of Valderas in the diocese of 

* The scope of this Introduction permits of only a passing allusion to the oldest 
of Occidental story-books, the Disclplina clcricalis of Petrus Alphonsi (or per 
haps, more correctly, Alfonsi), a Spanish Jew, converted to Christianity in 1105. 
The Di&ciplina clcricalis has been edited three times (see p. 144 of present work, 
to which may be added the reprint of the edition of the Socicte dcs Bib.franqais 
in Migne s Patrol. Lat., vol. civil., p. 071); but is now hard to find, and worthy 
of a new and more perfect edition. The stories it contains are among the most 
popular of the Middle Ages and are found in numberless other collections. A 
brief analysis may be found in Ellis, Specimens of Early English Metrical 
Romances, i., p. 133. 

Other Spanish Jews also acted as intermediaries between Oriental and Occi 
dental fiction, and to them are due the important translations of the Pant- 
scliatantra (Calila e Dymna) and of the Seven Wise Masters (Libro de los 
Engannos). 



CIV EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Leon, who was born about 1370, and made his collection between 
1400-1421. The work is alphabetical, and each story bears a 
Latin title followed by a Spanish metrical translation (usually in 
rhyme) of the same. In the brief prologue Sanchez says : 
" Proponia de copilar un libro de exemplos por a, 6, c, e despues 
reduzirle en romance, porque non solamente a ti mas ahun a los 
que no saben latin fuese solaz, por ende con ayuda de Dios comien9o 
la obra que prometi : In nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti. 
Amen. Exempla enim ponimus, ectiam exemplis utimur in do- 
cendo et predicando ut facilius intelligatur quod dicitur." It will 
be seen how closely these words connect this collection with the 
Latin AlpJiabeta exemplorum examined in section iv., 1, and of one 
of which Morel-Fatio supposes it a translation, although he has 
found no original with which it exactly agrees.* " 

The sources of a considerable number of stories in the Libro de 
los Enxemplos are mentioned, many are introduced merely by the 
words, " we read " (leyesse), or " it is said " (dizen). About one 
quarter of the whole number are taken from four works, as fol 
lows : Petrus Alphonsi, Disciplina clericalis, 26 ; Vitae Patrum, 18 ; 
Gregory, Dialogues, 35 ; Valerius Maximus, 27. Many for which 
no source is cited are also from the same authors, and 20 are found 
in the Gesta Romanorum. The remaining stories are from the usual 
sources, the mediaeval chronicles and legendaries, Isidor of Seville, 
Barlaam and Josaphat, etc., and 57 occur in Jacques de Vitry. 
How many of these were taken directly from Jacques de Vitry, 
whose name is never mentioned, it is difficult to say. In some 
cases where the same story is found in Etienne de Bourbon, his 
version is used. In general the story is more developed than in 

* Morel-Fatio s reasons for supposing it to be a translation are : the absence of 
extracts from national writers, and the author s failure to impart a local colour to 
his stories. This supposition is undoubtedly true in view of my discovery of the 
source of the similar Catalan collection, to be mentioned presently. For notices 
of the Libro da los Enxcmplos, see Puymaigre. Lcs vieux autettrs castiUans, ii., 
p. 444, Amador de los Kios, Hist. crit. dc la lit. espanola, iv., p. 305. and II. 
Knust in Jahrbuchfiir rom. und eng. Lit., vi., p. 128. 



INTEODUCTION. CV 

Jacques de Vitry, and an effort is evidently made to give it an 
entertaining form. A certain number (for which see Notes) are 
undoubtedly from Jacques de Vitry. The collection, as a whole, is 
extremely entertaining, and is distinguished by the substitution of 
classical and historical anecdotes for the monkish tales which 
form such a large part of the earlier collections. 

The second collection from Spain is even more extensive and 
interesting. It is contained in the Biblioteca catalana of D. 
Mariano Aguilo y Fuster, and bears the title, Recull de eximplis e 
miracles, gestes e faules e altres ligendes ordenades per A, .5, C, tretes 
de un manuscrit en pergami del comengament del segle xv., ara per la 
primera volta estampades* The number of stories in this collec 
tion is 709, and they do not differ in character from those in the 
work last examined, but are generally given in somewhat more 
condensed versions. The arrangement is alphabetical, each story 
is headed by a title in Catalan, in which the source of the 
story is usually mentioned (e.g., " seguns que recompta Jacme 
de Vitriaco ; " " seguns ques recompta en la vida dels sancts 
Pares," etc.). This title is followed by a briefer one in Latin, 
which gives the alphabetical arrangement (e.g., " Abbas quantum 
potest debet petitiones revocare," etc.). The bulk of the contents 
is taken from the following works : Jacques de Vitry, 55 ; Vitae 
Patrum, 80; Caesar of Heisterbach, 137; Helinandus, 13 ; Valerius 
Maximus, 19 ; Petrus Alphonsi, 12 ; Etienne de Bourbon, 38 ; 
Legenda aurea, 28 ; Gregory, 39. Other sources are : Petrus 
Damianus, Bede, Seneca, Barlaam, and Josaphat, Cassiodorus, 
Peter of Cluny, etc. The stories from Jacques de Vitry are taken 
directly from him as will be seen presently. Nine are from his 

* There is no title page or introduction ; the publisher, however, is A. Ver- 
daguer, Barcelona. 1881. The date of the second volume is, I believe, 1888. 
All that I know of the MS. from which the work is printed is the statement in 
the title that it is a parchment one of the fifteenth century. M. Morel-Fatio, in 
a brief review of the work in the Romania, x., p. 277, says that, judging by the 
language, the date of the compilation of the collection is about the same as that 
of the MS. used by the editor. 



CV1 EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

life of St. Mary of Oignies ; eight are not in the present edition of 
Jacques de Vitry, and are as follows (see stories attributed to Jacques 
de Vitry in the Scala Celt, page Ixxxviii., of this Introduction) : 
Ixxi., "A preacher saw a devil in church and asked him what he 
was doing there ; he answered he was keeping sinners hearts from 
repenting, their lips from confessing, and their purses from alms 
giving ;" Ixxii., " When a man, who would not hear sermons while 
alive, is buried, the figure of Christ on the crucifix stopped its ears 
so as not to hear prayers offered for him (this story is cited from 
J. de V. by the Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, "Verbum Dei," 
viii.); clxxvii., " Daughter commits incest with father," etc., see 
Scala Geli, fo. 55 VO ; ccxxi., " Some are so devout that they are ill for 
many years from the intensity of their contemplations; " ccxxxi., 
" A learned man said he had three masters : fear, shame, and 
love ;" cclxix., " Hog refuses to eat bread of excommunicated 
man," see Scala Celi, fo. 85 VO ; dxl., "Monk thought that since man 
could not live without sin, he could not be saved ;" dlxxxiv., " A 
man prefers a long" illness to passing two days in purgatory." 

We have seen that M. Morel-Fatio supposed the Libro de los 
Enxemplos to be a translation of one of the Latin collections, 
although he could not point out the original. This supposition is, 
as has already been said, strengthened by the fact that the Recull 
de eximplis is such a translation, and that I have been fortunate 
enough to discover the original. 

Among the various Latin collections examined in section iv., 1, 
none seems to have been so popular, and justly so, as the Alpha- 
betum narrationum of Etienne de Besan9on, and this is the work 
which some unknown translator turned into Catalan in the xvth 
century. His version follows the original, so far as I can judge, 
with great fidelity. The few variations in order and number of 
stories from the MSS. of Stienne de Besanon s work which I 
have been able to examine (Brit. Mus., Harl. 268 ; Paris, Bib. 
Nat., 12,402, 15,255) are probably due to variations in the MS. 
used by the Catalan translator. As the work of Etienne de 



INTRODUCTION. CV11 

Besanon is not likely ever to be edited, the Catalan translation 
offers a faithful reproduction of one of the most extensive and 
interesting of the great Latin collections of exempla. 

Before leaving Spain it may be well to mention briefly the 
Libro de los Gatos, in Rivadeneyra s Biblioteca de autores espanoles, 
li., pp. 543-560, a short (58) collection of edifying tales, mostly 
fables, of about the same date as the two works mentioned above, 
and which is a Spanish translation of the Narrationes of Odo de 
Ceritona, described in section iv., 2.* 

There is a short collection of edifying stories in Portuguese 
contained in a MS. formerly of the monastery of Alcoba9a, now in 
the Torre do Tombo.t Twenty-four have been published by 
Cornu in the Romania, xi., pp. 381-390. They are taken from the 
Scriptures, Gregory, Vitae Patrum, life of St. Bernard, etc. Seve 
ral are found also in Jacques de Yitry (7=:ccci., 9=icxxxiv., 16=: 
civ., 24 ccxii.). The word used to signify story is exemplo, which 
thus connects this compilation with the earlier Latin ones. 

Italy was especially prolific in legends, and other devotional 
literature in the vernacular, during the xiiith and xivth cen 
turies. J The traces, however, of the influence of the Latin collec 
tions of exempla are very slight. The most extensive collection 
with which I am acquainted is that contained in the Brit. Mus. 
MS. Add. 22,557, of the first half of the xivth century, published 
by Ulrich in the Romania, xiii., pp. 27-57. It contains 56 ex- 

* For analysis of the Libra de los Gatos, see Knust in JaUrb.filr rom. und 
cng. Lit., vi., pp. 1, 119 ; and for proof of identity with Odo de Ceritona, see 
Oesterley in same periodical, vol. ix., p. 126. 

f For description of the MS. of the fourteenth century, see Cornu in the 
Romania, x., p. 334. The stories in question occupy fols. 137 ro -169 v . and are 
divided into five chapters : On the hour of death, of carnal sin, of chastity, of 
the day of judgment, and of hell. 

J For bibliography of these, see F. Zambrini, Le opere volgari a stampa del 
secoli xiii. e ociv. I have used the fifth edition, Bologna, 1878. 

The language of the esempi is old Venetian, and has been made the subject 
of an inaugural dissertation by L. Donati, Halle, 1889, reviewed in the Giornale 
storico delta lett. ital., vol. xv., p. 257. 



CV111 EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

empli, arranged in no particular order. Nine are found in Jacques 
de Vitiy, as follows : lOnzcxcvi., 16 = cxiv. (this story first occurs 
in Turpin s Historia Karoli Magni, ed. Castets, Paris, 1880, cap. 
p. 10, and is cited by Helinandus in his Chronicon, An. 807, ed. 
vii., Migne, p. 850, thus obtaining a still wider circulation), 26m 
cclxxxix., 32=ixxxi., 36=:ccxlix., 39=cxxxv.,44 Ixxxii., 47=:xxv., 
53=:cxci. (add to references in text Hist. litt. de la France, xxiii., 
p. 206). There is no reason to suppose that these exempla were 
taken from Jacques de Vitry, but more likely from a common 
source. The other stories are the usual monkish tales from 
Gregory, Vitae Patrum, etc.* 

The collection of Italian esempi, published under the title Gli 
assempri di Fra Filippo da Siena, Siena, 1864, offers little interest. 
The author was an Augustinian monk and prior of the convent of 
Lecceto, where he died in 1422. His assempri are 62 in number, 
and are almost exclusively monkish legends in the style of Caesar 
of Heisterbach, and are remarkable chiefly for the number of 
variations of the Theophilus legend, which they contain. Usurers 

* I have examined the Florentine libraries for collections of exempla in Italian 
with the following meagre results : Riccardiana, MS. K. iii., xxviii. [352], a 
brief collection, in four folios: P. III. xxxiv. [26-24], a brief collection, among 
the stories that of Jacques de Vitry, cxcvi. ; MS. 2735, a few esenypi from 
various sources, Valerius Maximus, etc., of no importance ; MS. 2894 (dated 
1460). fo. 115, a more extensive collection of esempi ; MS. 1700 (fifteenth 
century), fols. 1-70. an extensive collection of esempi, beginning defective : 
there are about 30 stories in this collection, among them " the convent of 
demons," attributed to J. de V. by Etienne de Bourbon, 79, and Scala Cell, 
166 VO ; " St. Andrew delivers bishop from wiles of the devil," from Legenda 
aurea (ed. Graesse, p. 19) ; " two companions go on a pilgrimage to St. James, 
and one slew the other ; " " three monks were two hundred years in Paradise, 
and it did not seem to them that they had been there a week." In the same MS. 
fols. 103-113, there is another brief collection of esempi. 

A few Sicilian cscmpli (of the fourteenth century) are given in the Propv~ 
gnatore, vol. ix., p. 197, among them (p. 198) the fable of ass wishing to caress 
master (Jacques de Vitry, xv.). Three other Sicilian csempli are to be found in 
Di Giovanni, Filologla e letteratura siciliana, Palermo, 1871, i. p. 120, and five 
additional ones in the same work, vol. iii., p. 54. 



INTEODUCTION. C1X 

are bitterly attacked, as are also women who paint their faces. 
The only story of general interest is that of the monkey which 
threw usurer s gold into the sea (Panli, 375), and the only trace 
of poetry is the legend of the Flight into Egypt, where the touch 
of Jesus foot causes a spring of water to gush forth to refresh the 
thirsty family. 

A very considerable number of exempla are found in the class of 
treatises, the Latin forms of which have already been examined. 
Only a few of the most important can be mentioned here. 

At some time in the xivth century an unknown monk of the 
Camaldolite monastery Degli Angeli compiled a treatise entitled 
Corona de" 1 Monad, based upon the Latin Diadema Monachorum, 
attributed to the Abbot Smaragdus, a celebrated French Benedic 
tine of the ixth century.* The Italian version follows the original 
(which may be found in Migne s Patrol. Lat., vol. cii., p. 593) 
exactly in the number and titles of the chapters, and the contents, 
except exempla, are in the main a close translation of the original, 
somewhat condensed, to which are added the exempla, a feature 
peculiar to the Italian version. The work was primarily intended 
for the edification of monks and recluses (romiti), and is divided 
into one hundred chapters, containing, according to the rubric, one 
hundred and thirty exempla. In reality there are many more, for 
sometimes under one heading esemplo are narrated several. These 
are drawn mostly from the Vitae Pair urn, and offer a very re 
stricted interest. Nine occur in Jacques de Vitry, and may be 
referred to in Index II. 

Of much greater interest is the Specchio delta vera penitenzia, by 
Frate Jacopo Passavanti, a Dominican, born in Florence at the 
end of the xiiith century. He studied at Paris, became lecturer 
on philosophy at Pisa, professor of theology at Siena and Home, 
and prior of Santa Maria Novella at Florence, where at the age of 
thirteen he had taken the habit of St. Dominick, and where he was 

* There is but one edition of the Corona de Monad, that by D. Casimiro Stolfi, 
Prato, 1862. 



CX EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

buried in 1357.* He wrote the work mentioned above first in 
Latin, and then translated it himself into Italian. f It is, as the 
name indicates, a treatise on penitence, and is divided into five 
chapters (distinzioni) , with two separate treatises on pride and 
humility. The work is distinguished by the author s copious 
references, not only to ecclesiastical authorities, but also to the 
classical writers. Exempla (the word esemplo is occasionally used) 
properly speaking are not very frequent, but 44 occur in the 
two volumes, of which 12 are from Caesar of Heisterbach, 11 
from the Vitae Patrum, 2 each from Bede, Etienne de Bourbon, 
Gregory, Helinandus, and Petrus Damianus, 1 from Sulpitius 
Severus, and 10 from various lives of the saints, etc. Jacques de 
Vitry is mentioned but once (i., p. 133), and has attributed to him 
the story already mentioned in connection with the Scala Celi and 
Recull de Eximplis of the daughter who commits incest with 
father, kills him and mother, and afterwards dies of contrition. 

The last work of this class which I shall mention belongs to the 
compilations so common in Italy in the xiiith and xivth centuries, 
under the name of fiore, fiori, fioritit,, orfioretti. The most famous 
of these (excepting always the Fioretti di San Francesco) is the 
anonymous Fiore di Virtu, of the xivth century.^ This interest 
ing little work is divided into forty chapters, containing various 
virtues and vices, most of which are compared to some animal. 
Sometimes the comparison ends with the title of the chapter, as 
(cap. iv.) "Dell allegrezza appropriata al gallo;" sometimes the 

* See Quetif and Echard, i., p. G45. 

f The great popularity of the work is attested by the large number of editions, 
for which see Zambrini, op. cit. I have used the one in the Classici italiani, 
Milan, 1808, 2 vols. 

J For the numerous editions see Zambrini. op. cit. I have used the edition of 
Naples, 1870, with annotations by B. Fabricatore. 

The work is thus a connecting link between Peraldus s Summa vlrtutum ac 
ritlorum (see iv.. 3 of this Introduction) and the Bestiaircs (see iv.. 3 of this 
Introduction). A Somma de Vizii (probably the work of Peraldus) is frequently 
cited. 



INTRODUCTION. CXI 

comparison is expanded in the chapter which follows. The work 
is remarkable for the extraordinary number of citations from the 
classical writers, especially the philosophers and historians. The 
word esempio is not used ; but mingled with the sententious ex 
tracts from Christian and pagan authorities are fables and stories 
of every kind. Nine are found in Jacques de Vitry, whose name 
is not mentioned.* 

Although the use of exempla originated in France that country 
does not afford such extensive collections in the vernacular as we 
have found in Spain, for instance. That there are similar French 
collections remaining inedited in various libraries is probable. j* 
A collection of exempla with moralisations in Anglo-Norman French 
was made in the xivth century by Nicholas Bozon, an English Fran 
ciscan. J The form does not differ essentially from other works of 
this class already examined. The author states some moral truth, 
or the property of some animal, plant, or stone, which he moralises 

* A somewhat similar work is the earlier (thirteenth century) Fiore dl 
Filosofi c ill nwUi Sa-vi. It is attributed with some reason to Brunetto Latini, 
and consists chiefly in sententious extracts from the pagan philosophers, with 
an occasional story (e.g., p. 16 of the edition of Bologna, 1865, " Papirio," see 
Gcsta JRomanorum, 126, p. 58. " Trajan," see G. Paris, La Legcndc de Trajan 
Paris, 1878, p. 265). 

f There are several MSS. in the Bib. Nat. at Paris, containing the same collec 
tion : No. 435, fran$ais (Bethune), " Kecueil d exemples moraux . . . Cy 
commencent les exemples moraux a divers propos assemblez et extraitz de 
plusieurs escriptures, qui moult peuvent valloir pour bonnes meurs " (fo. 25). The 
authorities cited in the second part are : Jacques de Vitry, Hubert (Humbert de 
Komains ?). Cesaire (of Heistcrbach), Aubert (Albert the Great), Pierre Damien. 
Pierre Alphonse. Ysopet, Pierre de Cervaux, le chantre de Paris (Petrus Cantor), 
etc. The MS. is a paper one, of the fifteenth century. The same collection is 
found also in MSS. fra^ais, 911 (fifteenth century); 1834 (Colbert, fifteenth 
century, paper). There are also French collections in the English libraries, e.g., 
Brit. Mus., Harl. 4403 (fifteenth century), which I cannot now r describe. 

J Bo/on is known only through his prose stories and poetry, which were dis 
covered by M. Paul Meyer. The former have been edited by Miss L. T. Smith 
and M. Meyer for the Old-French Text Society, under the title Leo contcs 
moralises dc Nicole Bozon, Paris, 1889. The stories were probably written after 
1320, and the author seems to have been from the north of England. 



Cxii EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

with texts from the Scriptures, and appends as illustration and 
confirmation an exemplum. These exempla consist largely of 
fables taken from some Anglo-Norman collection now lost. For 
his natural history Bozon consulted some work resembling that of 
Bartholomaeus Anglicus examined above (iv. 3). The exempla, 
properly so called, are from the usual sources, Jacques de Vitry, 
Bede, Vitae Patrum, Petrus Alphonsi, etc.* The following stories 
of Bozon occur also in Jacques de Vitry, 19=vii., 29=zcxxxiv., 31 =i 
cix., 42= xxv. (overlooked by the editor of Bozon here, but men 
tioned on p. 250, n.), 44=zccxxxvii., 82=:cxiv., 84=xlvii. (over 
looked by the editor of Bozon), 86=cclxiii. (overlooked by the 
editor of Bozon), 93=: i. (M. Meyer cites the Giornale storico delta- 
litteratura Italiana, i. 400 ; Thomas Cantipratanus, i., 20, 8 ; Hist, 
litt. de la France, xxi., 358 ; and Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum hist., 
xxv., 89 ; but has overlooked the version in Jacques de Vitry), 97 
ccxlvi., 112=:cxcvi. (add to my references Hist. litt. de la France, 
xxiii., 237-8, cited by M. Meyer), 117=xx., 122=cciv., 138=ccl., 
139=zccxci. (add to my notes Gesta Romanorum, 72, cited by M. 
Meyer), 140rzcxvi. (M. Meyer gives version from the collection of 
Jacques de Vitry s exempla contained in Bib. Nat. MS. 18,134), 
145=clxxiv.t The work of Bozon is properly a treatise, but from 
the large number of exempla which it contains it undoubtedly served 
as material for amplifying sermons, and its value has been well 
stated by M. Meyer, who says (p. xxviii.) : " II n y a pas, dans 
toute la litterature Anglo- Nor mande, un second ouvrage qui puisse 
nous donner une ide e aussi complete de ce qu e tait en Angleterre 
et au commencement du xiv e siecle, la predication populaire. Non 

* M. Meyer has given, in his introduction and notes to the Contes of Bozon, 
such a detailed account of the sources that it is not necessary to dwell upon them 
here. I shall refer only to the stories found also in Jacques de Vitry. since I was 
unable to use the work of Bozon in compiling the notes to the present work. 

f Two other stories of Bozon, 141. 145, arc found in the collection of Jacques 
do Vitry s exempla mentioned above. The first story is from the Disciplina 
clerlcalis, cd. Schmidt, p. 63 ; the second is found in the Vie des Perez, Moon. 
Nouvcau rccnt-Al de fabliaux, ii.. 362. 



INTRODUCTION. CX111 

que le livre de Bozon soit proprement un recueil de sermons ; mais 
on pent legitimement le considerer comme forme des elements qui 
faisaient le fonds des sermons preches au peuple par les predica- 
teurs de 1 ordre auquel appartenait Bozon." 

Two other works of the class of treatises containing exempla 
deserve notice here. The first is the Fleur des commandemens de 
Dieu* a treatise upon the Decalogue of the kind already described 
in section iv., 3, of this Introduction. The Fleur des commande 
mens, properly speaking, ends on p. xliv., where begins an exem- 
plaire, or collection of exempla, to illustrate the first part of the 
work. The compiler says they have been translated from Latin 
into French in order that simple folk, who know no Latin, may 
understand them. Some of the exempla, he adds, are not from the 
Holy Scriptures, but are visions or miracles which credible per 
sons have seen, and if many are given from the book of the 
Disciple (Herolt), it is not saying that they are like Holy Scrip 
ture, but because he was a great clerk who found the said exempla 
in books which the compiler had not studied. The exempla which 
follow fill pages xliv.-cxxiv. ; but the pagination is so extraordi 
nary that this gives no idea of the extent of the collection, since 
every chapter or division has the same pagination, so that there 
may be four or five pages bearing the same number. In fact, the 
exempla fill 170 pages. The first part of the work, to which the 
second bears exactly the same relation as the Promptuarium of 
Herolt to the preceding sermons, is a general treatise on the Deca 
logue, with illustrations, exempla, etc., scattered through it, as in 
the sermons of Herolt. The title only of the exempla is given and 
reference is made to the second part, the reverse of Herolt s 

* The full title of the edition which I have used (Bib. Nat. Paris, Reserve. 
D. 1614 invent.) is : La Fleur des commandemens de Dieu avec plusieurs 
Exemples et Auctoritezs extraictes tant des sainetes escriptures que d autres 
Docteurs Ion peres. Lequel est moult utile et prouffitable a toutes Gens. Mil. 
D. xlviii. It was printed at Paris by Jehan Real, and is in folio. The Brit. 
Mus. has editions of Paris, 1510 and 1536. also in folio, and Hain, 7131, cites an 
edition of Paris, 1499, fol., by Ant. Verard. 

h 



CX1V EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

method In the exemplaire the stories are arranged not alphabeti 
cally, but under the ten commandments, .(7., " Primum preceptum. 
Exempla, Exemple de ydolatrie. De apostasie. D heretiques. 
De gens hors de la foy. Do gens en la foy. De orgueil. De 
humilitate centre orgueil." The source of each exemple is given, 
and those taken from Herolt are introduced with such expressions 
as : " Le disciple recite en ses sermons ; Le disciple recite au livre 
de son promptuaire, etc." Herolt is quoted 244 times, including 
sermons and promptuarium, the latter more frequently of course. 
The remainder of the examples are taken from the usual sources, 
and some are given at great length, e.g., the story of Tundal filling 
five pages.* 

The second French treatise is also upon the Decalogue, with 
the addition of the Seven Deadly Sins (an eighth, the sin of 
sacrilege, is added), the Seven Sacraments of the Church, Con 
fession and Prayer. The author was an English priest, William 
of Wadington, of whom nothing is known except that he lived in 
the latter part of the thirteenth century, f His work closely re- 

* There is an English translation of this work, which is among the rarest pro 
ductions of Wynkyn de Worde s press. The Cambridge University Library has 
two copies, one of which I have used. The colophon, fo. cclxi.. is as follows : 
" Here endeth the booke intytuled the floure of the commandementes of god with 
many examples and auctorytes extracte as wel of the holy scryptures as of other 
doctours and good ancyent faders the whych is moche prouffytable and utyle unto 
all people. Lately translated out of Frenshe into Englyshe in the yeres of our 
lorde mcccccix. Enprynted at London in Flete strete at the sygne of the sonne 
by Wynkyn de Worde. The seconde yere of y e reygne of our most naturell 
souerayne lorde kynge Henry the eyght of that name. Fynyshed the yere of 
oure Lorde mcccccx. the xiiii. daye of Septem." 

The treatise upon the commandments fills fols. i. cxxrii. : the exemplar/re. 
fols. cxxvii. cclxi. The translator (whose name and coat of arms are given at 
the end of the book) was Andrew Chertsey, of whom the Dictionary of National 
Biography says he flourished between 1508 1532, and undertook the translation 
from French into English of several devotional books for Wynkyn de Worde. 

f See Mr. Furnivall s preface to Roberd of Brunne s Handling Synne, with 
the French treatise on which it is founded, Le Manuel des Pechiez, by William 
of Wadington, Roxburghe Club, 1862 ; and article by G. Paris (who names his 
author Wilham) in the Hist. litt. de la France, xxviii., pp. 179-207. 



INTRODUCTION. CXV 

sembles in disposition the Somme des vices et virtus of Lorens, a 
French Dominican, confessor of Philip III., who died about 
1285, and whose work has nothing to do with the similarly 
named work of Peraldus, examined in section iv., 3, of this Intro 
duction.* 

William of Wadington s work is remarkable for the use of 
exempla, no less than 53 occurring in the book. Of these 12 are 
from the Dialogues of Gregory, and four from the Vitae Patrum, 
the others are from various legendaries and from hearsay.f 

The popularity of William of Wadington s work is shown by 
the numerous MSS. of the xiiith, xivth, and xvth centuries 
still preserved,}: and by an English translation made in 1303 
by Roberd of Brunne, of whom also nothing is known except 
that he nourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. 
His translation is a free one, the purely theological part of the 
original being generally omitted. Six of William s stories are 
replaced by twelve of Roberd s, who has also added two long tales 
from Bede (vision of Fursey, and story of Jumna and Tumna), 
only one of which (Fursey s vision) is very briefly mentioned by 
William. These additions by Roberd are very interesting, as 
they do not belong to the class of monkish tales, but are mostly 
local anecdotes and drawn from Roberd s own experience, or at 
least he had heard them told. 

Besides the two translations just mentioned, I know of no 
collection of exempla in English, except the translation of the 
collection in the Harl. MS. 268, contained in Brit. Mus. MS. 

* For Lorens, see Hist. litt. de la France, xix. p. 397. There is an English 
translation in the Kentish dialect (1340), by Dan Michel of Northgate, under 
the title Ayeribite of Inwyt (edited by R. Morris for the Early English Text 
Society. 1866). 

t These exempla are carefully studied by G. Paris in the article already 
cited in the Hist. litt. de la France, vol. xxyiii., pp. 193-206. 

J A list of these by P. Meyer may be found in the Romania, viii., p. 333. 

The only edition of the work is that by Mr. Furnivall for the Roxburghe 
Club, mentioned above. 



CXV1 EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

25,719, of the xvth century. As lias already been shown in 
describing the Eecull de eximplis, the Harl. MS. 268 is a copy of 
Etienne de Besancon s Alphabetum narrationum. 

I have now brought to a conclusion, although in an incomplete 
and imperfect manner, the task which I undertook of tracing the 
history of the use of illustrative stories in sermons, and the in 
fluence this use exerted upon various forms of literature. I have 
accomplished my labour in a bungling way indeed if I have failed 
to show the great importance of this custom for the history of 
mediaeval culture, and especially for the diffusion of popular tales. 
It was no part of my design to pursue the history of exempla 
beyond the limits of the Middle Ages, and through the great 
collections of facetiae of the xvith and xviith centuries. This 
interesting and valuable field of study I leave to one more happily 
situated than I am in respect to leisure and to sources of 
information. 



EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 
JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 



I. [fo. 4 ro ] Audivi quod quidam de hiis parvulus, postquam 
a quodam episcopo avunculo suo in stallo locum archidiaconi 
accepit, sedem suam fedavit, sicut gremium nutricis sue con- 
sueverat fedare. 

II. [fo. 4 VO ] Audivi quod demones quibusdam negligentibus 
prelatis Sicilie quondam litteras miserunt in hunc modum : 
" Principes tenebrarum principibus ecclesiarum, salutem. 
Gratias vobis referimus, quia quot vobis commissi tot sunt 
nobis missi." 

III. Hii igitur qui curam animarum recipiunt et aliis 
ducatum promittunt, ipsi autem nee sibi nee universo gregi 
attendant, merito assimilantur rane que, per medium stagnum, 
rauri promisit ducatum, ligans quodam filo pedem muris pedi 
suo, sed miluo rapiente murem, simul traxit et ranam, quia si 
cecus ceco ducatum prebet, ambo in foveam cadunt. 

IV. [fo. 6 V ] De sacerdote pessimo dicit Ysaias : Asportari te 
faciet Dominus sicut asportatur gallus gallinaceus qui gallinas 
non defendit. Hujusmodi gallus portari solet ad forum, ligatis 
pedibus et capite ad terram inclinato, et isti qui caput et oculos 
mentis statuerunt declinare in terram, ligatis manibus et 
pedibus, projicientur in gehennam. Lepusculi autem et pusil- 
lanimes prelati, dum ignavie sue excusationem querunt, dicentes : 

B 



2 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

u Redimamus tempus quoniam dies inali sunt," dum pravse con- 
suetudini innitentes (?) nichil novum attemptare audent, merito 
buboni assimilantur, quern alaude sibi regem prefecerunt, ut 
eas ab importunis avibus deffenderet eo quod fortis et proceri 
corporis esse videretur. Cum autem, quadam die, volarent, 
capta est alauda ilia que in extreme exercitus alias sequebatur 
et delata est querimonia ad regem qui respondit : " Quare in 
extreme et periculoso loco ibat ? " Postmodum capta est alia 
que in prima parte volabat, et respondit bubo : " Quia in 
prima parte se posuit?" Tandem, capta quadam alauda, que 
in medio volabat, respondit bubo: "Quare inquietatis me? 
quid vultis ut faciam vobis ? semper consuetude fuit ut a nisis 
caperentur alaude/ 

V. [fo. 8 ro ] Prelati, apparentia sine existentia, similes cuidam 
statue, quam quidam in agro suo posuit, tenentem arcum ad 
terrendas aves. Videntes autem volucres statuam primo 
timuerunt, sed videntes quod nunquam traheret vel sagittas 
emitteret, ceperunt minus timere et propius accedere. Tandem 
vero attendentes quod nullam ex avibus lederet, volaverunt 
super earn et ipsam stercoribus fedaverunt. 

VI. [fo. 10 ro ] Audivi de quodam presbytero qui coquo 
episcopi satisfacere non poterat, eo quod innumera fercula 
petebat ut ad opus episcopi prepararet, quod tandem tedio 
affectus et dolore stimulatus, ait : " Jam non habeo quod 
possim dare nisi latera crucifixi," et ilia assata fecit ante 
episcopum in mensa deferri. Sit prelatus sicut dammula ut 
festinet discurrat et omnia impedimentorum obstacula transeat. 

VII. Legimus autem de tygride quod, raptis fetibus, dum 
veloci cursu venatores insequitur, ipsi timentes sibi de crude - 
litate bestie, speculum vitreum amplum in via projiciunt. Tygris 
vero dum imaginein suam in speculo cernit, a cursu suo sub- 
sistit, estimans fetum suum reperisse. Dum autem imaginein 
illam amplectitur et ibidem commoratur, venatores evadunt. 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 3 

Ipsa autem, tandem pede fracto speculo, nichil reperit et ita 
fetus suos amittit. Sic venator infernalis multos prelates, objecta 
imagine rerum temporalium, curiositate detinet et transitoria 
vanitate retardat ut non discurrant et festinent. 

VIII. [fo. ll vo ] Timeat igitur prelatus semper de talento 
sibi commisso et proprium periculum attendat, exemplo cujus- 
dam regis divitis et potentis valde quern, cum quidam miraretur 
et felicem diceret, rex sapiens ilium sedere fecit in loco valde 
eminenti, super cathedram que minabatur ruinam, magnumque 
ignem subtus cathedram accendi fecit et gladium cum filo tenui 
super caput sedentis suspendi. Cumque fecisset apponi copiosa 
et delicata cibaria, dixit ei ut comederet. At ille : a Quomodo 
comedere possem, cum in summo periculo sim constitutus et 
semper timeam ruinam ? " Cui rex ait : u Et ego in majori 
periculo sum constitutus, in cathedra ruinosa residens, timens 
gladium divine sententie et ignem gehenne. Quare ergo tu 
dixisti me felicem ? " 

IX. Faciat igitur prelatus, qui ad tempus constitutus est rex 
super Syon montem sanctum ejus etiam super ecclesiam, illud 
quod de quodam sapiente legimus. Qui cum esset rex consti 
tutus in civitate cujus talis erat consuetude quod, per annum 
unum tamen regnaret, et tempore regni sui, cunctis juramento 
obedientibus, quecumque vellet faceret, anno autem preterito, in 
exilium mitteretur ut non posset redire vel jure hereditario 
regnum possidere, ipse, dum potestatem habuit, aurum, argen- 
tum, lapides preciosos, pannos sericos et cibaria copiosa cum 
multis servientibus in insulam maris, ad quam in exilium pre- 
dicti reges mitti solebant, premisit et ita de exilio locum 
amenum constituit, et nos, qui post mortem non poterimus 
villicare, premittamus ante faciem nostram opera sancta con- 
versationis et misericordie .... 

X. [fo. 13 VO ] . . . Alioquin, quicquid ministrando acquirunt 
(sacerdotes) per superbiam amittunt, similes cuidam fatuo qui, 

B2 



EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

cum dolium semiplenum haberet et illud implere vellet, vinum 
ab inferior! foramine trahebat et per foramen superius infunde- 
bat et sic in vanum laborabat 

XI. Alioquin, qui malos archidiaconos vel rurales decanos 
constituunt similes sunt cuidam fatuo qui, cum caseum quern in 
archa reconderat a muribus corrosum inspiceret, posuit in archa 
murilegum ut a muribus defenderet caseum. Murilegus autem 
non solum mures devoravit sed totum caseum comedit. Sic 
raptores et avari officiates, qui a malis sacerdotibus simplicem 
populum defendere deberent, tarn sacerdotes quam laicos 
pecuniis spoliant et devorare non cessant. 

XII. [fo. 15 VO ] Ita dicti prelati, cum vitam et scientiam non 
habeant, coacervant sibi divitias, ut magni habeantur et hono- 
rentur. Talis pastor derelinquit gregem et recipit lac et lanam 
derelinquens in adversis et sequens in prosperis, more testudi- 
nis que in hyeme infra testam se contrahit et in estate cornua 
ostendit et ideo gladius divine ultionis super bracliium ejus, 
quia fortis est ad malum sed ad bonum debilis et super oculum 
dextrum ejus etiam super scientiam, qua male utitur .... 

XIII. Presumptuosi autem et arrogantes, dum de viribus 
suis confidunt, compassionis viscera non noverunt. Unde 
cum quidam eremita valde reprehenderet Adam et illi indig- 
naretur, eo quod tarn leve mandatum transgressus fuisset, cum 
potius compati debuisset, socius ejus volens eum castigare 
inter duas scutellas murem ponens dixit illi : " Frater, ne 
videas, donee reversus fuero, quid sit inter has duas scutellas." 
Quo recedente, cepit ille cogitare quare tale mandatum mihi 
fecit, certe videre volo quid inter duas scutellas posuerit et 
elevans superiorem scutellam mus aufugit. Redeunte autem 
socio, cum murem non inveniret, dixit ei : " Tu redarguebas 
Adam, eo quod tarn leve mandatum fuisset transgressus, et tu 
mandatum levius preteriisti." Quo audito, ille a presumptione 
cessavit et indignationem in compassionem mutavit. 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 5 

XIV. De quodam abbate legimus quod cum monachus ejus 
valde temptaretur, ut carnes comederet, occidit pavonem et 
coxit atque in dolio vacuo se abscondens manducare cepit. 
Quod abbas ejus, dum varias officinas monasterii visitaret, per- 
cepit. At ille erubescens cogitabat quod fugeret et numquam ad 
monasterium rediret. Abbas vero, compassionis motus, dixit 
fratri : " Noli timere, fili, quia et ego valde temptatus sum ut 
comedam carnes ;" et ducens eum ad cellarium cum eo mandu- 
cavit et bibit et condescendendo illi, ipsum in monasterio 
retinuit. Infirmi quidem, ut vulgariter dicitur, non furca sed 
linteo sunt vertendi. 

XV. [fo. 17 ro ] Qui autem non habentes vestem nuptialem, 
polluti ad altare accedunt et bonis sacerdotibus ad nuptias 
residentes se admiscent, similes sunt asino qui, videns quod 
catelli occurrebant domino venienti, et amplexabantur eum 
ludentes cum eo, et ad mensam domini panem manducabant, 
credens domino placere et major em ejus gratiam habere, si ad 
imitationem catelli ad mensam ejus accederet et dominum suum 
amplexaretur, dum pedes ad collum domini sui poneret vestes 
ejus laceravit et pedibus ilium lesit. Servi autem concurrentes 
asinum fustigaverunt et a mensa domini ejecerunt. 

XVI. [fo. 17 VO ] Non solum sacerdotibus sed et laicis com- 
messationes noxie sunt qui festivos et sollempnes dies non aliter 
se digne celebrare putant nisi commessationibus deserviant . . . 
Talium corpora asino leprosi merito comparantur qui, cum 
bene de elemosinis, que leproso confer untur, nutritus et inpin- 
guatus fuerit, recalcitrat precipitando leprosum ; ita anima 
misera et leprosa, recalcitrante corpore precipitatur, primo in 
peccatum et tandem in infernum. 

XVI. [fo. 18 r ] Cum autem per Ezechielem, Dominus de 
laicis et clericis, sub specie duarum meretricum, loquatur, id est 
Olla et Ooliba, magis conqueritur de Ooliba que minor erat 
quam de sorore sua, id est de clericis, qui pauciores sunt 



6 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

numero quam de populo laicorum. Per has utique duas sorores 
intelligere voluit efFeminatos in utroque populo et idcirco 
nomine femineo appellaiitur. De Ooliba, quidem dominus ait 
quod plusquam soror ejus libidino insanivit et quod aperte pec- 
care non erubuit. u Denudavit inquit fornicationem suam et 
discooperuit ignominiam suam et recessit anima mea ab eo." 

XVII. [fo. 18 ro ] Hii igitur falso nomine clerici nee sunt 
clerici .... qui deliciis carnalibus dediti projecerunt Christum, 
carnis voluptates amplexando .... qui merito assimulantur 
cuidam preposito domus regie cui rex, cum ad remotiores 
regiones pergeret, filiam suam custodiendam commisit, ille vero 
neglecta regis filia canem quern habebat pavit et inpinguavit, 
adeo quod canis laciviens vel potius insaniens, regis filiam, quo 
fame et inedia torquebatur, invasit occidit et laniavit. 

XVIII. [fo. 18 VO ] Quam miseri qui pro umbra veritatem 
deserunt, pro transitoriis eterna relinqunt, qui Deum et mundum 
simul se posse habere credunt, similes cani qui caseum in ore 
portabat juxta aquam et videns umbram casei in aqua, cum 
utrumque vellet habere, aperto ore amisit utrumque. 

XIX. [fo. 20 ro ] Audivi quod quidam sanctus homo, dum 
esset in choro, vidit diabolum quasi sacco pleno valde oneratum. 
Dum autem adjuraret dyabolum ut diceret ei quid portaret ait : 
" Hec sunt sillabe et dictiones syncopate et versus psalmodie, 
que isti clerici in hiis matutinis furati sunt Deo ; hec utique ad 
eorum accusationem diligenter reservo." Excubate igitur 
diligenter in mysterio altaris ne super populum oriatur indig- 
natio. 

XX. [fo. 20 VO ] Qui igitur prave consuetudinis corruptela et 
multitudinis exemplo decipiuntur, similes sunt cuidam rustico 
qui, dum agnum portaret ad vendendum, quidam truphator 
ait sociis suis : " Facite quod dicain vobis et gratis habebimus 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 

agnum ilium." Et posuit eos in diversis locis separating unum 
post unum. Transeunte autem rustico, primus ait : " Homo, 
vis vendere canem ilium ? " At ille pro minimo reputavit et 
processit. Cum autem veniret ubi alius stabat, dixit ille : 
u Frater, vis mihi vendere canem ilium ? " " Domine, volite 
me irridere, non fero canem sed agnum." Curn autem idem 
tercius dixisset, cepit rusticus amirari et erubescere. Quarto 
autem et quinto idem dicentibus, cogitavit inter se quid hoc 
esse posset quod tot homines in hoc concordabant quod canem 
et non agnum portaret, et tandem opinionibus multorum 
acquiescens, ait : a Novit Deus quia credebam quod esset 
agnus, sed quia canis est de cetero non portabo ilium ;" et, projecto 
agno, recessit. At illi tulerunt eum et comederunt. 

XX. [fo. 22 VO ] Audivi de vulpe, quam vulgariter renardum 
appellant, quod pacifice salutavit volucrem que gallice masange 
nominatur cui ilia dixit: " Unde venis?" At ille: " De 
colloquio regis in quo jurata est pax cum cunctis bestiis et 
volucribus observanda. Unde rogo te ut pacis osculum mihi 
tribuas." Cui ilia : " Timeo ne me capias." Cui renardus : 
" Accede secure ecce oculos claudam ut te capere non valeam." 
Volucre autem accedente et ante vulpem volitante, cum ore 
aperto vellet earn capere, velociter evolavit irridens vulpem que, 
contra pacis juramentum, ipsam ledere voluisset. Huic similes 
sunt quidam fraudulenti clerici et sacerdotes pessimi qui, 
pacem et religionem simulantes, mulierculas seducunt." 

XXI. [fo. 22 VO ] Hii seductores animarum similes sunt lupo 
qui, cum lingeret juga bourn, mirabatur bubulcus nesciens quod 
aliud simularet et aliud intenderet querens oportunitatem ut 
bovem strangularet. 

XXII. [fo. 24 VO ] Si enim propter odium vel indignationem 
[prelatus] subtrahat populo predicationem, similis est cuidam 
stulto et malicioso homini qui, in odio uxoris sue, genitalia sibi 
abscidit et ita prius sibi quam aliis nocuit, et prelatus, qui 



8 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAKIBUS 

populum in errore relinquit, plus omnibus aliis punietur, quia 
sanguis omnium de manu ejus requiretur 

XXXIII. Diabolus autem quandoque procurat delicias et 
prosperitatem ut subtrahat utilitatem. De hiis vero diabolus 
ludit, sicut quidam scolares, ut dicitur, Parisius de murilego 
ludebant. Decium quidem illi in pede ponebant et quando 
plura puncta prohiciebat quam scolares, ad manducandum illi 
dabant, tandem, cum pauciora puncta catus projecisset, excoria- 
verunt ipsum et pellem vendiderunt. Ita diabolus prosperari 
permittit predictos delicatos prelates et ipsos protrahit et sus- 
tinet ut lucrentur et suam faciant voluntatem, sed tandem in 
morte quasi paucis punctis provenientibus cuncta perdunt, tune 
enim excoriabuntur .... 

XXIV. [fo. 27 ro ] . . Quam miser i qui sub tan to rege in 
libertate militare renuunt et crudeli tyranno se subiciunt, 
similes ranis, que cum in pace sub solo Tove viverent nee alium 
regem haberent nee aliqua rana super aliam se extolleret vel 
alie dominari vellet, petierunt regem a Jove qui dixit eis : 
" {Sufficiat vobis quod in pace vivitis." Que responderunt : 
" Immo volumus super nos habere regem." Ille vero nolens 
eas terrere et a stulticia compescere projecit lignum in lacum 
ubi erant rane. At ille pavefacte valde timuerunt et se in 
lutum submerserunt credentes quod rex illis datus esset ; tan 
dem videntes quod lignum immobile permanebat nee aliquid 
illis imperabat, iterum accesserunt ad Jovem petentes sibi dari 
regem. Qui, valde indignatur contra ranarum stulticiam et 
importunitatem, dedit eis regem serpentem enim qui ydrus 
dicitur. Dedit eis regem in ira sua qui ranas vorare cepit. 
Idcirco in proverbio dicitur. Capra tantum scalpifc quod male 
jacet; maneat unusquisque in vocatione in qua vocatus est, 
alioquin qui militare nolunt sub rege benigno nee adversitatibus 
aut egritudinibus, quas Deus immittit eis ad terrorem, nolunt 
cessare a malo proposito, Deus ex indignatione et ira permittit 
eos subici diabolo vel etiam seculari potestati .... 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 

XXV. [fo. 28 VO ] Ecce quot monstris hiis diebus ecclesia Dei 
occupatur, quot sordibus imprimatur, quot fetoribus inficitur ut 
quocumque te vertas fetorem sentias, sicut dicitur de symia 
que jacebat inter scrophas et, dum ex parte una sentiret 
fetorem, convertebatur ad aliam et nicliilominus intollerabilem 
fetorem sentiebat. Isti tamen, quia fetidi sunt et in fetoribus 
nutriti, fetorem suum non sentiunt, immo more porci fetore 
delectantur et carnales delicias quas diligunt amplectuntur, juxta 
illud : " Qui nutriti sunt in croceis amplexati sunt stereora," 
similes symie que, dum a venatoribus fugatur, fetum quern magis 
diligit inter brachia stringit et alium post dorsum proicit. Cum 
autem venatores appropinquant, instante periculo, dilectum 
quem amplexabatur cogitur proicere, ilium autem quern minus 
diligebat, dum fir miter humeris ejus adheret, abicere non valet, 
verum onere pergravata capitur et detinetur. Pari modo pre- 
dicti reprobi, qui nunc delicias et divitias quas diligunt amplec 
tuntur, peccata post dorsum habentes et ilia respicere vel confiteri 
nolentes, imminente mortis periculo, dum appropinquabunt 
venatores infernales, delicias quas nunc amplexantur derelinquent, 
peccatis que post dorsum posuerant ipsos aggravantibus ut a 
venatoribus capiantur et in infernum deducantur. 

XXVI. [fo. 30 r ] Memini quodam tempore, cum in terra que 
dicitur Albigensium coram multis militibus contra quosdam 
hereticos disputaremus, et eos contra nos conclamantes aucto- 
ritatibus aperte, ut intelligere possent laici, convincere non posse- 
mus, quidam ex nostris dixit heretico ut se crucis signo signaret. 
Vulpecula ilia, volens amfractuose in apparentia ambulare, signum 
crucis inchoans non perficiebat, licet a principio facere videretur, 
quod advertentes milites christiani insurrexerunt in eos visibili 
et manifesto errore deprehensos. Talia igitur propter circum- 
stantes proponenda sunt hereticis quibus error eorum ab omnibus 
valeat reprehendi, velut si dicatur eis, qui asserunt quod omnia 
visibilia et corporalia creavit diabolus, quomodo per imposi- 
tionem manus nostre datur Spiritus Sanctus, cum eum creavit 
diabolus. 



10 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

XXVII. [fo. 30 VO ] De hiis autem qui de aliorum successions 
invidendo torquentur, Seneca ait : " Vellem oculos invidorum 
esse ubique ut omnium felicitatibus torquerentur." Ex hiis 
oriuntur dissensiones et jurgia et contentiones, dum quidam, 
quia per scientiam et doctrinam suam innotescere non possunt, 
conviciando aliis quoquo modo apparere et famam sibi acquirere 
querunt, similes cuidam homini desperate qui, cum edes Diane 
incendisset, querentibus ab eo cur fecisset, respondit : " Cum 
non possem bene, volui innotescere vel male et quia ignotus 
eram, feci ut multi loquerentur de me " 

XXVIII. Vani sunt [magistri] et singulares qui nova et 
inaudita adinvenire nituntur, probates et antiquos magistros sequi 
nolentes, cum tamen Ecclesiastes dicat, xxxi[x]. : u Anti quorum 
exquiret sapiens." Isti autem in magnis ambulant et in mirabi- 
libus super se. In magnis ambulant qui cogitant quomodo in hoc 
seculo magni habeantur et dignitatibus attollantur. In mirabi- 
libus super se ambulant qui cogitant qualiter facere possint vel 
dicere utrum homines ammirentur. Verum plerumque nova et 
inaudita fingunt, quibus, licet incredibilia sint, fidem adhibent 
curiosi et stolidi auditores, similes cuidam homini qui, cum 
cepisset phylomenam, dixit ei phylomena: " Tu vides quam valde 
sum parva, si me occidas et commedas non multum comedum 
assequeris, si autem [fo. 31 ro ] abire me permisseris, docebo te 
sapientiam que prodesse tibi multum poterit." At ille: u Doce 
me et permittam te abire." Cui phylomena ait : " Numquam 
apprehendere coneris que apprehendere non possis et nunquam 
dere perdita doleas, quam recuperare nequeas, et verbo incredibili 
numquam fidem adhibeas." Hiis auditis, earn avolare permisit. 
Tune phylomena volens eum probare ait: "0 miser, quid fecisti 
quia me dimittere voluisti, habeo in visceribus meis margaritam 
que ovi structionis excedit magnitudinem." Hoc audiens con- 
tristatus est valde et earn apprehendere conabatur. At ilia: 
" Nunc cognovi fatuitatem tuam ex quod et doctrina mea nichil 
profecisti ; conaris me comprehendere cum itineri meo non possis 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 11 

pergere, doles de re perdita quam recuperare non potes. Credis 
in visceribus meis esse margaritam ventris mei excedentem 
mensuram, cum ego tota ad mensuram ovi structionis pertingere 
non possim." Sic fatui et decepti scolares quibusdam fantasiis 
et incredibilibus fidem adhibent que, tanquam frivola irrisione 
digna, statim respuere debuissent. 

XXIX. Quidam autem ad tantam venerunt insaniam ut in 
fonte caloris, id est in sole, calorem esse negarent. Alii men- 
daciter asseruerunt constellationes libero arbitrio inferre neces- 
sitatem, et multa talia jactanter dixerunt ut aliquid magnum 
discere putarentur et sum mis doctoribus equari viderentur, 
similes cuidam rane que, cum videret bovem pulcrum et mag 
num, cepit illi invidere et volens adequari bovi cepit se inflare. 
Alia rana earn increpans, ait: " Desiste ab hac stulticia, quid 
enim es respectu bovis nunquam illi poteris coequari." At ilia 
indignata cepit intumescere. Cui alia rana: " Nee siteruperis," 
inquit, " ad quantitatem bovis pervenire valebis." At ilia valde 
irata cum magno conamine amplius intumescens se ipsam dis- 
rupit. Hujusmodi igitur vani et infruniti doctores fugiendi sunt 
qui novis et inauditis aures curiosas pascunt et incautos auditores 
subvertunt. 

XXX. [fo. 31 VO ] Patet igitur quod, licet expediat artem 
grammaticam adiscere, non tamen contempnendi sunt viri reli- 
giosi qui in arte grammatica non multum sunt exercitati. 
Legimus autem quod, cum quidam phylosophi, audita sancti 
Antonii fama, ad ipsum in heremo venissent et ipsum illiteratum 
cognovissent in corde suo ipsum contempserunt. Quod sanctum 
non latuit, verum et ab ipsis querere cepit quod horum prius 
fuerit scientia vel littera. Illi attendentes quod scientia litteras 
adinvenit responderunt quia scientia prius fuit. At ille: " Ergo 
sine litteratura potest esse scientia. Littere autem ad hoc 
invente sunt ut per illas scientia acquiratur. Igitur qui 
scientiam, inquit, habet litteris non indiget, sicut qui ad locum 



12 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

destinatum vehiculo quadrige pervenit jam non indiget 
quadriga." Quod audientes phylosophi amirari et laudare 
ceperunt sapientiam ejus quam prius contempserant. Litte- 
rati igitur et eloquentes simplicium fratrum ruditatem non 
spernant quos unctio docet de omnibus que sunt neccessarie 
ad salutem. 

XXXI. [fo. 32 ro ] Scientia pietatis est nosse, legere scrip- 
turas, intelligere prophetas, in evangelio credere, apostolos non 
ignorare. Grammaticorum vero doctrina potest proficere et ad 
vitam dum fuerit in meliores usus apta. Licet autem triviales 
artes addiscere concesserit lero [nymus] ipse tamen ab angelo 
verberatus est et correptus, eo quod libros legeret Ciceronis. 
Verum et dictum est ei : " Ciceronianus es, non Christianus." 
Hoc autem factum esse credimus eo quod circa talia nimis esset 
occupatus et, magis in libris Tullianis quam in theologicis, 
quadam curiositate detineretur. Bimiliter et Parisius accidit 
quodquidam discipulus post mortem magistro suo de die apparuit, 
qui indutus videbatur cappa ex pargameno minutis litteris con- 
scripta. Cumque magister Sella, sic enim magister vocabatur, 
a discipulo quereret quid cappa ilia et littere sibi vellent, 
respondit: " Quelibet harum litterarum magis me gravat pon- 
dere suo quam si turrem hujus ecclesie super collum portarem," 
ostensa sibi ecclesia Sancti Germani Parisiensis in cujus prato 
discipulus ejus apparuit illi. " Hec," inquit, " littere sunt 
sophysmata et curiositates in quibus dies meos consumpsi," et 
addidit : u Non possem tibi exprimere quanto ardore crucior sub 
hac cappa sed per unam guttam sudoris aliquo modo possem tibi 
ostendere." Cumque magister extenderet palmam ut sudoris 
exciperet guttam, perforata est manus ejus a fervente gutta 
velud acutissima sagitta. Mox ille magister scolas logice reliquit 
et ad ordinem Cystercientium se transferens ait : " Linquo coax 
ranis, era corvis, vanaque vanis, ad logicam pergo que mortis 
non timet ergo." Quamdiu autem in ordine vixit manum 
perforatam habuit et usque ad tempora nostra^ dum Parisius 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 13 

essemus, in scolis vixit manus sue foramen cunctis osten- 
dens. 

XXXII. Non igitur in talibus nimia occupatione dies nostros 
consumere debemus, licet aliqua ad comodum nostrum et usum 
bene vivendi retorquere valeamus, exemplo sancti Bernardi qui, 
cum scolas logice Parisius ingressus fuisset, aliquos scolares Deo 
lucraturus, post disputationem rogavit eum magister ut deter- 
minaret, cum tamen in scolis logycam nunquam audisset, 
respondit : " Audite, qualiter Deus contra nos argumentatur. 
Ipse quidem proponit nobis legem, assumit transgressionem, 
concludet penam eternam argumentando per hunc modum. 
Lex quam dedi tibi dicit non peccabis, tu autem hujus precepti 
prevaricator es, ergo tu dampnaberis. Hec est miserabilis con- 
clusio de qua Eze[chiel] ait : Fac conclusionem quia terra 
plena est judicio sanguinum et civitas plena est iniquitate, et 
Psalmus ait : 4 EfFunde frameam et conclude id est manifesta 
vindictam et conclude penam eternam, " et iterum Bernardus, 
cum audisset quia frequenter in disputatione dixerant : " Homo 
est animal rationale mortale," ait : " Consideranti duo hec 
rationale mortale is fructus occurrit quia mortale rationale humi- 
liat et rationale mortale confortat." .... 

XXXIII. [fo. 33 ro ] Cito quidem homo moritur, non potest 7 
diu vivere et quando morietur ignorat, verum oportet eum 
multis intermissis ad necessaria festinare. Curiosi autem UM^a*- 
perscrutatores et qui ea, que ad se non pertinent, stulte \ <b 
inquirunt, similes sunt vulpi qui veniens ad mulum dixit illi : K* 

" Cujusmodi es animal, esne equus vel asinus?" Eespondit 
illi: "Quid ad te ? ego sum creatura Dei." Cui vulpecula : 
" Volo scire de qua parentela sis." Instante autem vulpe et 
in questione persistente, dixit mulus : il Ego sum nepos magni 
dextrarii regis Yspanie." Cui vulpes : " Quis fuit pater tuus 
et que mater tua ? " Mulus autem indignatus et iratus ait : 
" Ecce in ferro dextri pedis mei scrip tarn invenies totam seriem 
cognationis mee." Accedente autem vulpe ut litteras legeret 



14 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

mulus pedem elevans percussit vulpem et occidit. Ita per- 
scrutator majestatis opprimetur a gloria, 

XXXIV. Pertransibunt multi et multiplex erit scientia, 
verum multa pertransire oportet et non de omnibus inquirere, 
ne similes simus cuidam rustico de cujus manu securus cecidit 
in aquam, qui cepit super pontem expectare, donee tota 
transiret aqua. Rusticus expectat, dum defluat amnis, at ille 
labitur et labetur in omne volubile evum. Ita sciencia sciencie, 
opiniones opinionibus, et libri libris semper succedunt 

XXXV. [fo. 33 VO ] Audivimus autem quod, in quibusdam 
regionibus et maxime in Lotharingia, sint judices quorum 
statera adeo est iniqua et desolata et ita in unam partem 
inclinatur quod parti adverse locum assignant sub nomine 
equivoco, verum si is qui citatur ad unum locum venerit vel 
miserit dicit judex impius : " Citavi te ut ad ilium alium locum 
venires ; " et statim sententiam excomunicationis fulminat in 
ipsum tanquam contumacem et multa tali a faciunt, propter que 
ab omni officio et beneficio in perpetuum privari deberent et 
condempnari in dampnis et expensis ill is quos ita inique 
affligere non formidant. Gratis autem debent judices officium 
suum exercere 

XXXVI. [fo. 34 VO ] Legitur autem in tragedia quadam 
Senece quod visum est cuidam quod videret Neronem apud 
inferos balneantem ministrosque circa eum aurum fervens 
infundere dicentemque cum videret chorum advocatorum ad 
se venientem : a Hue/ inquit, a venale genus hominum, 
advocati, amici mei accedite ut mecum in hoc vase balneetis, 
adlmc enim superest locus in eo quern vobis reservavi." 
Caveant igitur advocati ne animas suas diabolo vendant 

XXXVII. Caveant ne per injusticiam plus petendi totum 
amittant, sicut dicitur de camelo quod non contentus jure suo, 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 15 

id est bonis naturalibus que Dominus illi dederat, petiit a Domino 
ut cornua sibi darentur. Dominus autein indignatus 11011 solum 
cornua non dedit sed et aures illi abstulit. Multo fortius omnem 
venalitatem a se debent relegare cum propter justiciam faciendam 
suas habeant dignitates et redditus 

XXXVIII. Audivi de quodam judice iniquo et venali, cum 
pauper muliercula jus suum ab ipso optinere non valeret, dixit 
quidam mulieri: " Judex iste talis est quod, nisi manus ejus 
unguantur, nunquam ab ipso justicia optinetur." Mulier autein 
simpliciter, et ad litteram quod ille dixerat intelligens, cum 
sagimine seu uncto porcino ad consistorium judicis accedens, 
cunctis videntibus, manum ejus ungere cepit. Cum autem que- 
reret judex: "Mulier quid facis?" Eespondit : " Domine, 
dictum est mihi quia, nisi manus vestras unxissem, justiciam a 
vobis consequi non possem." At ille confusus erubuit eo quod 
ab omnibus notaretur et irrideretur. Yos autem, fratres karis- 
simi, sive in judicando sive in advocando taliter vos habeatis 
quod de talento vobis commisso secure rationem reddere valeatis 
coram summo judice Domino nostro .... 

XXXIX. [fo. 36 VO ] De quodam etiam reprobo et maledicto 
advocato audivi, qui gallice avant parliers et plaideres appellatur, 
quod, cum in lecto segritudinis affertur ei eucharistia, ipse secun- 
dum quod consueverat dicere cum esset sanus, ait: " Volo quod 
judicetur prius utrum recipere debeam an non." Cui cum 
astantes dicerent: " Justum est ut recipias et hoc judicamus ; " 
ipse respondit. " Cum non sitis pares mihi non habetis me 
judicare." Cumque appellaret quasi ab iniqua sententia, spiritum 
in latrinam infernalem egessit. 

XL. Audivi de quodam qui timore pene compulsus, cum 
videret demones ante se, cepit petere a Domino inducias, sed 
quia frequenter in causis inducias in fraudem postulaverat ut 
causam protraheret et adversarium gravaret non potuit optinere. 



16 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

XLI. Hie autem assimilatur miluo qui frequenter fedaverat 
Deorum sacrificia et rapuerat que sacrificata erant in honore 
Deorum. Cum autem infirmaretur usque ad mortem rogavit 
columbam ut pro ipso Deos deprecaretur. Cui columba: u Sera 
est et non spontanea penitentia tua, tociens Deos offendisti, cum 
esses sanus, quod preces coactas modo non exaudirent, ipsi enim 
noverunt quod si sanitatem recuperares a consuetis rapinis non 
cessares ; " et ita miluus, id est rapax advocatus, nee inducias 
optinuit nee sanitatem recuperavit verum et illam tristem et 
lacrimabilem cantilenam dampnatorum cantare potuit. 

XLII. [fo, 38 ro ] Legimus de quodam rege sapiente qui 
semper, quando curiam tenebat, aliis gaudentibus ipse semper 
tristis apparebat; verum et milites ejus murmurabant sed ei 
dicere non audebant. Tandem quidam frater ejus, ex fiducia 
magna quam habebat ad regem, quesivit ab eo quare in magnis 
sollempnitatibus, in quibus cum aliis gaudere debuisset, tristis 
et nescio qualia cogitans incedebat, multosque ex tali gestu scan- 
dalizabat. Cui rex ait : " Que facio tu modo nescis, scies autem 
postea." Recedente illo ad hospicium suum servos suos cum 
bucinis misit rex post eum. Erat autem consuetude in regno 
quod quando homo adjudicatus esset morti ante hostium domus 
ejus cum tubis ministri clangebant. Buccinantibus igitur servis 
regis frater ejus veliementer expavit et se mortem non posse 
evadere pro certo credidit. Statim autem, sicut rex jusserat, 
ligatus ad regis palacium est ductus ; tune jussit expoliari eum 
et tria spicula acuta applicari ventri ejus et lateribus et ecce, 
sicut rex ordinaverat, mimi et joculatores astiterunt et alii 
cantantes et choreas dicentes. Frater autem regis inter letantes 
contristabatur et lugebat. Cui rex ait: " Quare cum istis 
gaudentibus non gaudes?" At ille : ** Domine, quomodo 
gauderem cum mortis sententiam statim expectem?" Tune 
rex precepit eum solvi et vestiri et ait : " Nunc ad ea que 
quesisti respondebo tibi, si tu timuisti et contristatus es, quando 
bucinatores meos audivisti, et ego cum audio buccinatores 
summi regis et tubam divine predicationis et sonum tube 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 17 

terribilis judicii recolo, merito magis espavesco, presertim cum 
tria spicula acutissima quibus continue pungor circa me sentiam, 
quorum unus est timor peccatorum meorum, alius metus mortis 
incerte que omni die imminet mini, tercius timor gehenne et 
pene interminabilis, nam ista pena quam tu modo formidabas 
cito terminatur, ilia autem nunquam finitur ; verum non mireris 
si, aliis inaniter gaudentibus, ego appareo tristis semper formi- 
dans inflexibilem justiciam districti judicis qui pro uno peccato 
superbie angelum de paradyso ejecit." Iste igitur rex veram 
habuit sapientiam et qui addidit illi scientiam addidit et dolorem 
dominus noster Jesus Christus qui vivit et regnat per omnia 
secula seculorum. 

XLIII. [fo. 40 ro ] Dum autem cecus doctor cecum id est 
peccatorem vult pascere, cibus in terram cadit, quia doctrinam 
suam ad terrena convertit. Est autem in quibusdam locis con- 
suetudo quod, in festis diebus, cecis conceditur porcus ut 
ipsum occidant et partes suas omnes accipiant. Dum autem 
cecus porcum vult occidere sepe accidit quod seipsum vulnerat 
vel socium percutit et occidit. Pari modo isti doctores ceci, dum 
predicando deberent occidere peccatorem, per avariciam se ipsos 
vulnerant et alios malo exemplo scandalizando ledunt et ali- 
quando occidunt. Vulgo autem dici solet quod nullum animal 
audacius est equo ceco; hii sunt doctores qui avaricia et 
muneribus excecantur. 

XLIV. [fo. 42 ro ] Ecce quot laqueos diabolus tendit litteratis 
et maxime theologis et predicatoribus, nam subplantatis et 
dejectis doctoribus facile deiciuntur discipuli ; verum dicitur 
quod cuidam querenti a cancro cur non incederet recte sed 
retrograde, respondit cancer: " Ita didici a parentibus meis." 

XLV. [fo. 42 VO ] Legimus autem quod pastores et lupi inter 
se magnam habebant discordiam, eo quod lupi oves devorare 
volebant sed pastores prohibebant. Post longam disceptationem 
dixerunt lupi: " Faciamus pacem hac conditione, habeatis oves 

c 



18 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

tantum date nobis canes." Sciunt utique lupi infernales quod 
si canes, id est predicatores, possent sibi subjugare de facili 
possent oves strangulare. 

XL VI. [fo. 43 VO ] Hii igitur habitum summit, non ut Deo 

serviant sed ut comessationibus deliciis et ocio vacent 

Sic legimus de quodam qui habitum suscepit monachalem, ut 
majorem haberet oportunitatem calices furandi et monasterium 
spoliandi, qui postea penitens et ad cor reversus factus est valde 
religiosus. 

XL VII. [fo. 44 V ] Licet autem seculares et potentes in hoc 
seculo in honore habeantur et delicate pascantur, in morte 
tamen tanquam vilia cadavera relinquuntur. Sic accipiter et 
nisus qui ponuntur in perticis super pugnum portantur et carni- 
bus pascuntur, in morte autem in sterquilinium prohiciuntur. 
Gallina autem que non adeo honoratur sed pastum siccum unde 
sustentatur querit et sepe percutitur et fugatur; in morte ad 
mensam divitis honorifice defertur. Ita est de bonis claustra- 
libus juxta illud : " Preciosa est in conspectu Domini mors sanc 
torum ejus." Verum de quodam rege sapiente legimus quod, 
obvians duobus viris religiosis attritis et sordidis vestibus indutis, 
procidens in terra adoravit et amplexatus est eos. Milites autem 
regis videntes hoc indignati sunt valde et ceperunt contra regem 
murmurare. Rex autem, ut obstrueret ora loquentium iniqua, 
fecit fieri duas arenas auro et argento exterius decoratas, interius 
autem plenas fetoribus et ossibus mortuorum. Alias vero duas 
fecit fieri de ligno putrido viles valde et quasi nullius valoris in 
apparencia, et eas cilicinis texit et funibus cilicinis astrinxit, 
quas implevit inestimabilibus margaritis et odoriferis atque pre- 
ciosis unguentis. Quo facto, reprehensiores suos vocari fecit et 
posuit ante illos predictas arcellas ut estimarent que preciosores 
essent. Qui arcellas deauratas multum commendantes dixerunt 
quod in ipsis diademata regalia reponi deberent, alias vero tan 
quam vilissimas spreverunt. Ad quos rex : " Sciebam vos talia 
dicturos qui secundum visum et superficialiter de rebus judica- 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 19 

tis." Tune precepit aperiri arcellas deauratas et exivit intolle- 
rabilis fetor, ita quod omnes fugerent et oculos adverterent. 
Tune rex ait : " Iste est typus eorum qui pompae secular! et 
mundi gloria attolluntur exterius, intrinsecus autem viles sunt 
et pleni fetoribus ac sordibus peccatorum." Postmodum apertis 
aliis, cunctos odore suavissimo respersit et eorum que intus 
posita erant odore et splendore letificavit. u Tales sunt/ inquit, 
u viri illi exterius abjecti, interius autem pleni gratia et virtuti- 
bus quos adorans onoravi ;" et ita docuit omnes, qui insipienter 
murmuraverant, ut attenderent interiora et in exterioribus non 
errarent. Verum et sapientes mercatores dicere solent quod 
malunt lucrari in saccis et vilibus pannis quam perdere in scar- 
letis et pannis preciosis. 

XLVIII. [fo. 46 ro ] Audivi de quibusdam monachis, cum in- 
terdiceretur eis quod silentium tenerent nee etiam manibus 
signa facerent, eo quod vana et curiosa per signa sociis cum 
manibus nunciabant, cum alio modo non auderant, pedibus invi- 
cem loquebantur, regum prelia et gesta pugnatorum et fere 
omnia nova et rumores de toto mundo sociis intimantes. 

XLIX. Verum et de duobus germanis pueris audivi, cum 
unus positus esset in claustro et alius in seculo remansisset, et ad 
annos discretions pervenissent y plures cavillationes et dolos scivit 
claustralis et multo magis maliciosus fuit quam qui in seculo 
remansit. Sicut autem nigredo, aliquando in bono aliquando in 
malo, sumitur, ita corvus quandoque accipitur in bono quan- 
doque vero in malo propter malas ejus proprietates. Corvus 
enim avis est rapax, ecce avaricia clamosa, ecce superbia et ira 
cadaveribus arnica, ecce luxuria ; corvus de archa missus est et 
non est reversus. Hii sunt qui de claustris per apostasiam ex- 
iliunt sidera errancia, nebule turbinibus exagitate. 

L. [fo. 46 VO ] De quibusdam autem monachis audivi quod, 
dissipatis fere omnibus bonis monasterii quando cenare vellent 
splendide, diccbat eis monasterii procurator : " Verum hoc 

c2 



20 EXEMPLA EX SEBMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

habere poterimus, quomodo tantas expensas et tot debita per- 
solvemus." Respondebant monachi : " Tace, miser, affer, 
affer, hoc anno fodiemus et mittemus stercora ut inpinguemus 
agros nostros et terris nostris marlam apponemus et tandem 
vendemus de grano quod divites erimus et omnia debita nostra 
persolvemus." 

LI. In mane autem omnia [monachi] tradebant oblivion i 
similes cuidam vetule que, dum in urceo terreo ad forum lac por- 
taret, cepit cogitare in via quomodo posset fieri dives. Attendens 
autem quod de suo lacte tres obolos habere posset, cepit cogitare 
quod de illis tribus obolis emeret pullum galline et nutriret ita 
quod fieret gallina, ex cujus ovis multos pullos acquirer et ; quibus 
venditis, emeret porcum ; quo nutrito et inpinguato, venderet 
ilium ut inde emeret pullum equinum, et tarn diu nutriret ipsum 
quod aptus esset ad equitandum, et cepit intra se dicere : " Equi- 
tabo equum ilium, et ducam ad pascua, et dicam ei, io, io. ? Cum 
autem hec cogitaret, cepit movere pedes, et, quasi calcaria in 
pedibus haberet, cepit talos movere et pra3 gaudio manibus 
plaudere ; ita quod motu pedum et plausu manuum urceum fregit, 
et lacte in terra effuso, in manibus suis nichil invenit ; et sicut 
prius pauper fuerat, ita postea pauperior fuit. Multi enim 
multa proponunt et nichil faciunt. 

LII. [fo. 48 ro ] Audivi de quodam magno clerico qui fuerat 
advocatus in seculo et fere in omnibus causis obtinebat, cum 
[fo. 48 VO ] suscepisset habitum monachorum frequenter mitte- 
batur ad causas procurandas, et in omni causa succumbebat. 
Yerum abbas et monachi indignati dixerunt ei : a Quomodo in 
causis nostris semper succumbis qui cum esses in seculo semper 
obtinebas in causis alienis." At ille respondit: " Cum essem 
secularis mentiri noil timebam, sed per mendatia et fraudes 
adversaries superabam; nunc autem, quia non audeo dicere 
nisi verum, semper accidit mini contrarium." Et ita permissus 
est in claustri pace quiescere nee amplius missus est ad liti- 
gandum. 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 21 

LIII. Audivi etiam de quodam nobili milite quod relictis 
magnis possession! bus quas habebat, factus est monachus, ut in 
pace et humilitate Deo serviret. Attendens autem abbas quod 
fuisset industrius in seculo, misit eum ad forum ut asinos et 
asinas monasterii, que jam senes erant, venderet et emeret 
juniores. Licet autem viro nobili displiceret voluit obedire. 
Jllis vero qui emere volebant interrogantibus si bone essent 
asine et juvenes, noluit abscondere veritatem sed respondebat : 
" Creditis quod monasterium nostrum ad tantam inopiam de- 
venerit quod asinos juvenes et domui utiles vendere voluerit ?" 
Cum autem quereretur ab eo quare asini ita caudas haberent 
depilatas respondit: " Quia frequenter sub onere decidunt et 
ideo, dum per caudas eos sublevamus, depilantur caude eorum." 
Cum autem nichil vendidisset et ad claustrum fuisset reversus 
conversus quidam, qui cum eo abierat, accusavit eum in capitulo. 
Abbas autem et monachi incandescentes in eum, quasi pro gravi 
eulpa, ipsum disciplinare ceperunt. Quibus ille ait : " Ego 
multos asinos et magnas possessiones in seculo reliqui, nolui 
pro asinabus vestris mentiri et ledere animam meam circurn- 
veniendo proximos." Et ita postmodum ad exteriora et secu- 
laria negocia non miserunt eum. Miles iste nobilis genere sed 
moribus nobilior noluit lapides preciosos pro ligno putrido re- 
linquere, id est claustri quietem pro tumultu seculari, ne assi- 
milaretur asino qui rosis et violis spretis ad carduum cucurrit, 
et rana si ponatur super culcitram pictam prosilit et quam 
citius potest luto se immergit. 

LIV. Et gallus quidam lapidem preciosum reperit in fimo 
de quo nichil prorsus curavit sed ad granum putridum quod 
jtixta margaritam jacebat cucurrit stolide ; nil sapit ilia seges. 

LV. [fo. 50 VO ] Audivi de quodam qui, ut faceret penitentiam, 
sirut assimilatus fuerat bestiis in peccando ita assimilari voluit 
bestiis in edendo, et mane surgens sine manibus herbam pas- 
cebat et frequenter in die taliter comedebat. Cumque diu hoc 
fecessit cepit cogitare in mente de quo orcline angelorum esse 



22 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

deberet qui tantam faciebat penitentiam et responsum est ei per 
angelum : u Tali vita non meruisti esse de ordine angelorum 
sed potius de ordine asinorum." Teste utique B[ernardo] : 
Qui non vixerit ut homo vivet ut bestia. Hie igitur indiscre- 
tione cecidit in presumptionera. 

LVI. Proprium quidem est presumptuosi credere de se supra 
se et ea que non habet putare se habere. Audivi de quodam 
sacerdote qui vocem asinariam et horribilem habebat et tamen 
se bene cantare putabat. Cum autem quadam die cantaret, 
mulier quidam audiens eum plorabat. Presbiter vero credens 
quod suavitate vocis sue ad devotionem et lacrimas mulier in- 
citaretur, cepit adhuc altius clamare. At ilia cepit magis flere. 
Tune sacerdos quesivit a muliere quare fleret, credens audire 
quod libenter audiebat. At ilia dixit : " Domine, ego sum ilia 
infelix mulier cujus asinum lupus ilia die devoravit, et quando 
vos audio cantare, statim ad memoriam reduce quod asinus 
meus ita cantare solebat." Quo audito, sacerdos erubuit et 
unde putavit se reportare laudem confusionem reportavit. 

LVII. [fo. 51 VO ] Audivi de quodam sanctimoniali virgine 
cum esset pulcra facie et vicleret earn quidam princeps potens 
et dives, in cujus terra fundatum erat monasterium, valde earn 
concupivit. Cumque precibus vel muneribus earn superare 
non posset, misit qui violenter earn raperent et a monasterio 
extraherent. Ilia autem tremens et dolens cepit querere a 
circumstantibus quare illam pocius invaderet quam aliam de 
monasterio. Quibus respondentibus propter hoc quod pulchros 
valde habebat oculos, quos intuitus est tyrannus ille, et idcirco 
te desiderat habere. Quo audito, Jlla gavisa est supra modum 
et statim eruens sibi oculos, ait : " Ecce occuli quos desiderat, 
ferte illi ut me in pace dimittat et animam milii non auferat ; " 
et ita perditis oculis carnalibus, spirituales oculos servavit. 

LVIII. Quam dissimilis fuit hec sapiens et castissirna virgo 
cuidam misere moniali quo cum quereretur a quodam nobili 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 23 

milite ut ei commisceretur, abbatis&a ejus abscondit earn in 
quodam loco monasterii secretissimo. Cumque miles ille per 
omnes officinas et angulos monasterii earn quesisset et nullo 
modo invenire potuisset, tandem fatiguatus et tedio affectus, 
cepit recedere. At ilia videns quod querere desisset, eo quod 
non inveniri potuisset, cepit clamare, "cucu," sicut solent pueri 
dicere, quando absconditi sunt et inveniri nolunt. Miles autem 
hoc audito cucurrit et, expleta libidine, miseram deridens 
abscessit. Sicut vero sagum nigrum, ex fervore tincture 
adustum, postquam rumpi et lacerari ceperit, semper amplius 
laceratur, ita hujusmodi nigre postquam in tinctura diaboli 
aduste fuerint, vix aut nunquam possunt resistere aut con- 
tinere, sed semper magis laniantur et corrumpuntur ad modum 
veteris vestimenti. 

LIX. [fo. 53 VO ] Pro pilis igitur caprarum habent [moniales] 
molliciem lecti et vestium et delicatius visere volunt in claustro 
quam mulieres seculares vivant in seculo; unde exemplariter dici 
solet de pulice et febre quod mutuo loquebantur de hospiciis que 
nocte precedente habuerant conquerendo. Dicebat pullex : 
" Ego hospitata fui in lecto cujusdam abbatisse inter duo 
lintneamina alba et subtilia super culcitram optimam et valde 
mollem et credebam optimum habere hospitium, quia valde 
pingues et teneras abbatissa carnes habebat quibus saciari 
sperabam. Primo autem morsu cepit clamare et vocare 
ancillas ut veniret cum candalis et ceperunt querere me. At 
ego me abscondi, quibus recedentibus, reversa sum ad abba- 
tissam. At ilia quociens accessi totiens cum luminaribus 
faciebat me queri et ita hac nocte quiescere non potui et vix 
cum magno periculo evasi." Febris autem dixit: u Et ego 
hospitata sum in domo cujusdam pauperis mulieris, cumque 
earn arripuissem ipsa surgebat et facto lixivio panuos fortiter 
percutiendo abluebat et super humeros pannos in fluvium 
portabat ita quod valde afflicta frigore et fere suffocata in 
flumine vix evasi." Tune pulex respondit : " Mutemus hac 
nocte hospicia et videbimus qualiter nobis erit," Quibus 



24 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

mutatis mane rediens pulex ait : " Optimum hospiciuin hac 
nocte habui. Nam mulierem illam, que iiospita tua fuerat, ita 
fatigatam et dormitantem inveni, quod quievi secure apud earn 
et quantum volui comedi." Cui febris ait : " Optimum con- 
silium dedisti mini, nam abbatissa ilia sub grisio coopertorio et 
lintheaminibus delicatis tota nocte me calefaciens fovebat, et 
licet stimularem earn ipsam in lecto molli abscondita nunquam 
me turbabat. Unde ab hospicio ejus, quamdiu ita amicabiliter 
me tractaverit, nunquam volo recedere." Patet igitur qualiter 
affligebatur delicata et in pace post laborem dormiebat super 
stramen pauper muliercula 

LX. [fo. 53 VO ] Audivi de quadam moniali que temptata 
amore cujusdam juvenis, voluit nocte a claustro recedere, quod 
facere non poterat nisi per ecclesiam transiret et ostium ecclesie 
aperiret. Erat autem transitus ante altare beate Virginis, cui 
semper consueverat inclinare et salutare beatam Virginem, 
transeundo ante ejus ymaginem. Cum igitur transiret, cepit 
more solito inclinari et dicere, u Ave Maria," coram ymagini, et 
statim tantus timor illam invasit quod procedere non potuit. 
Sequent! autem nocte, idem illi accidit et multis noctibus suo 
frustrata proposito ad dormitorium revertebatur. Tandem vehe- 
menti temptatione agitata cogitare cepit quod ita transiret ut 
non inclinaret vel beatam Virginem salutaret, et sic transeundo 
diabolus accepit potestatem in earn et tantam audaciam immisit 
quod aperto ostio ad seculum transiret et post concupiscentias 
suas abiret. In omnibus igitur temptationibus vestris ab beatam 
Virginem recurratis. 

LXI. [fo. 55 VO ] Legimus de quadam virgine Christiana, cum 
nollet ydolis sacrificare, traxerunt earn pagani ad prostibulum, ut 
ab omnibus illuderetur ei, qui suam vellent cum ea libidinem 
explere. Quidam autem ex nobilibus illius loci civibus com- 
patiens virgini, dixit quod prior volebat ei commisceri et tune 
alii ad ipsam possent intrare. Cum autem ingressus est lupanar, 
invenit Christi columbam valde trepidantem ; valde enim anci- 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 25 

pitres infernales metuebat et dixit ei vir nobilis : " Noli timere 
quia ego liberabo te. Indue capam meam et, exiens capite 
inclinato, festina transire per illos qui extra expectant et ipsi 
credentes quod ego sim dimittent te abire." Cum autem ilia 
sub habitu militis evasisset, illi intrantes et non invenientes nisi 
solum militem, confusi recesserunt. Verum merito tanti bene- 
ficii et tante pietatis dominus paganum ilium postea visitavit. 
Hec est digna recompensatio ut qui animas Deo abstulit animas 
illi restituere pro posse suo procuret. Igitur cum omni dili- 
gentia et sollicitudine debemus nos ab omni peccato mortali 
custodire ; qui enim in uno offendit multa bona perdit. 

LXII. Demones siquidem assimilantur satellitibus viri potentis 
qui, cum ducerent hominem ad suspendium, venientes ad silvam 
dixerunt illi : " Oportet quod suspendamus te sicut injunction 
est nobis, sed hanc facimus gratiam ut, ex omnibus arboribus 
hnjus silve, eligas tibi aliquam quam malueris ut in ilia sus- 
pendaris, multas enim pulcras et proceras invenies, que te bene 
siistentabunt et poteris honorifice suspendi." Cum autem duce 
rent ilium per diversas arbores dicebant: " Placet tibi arbor 
ista?" At ille: u Non placet mini, in ista nolo suspendi." Et 
cum per omnes transisset numquam invenire potuit quam 
acceptaret. 

LXIII. [fo. 56 VO ] Infirmi et imperfect! consolatione indigent 
ne habundantiori tristicia absorbeantur, et leniter sunt tractandi, 
juxta illud Ysaiae : " Calamum quassatum non conteret;" non 
sicut quidam confessor qui, audiens peccata cujusdam, nares 
obturabat et peccator amplius noluit ei aliquod peccatum reve- 
lare, sed dixit confessori : " Si tu obturas nasum pro illis 
peccatis que dixi tibi, quomodo sustineres majora que feci, forte 
si audires fetor te suffocaret." Et ita scandalizatus recessit. De 
quodam alio audivi qui confitentibus peccata solebat in faciem 
conspuere et abhominari peccatores quos compatiendo attrahere 
debuisset ; verum cum infirmis dispensare solent perfectiores. 



26 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

LXIV. [fo. 57 VO ] Audivi de quibusdam qui carnes non 
comedebant, nichilominus totum bachonem suum in frixuris 
consuinebant. E contra de parentibus Sansonis legimus quod 
non solum carnes sed et jus sacrificaverunt Deo. Non solum 
autem carnem exterius sed cogitationes interiores mortificare 
debemus et Deo sacrificare, ut sit virgo casta spiritu et corpore. 
Dominus enim semper paratus est adjuvare si cooperari vult 
virgo et pugnare. Verum et sanctus Ambrosius narrat de 
quadam virgine quam pagani ad prostibulum traxerunt, quia 
ydolis sacrificare nolebat, et quia cum gaudio martyrium 
suscipere volebat, nolebant occidere sed libidine maculare. 
Cum autem quidam earn jam teneret et ipsa pro posse suo 
repugnaret, facta oratione, leo per mediam transiens civitatem 
ad prostibulum cucurrit et, arrepto homine illo, ad virginem 
respiciens non statim laniabat sed mandatum virginis expectabat. 
At ille cepit virgini supplicare ut leoni preciperet ne ipsum 
occideret. Ilia vero volens pro malo reddere bonum de dentibus 
leonis juvenem liberavit et, cunctis perterritis, virgo intacta 
evasit. 

LXV. Verum ibidem Ambrosius narrat de quadam religiosa 
matrona, que rogavit quamdam abbatissam ut unam de monia- 
libus suis illi concederet, que cum ea aliquanto tempore maneret. 
Cum autem quamdam secum duxisset ilia, in omnibus que 
faciebat ei matrona gratias agebat et ita mitis erat et benigna 
quod neminem offendebat, sed omnibus servire cupiebat, nee 
unum malum verbum procedebat ex ore ejus. Procedente autem 
tempore, cum abbatissa matronam et monialem suam visitaret, 
dixit ei matrona : a Rogo vos ut reducatis monialem istarn et 
concedatis mihi aliam ex cujus convictu lucrum valeam reportare, 
ista enim non permittit quod serviatur ei sed omnibus vult 
servire, concedatis mihi illam que magis gravat vos et domum 
vestram." At ilia concessit ei quandam virginem valde liti- 
giosam et iracundam, que semper murmurabat contra matronam 
et ejus familiam, et nichil illi poterat fieri quod placeret ei, et 
cum multis conviciis improperabat matrone, quod earn de 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 27 

monasteris extraxerat in quo longe melius pascebatur et com- 
petentius tractabatur. Evoluto autem anno, venit abbatissa 
matronam et monialem visitatura ; valde enim de nequitia 
monialis timebat ne forte dominam illam ofFendisset. Tune 
matrona dixit abbatisse : " Dominus vobis retribuat quod opti- 
mam sociam mihi concessistis, numquam enim in vita mea 
tantum lucrata sum patientia exhibendo, quantum lucrata sum 
hoc anno ; nolo quod umquam recedat ista a me que nunquam 
laudat me pro aliquo beneficio sicut me laudabat alia quam 
mihi concessistis." Istud attendere debent moniales et virgines 
religiose ut malis et discolis patienciam exhibeant. 

LXVL [fo. 59 V ] Audivi de quodam paupere laico qui, pro- 
priis manibus laborando, victum tenuem omni die sibi acquircbat, 
nee ei plusquam cenaret quicquam remanebat. Omni nocte prius- 
quam dormiret multum cantabat et letabatur in tugurio suo cum 
uxore sua, et post modum letus et securus dormiebat. Cantab it 
vacuus coram latrone viator. Yicini autem ejus, qui divites 
Brant, nunquam cantabant sed semper in curis et sollicitudinibus 
in timore et angustia permanebant. Cum autem de tanto gaudio 
illius pauperis mirarentur et quidam murmurarent et conquerer- 
entur quod pauper ille, dum cantaret, non sineret eos dormire, 
dixit quidam valde dives vicinis suis : " Yos nescitis quicquam 
nee cogitatis, ego reddam eum talem quod nee gaudebit nee 
cantandi habebit voluntatem." Tune, presentibus vicinis quos 
absconderat in quodam loco ut viderent et testes essent, projecit 
sacculum cum pecunia ante ostium pauperis, ilia hora qua 
solebat exire ut victum quereret ex labore. Inventa autem 
pecunia, reversus est in domum suam et abscondit illam. Immi- 
nente autem nocte, cepit anxius esse et sollicitus, ex una parte 
metuens ne latrones pecuniam furarentur, ex alia parte formi- 
dans si de pecunia possessiones emeret et melius solito se 
indueret ab illo qui amiserat pecuniam vel a domino terre 
deprehenderetur et furti argueretur. In hac ergo cogitatione 
efc mentis anxietate permanens, non gaudebat, nee cantabat 
more solito cum uxore. Tune dives ille et alii vicini ejus post 



28 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

aliquantum tempus ceperunt querere ab eo cur ita macilentus et 
tristis factus esset. Curaque ille veritatem fateri non auderet, 
ait dives ille : (i Ego scio veritatem, non potes abscondere, tu 
tali die et in tali loco pecuniam meam invenisti et, videntibus 
his omnibus qui presentes sunt, in domum tuam detulisti." At 
ille timens et erubescens, ait: " Maledicta sit ista pecunia que 
me tantum afflixit quod, postquam illam inveni, gaudium non 
habui et longe magis fatigatus sum animo quam prius tota 
die manibus propriis laborando, fatigatus fuerim corpore ; 
tolle pecuniam tuam ut letari et cantare valeam, sicut con- 



LXVIL Audivi de quibusdam monasteriis que in principio 
fundationis sue, cum modicas possessiones haberent, fratres valde 
hospitales erant transeuntibus et benigni pauperibus et cum 
gaudio absque sollicitudine Domino serviebant. Postquam autem 
facti fuerunt divites et amplas habuerunt possessiones totum 
contrarium faciebant. Unde et quidam abbas, cum valde 
durus esset et inhumanus, semper sibi similes nequiores quam 
invenire poterat in hospicio et ad portam abatie et in aliis obedi- 
entiis ponebat. Accidit autem quod joculator quidam, cum iter 
faceret, nocte compellente ad monasterium hospitaturus diver- 
teret, qui nee vultum hylarem nee aliquam invenit pietatem, 
sed vix panem nigerrimum et legumina cum sale et aqua et 
lectum durum et sordidum potuit obtinere. Mane autem valde 
offensus recedens, cogitare cepit quomodo de illo nequissimo 
procuratore, qui preerat hospicio, posset se vindicare et, cum 
aliquantulum processisset, occurrit illi abbas qui pro quibusdam 
negociis exierat et ad abbatiam redibat. Cui joculator ait: 
" Bene veniat dominus meus bonus abbas et liberalis, gratias 
vobis refero et toti conventui qui a frater ille, qui preest hospicio, 
hac nocte splendide me procuravit, preparans mihi pisces optimos 
cum vino precioso et igne magno, et tot alia fercula mihi ap- 
posuit quod numerum scire non possum et in recessu meo cal- 
ciamenta mihi dedit cum corrigia et cultello." Audiens hec abbas 
iratus valde pro gravi crimine dure verberavit et, eo projecto ab 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 29 

officio, alium quern credidit nequiorem loco ill! us constituit, et 
ita joculator de cane illo nequissimo se vindicavit. 

LXVIII. [fo. 61 VO ] Unde de quodam abbate valde religiose 
audivi quod, cum quidam latro pessimus, quasi homo de- 
speratus et princeps latronum, regionem in quam habitabat 
predaretur, multos spolians et jugulans, abbas ille equuni ascen- 
dens ivit ad locum ubi latro cum sociis suis morabatur. Videntes 
autem ilium a longe concurrerunt ut equum illi auferrent et 
vestibus spoliarent. Cumque abbas quereret a principe latronum 
quid vellet: "Volo, inquit, equum ilium et omnia vestimenta 
tua." Cui abbas : " Aliquanto tempore equum istum equitavi 
et vestibus istis usus sum, mm est justum ut bona Dei solus 
habeam, sed tibi et sociis tuis si indigetis volo communicare." 
Ait latro : " Hodie equum et vestes vendemus ut panem et vinum 
et carnes emamus." [fo. 62 ro ] Cui abbas: " Fili, quare tamen 
laboras pro victu tuo et exponis te periculo, veni mecum ad 
monasterium et ego quamdiu volueris melius procurabo te et 
omnia necessaria tibi dabo." Cui latro: a Non possem manducare 
fabas vestras et olera, nee bibere vinum corruptum aut cervi- 
siam vestram." Cui abbas: " Dabo tibi panem album et vinum 
optimum et tot fercula carnium et piscium quot desiderat anima 
tua." Cumque vix ille acquiesceret ut aliquanto tempore pro- 
baret quid ei facere vellet abbas, postquam veniret ad monas 
terium, duxit eum abbas in cameram valde pulchram et fecit 
fieri magnum ignem et lectum pulchrum et suavem coopertoriis 
preciosis, assignans ei monachum, qui omnia quecumque desi- 
deraret sibi prepararet, precepitque abbas monacho ut omni die, 
postquam latro splendide comedisset, ipse coram eo non nisi 
panem et aquam comederet. Cumque latro pluribus diebus mona 
chum artam dietam observantem vidisset, cepit cogitare quod 
monachus ille multa mala fecisset, qui tarn duram faciebat peni- 
tenciam et quadam die quesivit ab eo : a Frater, quid fecisti qui te 
omni die ita affligis, si homines interfecisti ?" Cui monachus: 
" Absit, domine, quod unquam hominem constristaverim, nedum 
occiderim ; ego enim a puericia mea hoc monasterium intravi." 



30 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

Cui latro: " Si fornicationem vel adulterium vel sacrileginm 
fecisti?" Cui ille, pre ammiratione se signando ait. "Domine, 
quid est quod dixistis, Deus tantam iniquitatem avertat a me, ego 
nee unquam feminam tetigi." " Quid igitur fecisti quod ita corpus 
tuum affligis ? " Ait monachus: "Domine, propter Dominum 
hec facio ut jejunando, orando, alia opera penitencie faciendo, 
Dominum mihi propitium reddam." Audiens latro valde com- 
punctus est et cepit intra se cogitare: Quam miser sum et infelix 
qui tot mala, tot furta, tot homicidia, tot adulteria et sacrilegia 
semper feci et nunquam vel una die jejunavi et iste monachus 
innocens tantam penitenciam omni die facit et, vocato abbate, 
cecidit ad pedes ejus rogans eum ut in collegio fratrum reciperet 
ipsum. Qui postea diu in monasterio adeo se afflixit quod 
omnes alios abstinentia et religione superavit, et ita abbas 
exemplo monachi qui ministrabat latroni non solum animam 
ejus lucratus est Deo sed multos a morte liberavit, quos latro 
ille spoliasset et jugulasset. Ecce quantum prodest exemplum 
bonum, e contrario valde nocet exemplum malum. 

LXIX. Unde legimus quod quidam miles quemdam pauperem 
servientem ceperat in guera, cumque ilium incarcerasset, rogavit 
ilium ut permitteretur abire et quereret redemptionem suam. 
Misertus miles ait : " Quam securitatem dabis mihi ?" At ille : 
" Do tibi fidejussorem Dominum et insuper juratoriam cau- 
tionem, aliud tibi facere non possum." Cum igitur homo ille 
totum patrimonium vendidisset, ut militi pecuniam afferret, non 
potuit ad diem prefixum venire, unde miles iratus cum quodam 
die equitaret, vidit quemdam monachum valde pinguem et rubi- 
cundum qui optimum palefridum equitabat et more secularium 
pompose incedebat. At miles cepit armigeris dicere : u Ecce 
monachus iste qui debuisset equitare asinum, meliorem habet 
equum quam ego." Et accedens tenuit equum monachi per 
frenum et dixit monacho : " Cujus estis?" Et ille: "Non 
habeo dominum nisi Deum/ Cui miles: " Dominus tuus, de 
cujus familia es, et cujus te dicis famulum ? est fidejussor meus, 
volo ut satisfacias pro ipso." Et abstulit ei equum. Non multum 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 31 

autem post venit homo ille qui vendiderat quicquicl habebat et 
petebat veniam a milite quod ad terminum prefixum non 
potuisset venire, obtulit illi pecuniam redemptionis sue. Cui 
miles ait : tc Amice, tolle pecuniam tuam et vade nam fidejussor 
tuus bene liberavit te. Dominum enim mihi fidejussorem 
dedisti, et ego a quodam de familia ejus hunc equum pro libera- 
tione tua accepi." Ille vero pauper homo gaudens et Deo 
gratias agens pecuniam suam reportavit. Ecce quomodo 
monachus ille exemplo malo militem provocavit quia, humilitate 
monachali a se relegata, moribus se exhibebat secularem. 

LXX. [fo. 62 VO ] Hii sunt ypocrite et falsi religiosi qui ad 
tempus religionem simulant ut preficiantur et abbates fiant, 
sicut de quodam abbate audivi quod multum ante promotionem 
suam in pane et aqua jejunabat, et nee carnes nee pisces nisi 
modicos manducare volebat. Cum autem factus est abbas, cepit 
magnos pisces comedere et cum quereretur ab eo de tarn 
repentina nmtatione, respondit : " Diu jejunavi vigiliam hujus 
sollempnitatis idcirco enim parvos pisciculos manducabam ut 
aliquando magnos manducare possem." Qui igitur religionem 
simulant, postquam quod desiderabant optinent, apparent quales 
fuerant. 



LXXI. [fo. 63 VO ] Audivi autem quod quidam ratus, quern 
glyrem nominant, in voluntate habuit religionem seu claustrum 
intrare in quo se posset salvare. Cumque venisset ad quemdam 
locum vidit magnum ratum in balista pendentem et dixit illi : 
" Quid hie facis ?" At ille : " Nonne vides quod ego pendeo in 
cruce et hie meam facio penitenciam." Ratus autem respondit: 
u Non mihi placet istud claustrum, nimis durum videtur et 
austerum." Cumque ad alium locum processisset, vidit alium 
ratum in decipula ferrea inclusum. Cumque quereret quid illic 
ageret respondit : " Nonne vides quod in claustro isto peniten 
ciam meam facio?" At ille: "Nimis artum est claustrum 
istud, non possem talem penitenciam facere nee ita strictam 
religionem sustinere." Cumque modicum processisset, vidit 



32 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

ratos multos in lardario quodam discurrentes et de carnibus 
quantum vellent comedentes. Quibus ait : u Quid in hoc loco 
facitis?" At illi responderunt : " Claustrum istud intravimus 
ut religiose viventes penitentiam faciamus." At ille : " Opti 
mum claustrum invenistis pro salvandis corporibus vestris. 
Volo vobiscum manere et penitenciam meam facere, alia enim 
claustra reperi sed vita ista pre aliis placet mihi." Audiant 
igitur et attendant qui arta monasteria et congregationes claus- 
tralium in veritate Christo militantium orando, jejunando et 
carnem propriam mortificando, fugiunt et dissolutos conventus 
querunt ubi deliciis vacent et carnes suas ignibus gehenne 
cremendas inpinguent, qui in siccitate spiritus malunt remanere 
quam irrigari piscinis quas extruxit verus Salomon Dominus 
noster. 

LXXII. [fo. 65 ro ] Que nimis apparent retia vitat avis, 
verum diabolus sub specie boni quandoque aves et religiosos 
decipit ut se ipsos nimis affligendo inutiles reddant vel etiam 
aliis despectis, de se presumant, unde legimus de quodam 
heremita, qui valde asperam longo tempore fecerat penitenciam, 
quod, cum ad eum quidam latro venisset, qui multos spoliaverat 
et jugulaverat, facta confessione, nullam ab heremita volebat 
penitenciam recipere ; semper enim de latrocinio et rapina 
vixerat et jejunare vel aliquam penitenciam facere non con- 
sueverat. Tandem heremita ab illo accepit quod potuit, et 
injunxit ei ut, quociens juxta viam aliquam crucem videret, 
flexo genu orationem dominicam diceret. Cumque latro hanc 
solam penitenciam suscepisset, remotus paululum a cella here- 
mite videns hostes suos, quorum consanguineos occiderat, 
fugere cepit. Quo fugiente, crux super viam erecta illi occurrit 
et statim, flexo genu, cepit orationem dominicam dicere et 
crucem adorare et cum evasisse potuisset, si continue cucurrisset, 
maluit mori quam penitenciam sibi injunctam preterire. Cum 
ergo ab hostibus fuisset peremptus, vidit dictus heremita angelos 
Dei cum gaudio portantes animam latronis vel potius martyris, 
et cepit cogitare ex magna presumptione et valde indignari et 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 33 

dolere quod, per multos annos, penitenciam durissimam fecisset 
et tamen latro ille et homicida, qui nunquam penitenciam 
fecerat, eum in gloriam precessisset, et spiritu nequam agitari 
cepit relicto heremo ad seculum ire et quia per apostasiam 
dedit locum diabolo, accepta in eum potestate, timens diabolus 
ne aliquando ad penitentiam deberet red ire, posito in via 
obstaculo corruit et, collo confracto, sepultus est in inferno. 
Finis non pugnam coronat ; ubi te invenero, ibi te judicabo. 
Alie virtutes in stadio currunt sed sola perseverantia bravium 
accipit et reportat .... 

LXXIII. Exemplariter autem dici solet contra indiscrete 
corpora sua affligentes, quod tota familia membrorum, pedes 
scilicet, manus et caput et cetera membra habuerunt inter se 
colloquium et valde conquerebantur de ventre. Quicquid enim 
acquirebant manus operando et pedes ambulando, et alia 
membra laborando, ille divus exactor, id est venter, consumebat, 
et propter ipsum pascendum, diebus ac noctibus, variis fatigaren- 
tur laboribus. Post magnam autem deliberationem, communi 
assensu statuerunt quod a ventris dominio se eximerent, et eum 
de cetero non pascerent. Cum uno die jejunassent, ut se de 
ventre vindicarent, aliquantulum ceperunt debilitari [fo. 65 VO ] ; 
die autem sequenti, amplius die tercio vix sustinere potuerunt. 
Cepit autem caput exinaniri et dolere, oculi obtenebrescere ; 
manus vix poterant se movere, pedes non poterant ambulare et 
omnia membra ceperunt languere et tandem, necessitate compel- 
lente, coacta sunt ad priorem dominum redire, et de tanto ex- 
cessupostulatavenia, ventri satisfacere, detemeritate sua arguendo 
seipsa, et cum verecundia et rubore confitentia quod nullo modo 
possent subsistere, nisi tantus paterfamilias eis necessaria minis- 
traret. Oportet igitur in omnibus modum tenere, quod est valde 
necessarium viris sollitariis qui plerumque non habent qui illos 
intueantur vel a quibus arguantur .... 

LXXIV. [fo. 66 VO ] Necesse est ut senes coram nobis sedeant, 
ut scilicet ante mentis oculos sanctorum exempla habeamus, et 



34 BXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

insuper quod corporaliter laborando honestis occupationibus 
intendamus. Unde legimus de sancto Antonio quod, cum 
aliquando tedio afficeretur in heremo, vidit angelum aliquando 
orantem, aliquando operantem et dicentem sibi: "Sic fac et 
salvuseris." Propterca in evangelio dicitur : " Videte ne fiat 

fuga vestra in hyeme vel in sabbato " Sicut hi 

qui dum creduntur inveniri in Sychem et in labore inveniuntur 
in Dothaym id est in defectu, pigri scilicet et ociosi, sicut autem 
vestis reposita quo non est in usu, tinea consumitur, ita corpus 
ociosum, quod est vestis anime, tinea parvorum desideriorum 
vastatur . . . 

LXXV. [fo. 67 ro ] Magis offendit religiosus post votum quam 
homo secularis, et magis subicitur diabolo, postquam corruere 
incipit. Unde legimus quod sanctus Macharius in heremo 
vidit diabolum quasi indutum tunica, que tota phyalis erat cir- 
cumdata et operta. Qui interrogatus a viro sancto quo pergeret, 
respondit: u Vado ad heremum visitare fratres." Cui sanctus: 
" Et quid sibi volunt phyale ille ? " Demon respondit: " Yariis 
sunt potionibus plene ut qui de una bibere noluerit de alia bibat. 
In una quidem est potus carnalis concupiscentie, in alia potus 
superbie et ita de ceteris viciis." Cum igitur demon adjuratus 
per sanctum Macharium rediret, vidit omnes phyalas vacuas et 
flere cepit et tandem, comperta veritate, cognovit quod unus 
solus omnes phyalas exhauserat, aliis fortiter resistentibus temp- 
tationibus inimici. 

LXXVI. Valde autem cavere debet vir religiosus ab inimici 
reductionibus, qui transfigurat se in angelum lucis et reducere 
temptat sub specie justi consilii. Unde legimas quod pater car 
nalis cujusdam solitarii veniebat visitaturus filium suum. Quern 
demon preveniens in specie boni angeli dixit solitario: "Cave 
tibi a diabolo nam ipse valde subtiliter te decipere querit. Cras 
enim venturus est ad te, in specie patris tui, tu vero vindica te 
de illo et habeas securim paratam ut cum venerit, ita fortiter 
eum percutias ut alia vice venire non presumat." Creclidit ille 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 35 

quod esset angelus a Deo missus qui consilium dederat illi. 
Sequent! die, cum in rei veritate pater ejus ad eum venit, securi 
ipsum occidit. Ecce quam miserabiliter deceptus est ille qui 
debui[sse]t spiritus probare et non facile acquiescere. 

LXXVII. [fo. 68 VO ] Multos enim vidimus magis proficero, 
licet tardi ingenii, quam qui de viribus et subtilitate ingenii 
presumebant et ab aliis audire nolebant. Audivi autem de duobus 
quorum unus humilis pauper erat, alius pauper superbus. Pauper 
quidem humilis ubisegetes triturabantur in [fol. 69 ro ] areis cum 
cyrotheca, frumentum in elemosinam postulabat, nee inveniebat 
aliquem qui plenam modicam cyrothecam frumenti illi negaret, 
et quia a multis recepit, licet ab quoque modicum recepisset, 
cito factus est dives. Ex multis minimis grandis acervus erit. 
Pauper autem superbus nolebat parvam elemosinam recipere, 
sed magnum saccum secum ferebat, quern videntes hii a quibus 
petebat, nichil volebant ei dare, quasi perterriti sacci magni- 
tudine, et quia paucos invenit qui darent ei, accidit quod magis 
lucratus est pauper humilis cum cyrotheca quam pauper superbus 
cum sacco. Unde in parabola : melior est pauper sibi sufficiens 
quam gloriosus indigens pane 

LXXVIII. Legimus de quodam rege qui dixit cuidam 
militi suo : " Eamus nocte per civitatem et videamus que fiant 
in ea." Cum autem ad quendam locum devenissent, viderunt 
lumen per foramen in quodam subterraneo habitaculo, in quo 
sedebat homo pauper, cum sordidis et laceratis vestibus, cum 
uxore sua pauperrima, que coram viro suo saltabat et cantabat 
et laudibus eum extollebat. Tune rex mirari cepit quod hi, 
qui tanta gravati erant inopia et vestimentis carebant, nee 
domum habebant, ita letam et securam et quasi locupletem 
vitam ducebant, et ait militi suo : " Valde mirabile est quod 
nunquam mihi et tibi ita placuit vita nostra, que tantis deliciis 
et tanta refulget gloria, sicut hos stultos letificat miserrima vita 
sua, que dulcis et suavis videtur eis, cum sit aspera et amara." 
Cui miles sapienter respondit : " Multo amplius miseram et 

D2 



36 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

stultam nostram reputant vitam vere vite et eterne glorie 
dilectores, qui splendida palatia nostra et vestes et divitias 
tanquam stercora reputant, respectu celestium divitiarum et 
gloriam nostram tanquam ventum et inane estimant, respectu 
inenarrabilis pulchritudinis et glorie sanctorum que est in celis ; 
nam quemadmodum desipere nobis isti ubi sunt, eodem modo 
et amplius nos qui in hoc mundo erramus et sufficientiam nobis 
esse putamus, in ista falsa gloria lamentationibus digni sumus 
in oculis eorum qui gustaverunt dulcedinem eternorum bo- 



LXXIX. [fo. 69 VO ] De celeri obedientia legitur in vita 
patrum quod frater quidam, cum scriberet, vocatus a preposito 
suo litteram inchoatam reliquit imperfectam. .... 

LXXX. [fo. 71 ro ] Novi quosdam ex predicatoribus qui valde 
religiosi dicebantur et zelum videbantur habere, sed non 
secundum scientiam, cum venissent ad partes illas in quibus 
floret religio pre ceteris locis, maxime in monialibus et ceteris 
virginibus simul in diversis collegiis habitantibus, ceperunt 
predicare et confessiones audire. Quedam autem ex dictis 
mulieribus infirmitates et temptationes suas et fragilis nature 
lapsum sub confessionis sigillo ostenderunt illis tanquam viris 
religiosis, ut eorum orationibus specialius juvarentur. Illi vero 
temerarie non solum suspicati sunt alias esse tales sed in 
diversis tarn clericorum quam laicorum congregationibus, qui 
predicte rcligioni moribus suis valde dissimili detrahunt, pre- 
dicaverunt memoratas sanctarum virginum congregationes 
potius esse prostibula quam conventus religiosos et ita pau- 
carum defectus in omnes diffundentes, quantum in ipsis fuit 
religionem Deo et Deum timentibus approbatam infamantes, 
multos scandalizaverunt. 

LXXXI. Hi igitur qui compati nesciunt sed magis indignari, 
similes sunt cuidam seni, de quo in vita patrum dicitur quod, 
ex magna indignatione, nimis austere increpavit juvenem 



JACOBI VITKIACENSIS. 37 

quemdam qui spiritu fornicationis temptabatur. Cumquo ille 
desperans iret ad seculum, obviam habuit abbatem valde 
religiosum, cumque interrogasset quo iret retulit ei totam 
veritatem. Abbas vero consolans eum et pro ipso orans 
reduxit et oravit Dominum ut temptationes illas converterefc 
in senem et statim vidit Ethiopem stantem juxta senem et 
mitten tern sagittas contra ilium. Quibus perforatus senex 
hue illucque ferebatur et non valens sustinere, egressus ibat 
ad seculum. Cui abbas: "Quovadis?" Qui pre verecundia 
nil respondit. Dixit autem abbas : " Cognosce infirmitatem 
tuam et vade in cellam tuam et cogita quod, ignoratus a diabolo 
aut contemptus, non metuisti habere luctam ob defectum virium 
tuarum qui nee uno die pugnare potuisti ; hoc autem tibi 
contingit eo quod fratri infirmo non condescendisti sed extinxisti 
lignum fumigans et calamum quassatum contrivisti/ Et dum 
oraret pro eo liberatus est senex. De his autem incantis et 
presumptuosis dicit Greg[orius] quod locuntur per impa- 
tienciam elationis et idem loqui se credunt per libertatem 
rectitudinis 

LXXXII. Legimus de quodam rege qui, cum filios mares non 
haberet tristabatur valde. Cui natus est filius masculus et 
gavisus est gaudio magno valde ; dixerunt autem regi periti 
medici quod filius ejus talis erat dispositionis, si solem vel ignem 
infra decem annos videret, lumine oculorum privaretur. Quo 
audito, rex in spelunca filium cum nutricibus inclusit, in qua, 
usque ad x. annos, luminis claritatem non vidit, et tune, puero de 
spelunca educto, cum rex mundalium nullam haberet noticiam, 
precepit rex ei ostendi omnia que sunt in mundo, secundum 
genus suum, videlicet viros seorsum, mulieres seorsum, equos 
in alio loco, aurum, argentum, lapides preciosos et omnia que 
delectare possunt oculos intuentium. Cum autem puer quereret 
nomina singulorum et ventum est ad mulieres, quidam regis 
servus respondit ludendo: " Iste sunt demones homines sedu- 
centes." Cor vero pueri illarum desiderio plus quam ceteris 
rebus anhelabat. Cumque rex a puero quereret quid magis 



38 EXJilMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

ex omnibus que viderat amaret, respondit : u Magis diligo 
demones illos qui seducunt homines quam omnia alia que vidi." 
Ecce quomodo hominis natura in hac parte prona est ad lapsum 
et idcirco qui volant esse continentes necesse est ut fugiant 
mulieres. 

LXXXIII. [fo. 72 ro ] Hujusmodi impiis non est pax, sed 
semper sunt in amaritudine et contentione, sicut duo galli, licet 
pugnandi causam non habeant, statim quando unus alium videt 
intra se pugnant. Hi ergo maliciosi et invide sunt velut 
nicticorax que est avis nocturna ; de nocte videt, de die quasi 
ceca oberrat et invidus bonis aliorum cecatur nee videre 
potest, mala autem libenter intuitur. Nicticorax in ruinosis 
habitat et invidus infirmitatibus aliorum delectatur et in illis 
quiescit . . . 

LXXXIV. [fo. 72 VO ] Audivi de quodam, qui nunquam in 
tota vita sua in seculo super cervical caput reclinaverat, quod 
ingressus religionem eo quod una nocte pulvinari caruit, quia 
abluebatur pannus lineus qui pulvinar operiebat, totum con- 
ventum conquerando et murmurando turbavit. 

LXXXV. [fo. 73 ro ] Vidimus enim quondam milites ordinis 
nostri, ita ferventes in jejuniis et afflictione corporis sui, quod 
in armis et preliis contra Sarracenos ex nimia debilitate facile 
succumbebant. Unde audivimus de quodam valde religiose sed 
non secundum scientiam quod, in Sarracenorum conflictu, primo 
ictu lancee de equo suo cecidit, quern quidam frater ejus cum 
magno persone sue periculo relevavit, qui statim alio ictu iterum 
corruit et, cum a fratre suo rursum levaretur, dixit ei frater 
ejus miles, scilicet qui eum jam bis levaverat et a morte 
liberaverat, increpans eum de immoderatis jejuniis : " Domine 
panis et aqua, caveatis de cetero vobis, quia si iterum cecideritis 
numquam per me relevabimini." Panem et aquam vocabat 
cum eo quod, in pane et aqua frequenter jejunando, nimis 
debilitaverat corpus suum et inutile reddiderat ad pugnandum. 
Non enim Deum temptare debetis sed facere quod in vobis 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 39 

est previa ratione et tune secure pro Christo mortem potestis 
suscipere. 

LXXXVI. Qui enim ex nobis pro defensione ecclesie mori- 
untur martyres reputantur, unde in antiquis hystoriis legimus 
quod, cum rex Iherosolimitanus Ascalonam longo tempore 
obsedisset et earn nullo modo resistentibus Sarracenis capere 
potuisset, quidam valde strenui milites ex Templariis capti 
fuerunt a Sarracenis et, in contumeliam nominis Christi, cunctis 
cernentibus supra portam civitatis suspensi. Cum autem rex et 
fratres Templi hoc vidissent et, animo consternati pre dolore 
quasi desperati, ab obsidione recedere voluissent, vir egregius et 
magne fidei magister Templi prohibuit dicens : " Videtis mar- 
tyres istos in patibulo suspenses, sciatis quod precesserunt et ad 
Deum perrexerunt ut nobis redderent civitatem." Quod rei 
eventus comprobavit ; nam post biduum contra spem omnium 
civitatem ceperunt quam nullo modo se posse capere credebant. 

LXXXVII. In principio quidem reiigionis illius fratres illi 
ab omnibus sancti habebantur, unde cum a Sarracenis supra 
modum odio haberentur, accidit quod quidam miles nobilis qui, 
de partibus Francie causa peregrinationis, ultra mare perrexerat 
captus fuit cum quibusdam militibus fratrum milicie Templi, et 
qui a calvus erat et barbatus crediderunt Sarraceni quod esset 
Templarius et cum Templariis occidendus. Alii autem qui 
seculares milites erant non occidebantur sed capti vi ducebantur, 
cumque diceretur ei : " Tu Templarius es ;" et ille sicut verum 
erat diceret : a Miles sum secularis et peregrin us," responden- 
tibus Sarracenis : " Immo Templarius es," ille zelo fidei 
accensus extento collo dixit : " In nomine Domini sim Tem 
plarius." Eo dicto, gladio percussus cum fratribus Templi 
novus Templarius ad Dominum migravit, martyrio feliciter 
coronatus. 

LXXXVIII. [fo. 73 VO ] Quanto autem religio nostra majoris 
est perfectionis, tanto magis diabolus vos persequitur et sup- 



40 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAKIBUS 

plantare nititur ; unde oportet quod cautelam magnam habeatis 
et similes sitis cuidam homini sapienti sed secutienti qui, cum 
dives esset et tyrannum qaemdam sub cujus dominio diu fuerat 
valde timeret, omnia bona sua ad aliam regionem latenter pre- 
misit. Tandem ipse personaliter fugere volens equum rufum 
ascendit et puerum secum in equo sedere fecit, qui equum 
regeret et viam illi ostenderet. Cum autem equitaret dominus 
ille misit post servum qui ab ejus dominio recedebat et dixit 
puer: "Ecce quidam super equum nigrum currit post nos ut 
nos comprehendat." Cui homo fugiens respondit : * * Bene evade- 
mus in nomine Domini." Et calcaribus urgens equum, evasit. 
Sed paulo post puer domino suo dixit : " Ecce quidam cum equo 
albo nos valde velociter insequitur et jam fere nos comprehendit." 
Cui homo respondit: "Netimeas quia et istum evademus auxilio 
Dei." Et calcaribus equum stimulans et velocius currens, evasit 
illesus. Sed post modicum puer domino ait : a Ecce quidam 
velocius ceteris nos insequitur et apprehendere nititur." Cui 
homo dixit. " Cujusmodi equum habet ? " Dixit puer : 
" Equum rufum equo tuo valde similem." At ille valde ex- 
pavit et ait puero : " Declina ad viam illam lapidosam." Quo 
facto ille qui insequebatur valde appropinquare cepit. Cumquo 
puer dixisset : u Domine ecce fere nos apprehend it/ ait domi 
nus : <c Due equum per aquas illas et viam lutosam intremus." 
Quo facto, ille qui persequebatur sequi ilium non potuit, et ita 
homo ille secutiens omnia pericula evasit. Per quern peccator 
penitens intelligitur qui se regere non potest nisi ducatu pueri, 
et est rationis per gratiam illuminate qui, ut evadat a dominio 
crudelis tiranni cui diu servivit id est diaboli, omnia bona sua 
pauperibus erogando premittit omnibus renunciando sicut et vos 
fecistis, et fugit cum equo rufo caritate succensus et paratus 
sanguinem effundere pro Christo. Diabolus autem cum equo 
nigro eum insequitur varias ei tribulationes immittens, deinde 
cum equo albo ut quern deicere non potest aclversitate attollat et 
seducat prosperitate. Cum autem nee frangere potest adversis 
nee attollere prosperis, immittit temptationem, cunctis aliis magis 
difficilem ct periculosam, insequens eum cum equo simili suo, 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 41 

dum laudari facit eum de sanctitate et sancta conversatione et 
religionis fervore, et tune oportet quod per viam lapidosam ince- 
dat, seipsum corde per contricionem et corpore per afflictionem 
humiliando, quod si hoc modo non possit evadere et vanam 
gloriam fugere ultimum et precipuum remedium est ut ingre- 
diatur lutum, immundicias vite sue et peccata preterita continue 
ad memoriam revocando. Ita et vos fratres karissimi .... 

LXXXIX. [fo. 75 ro ] Semper igitur parati sitis sanguinem 
nostrum pro Christo effundere et animas nostras pro Deo cum 
desiderio et gaudio ponere, exemplo cujusdam militis Christi 
qui cum multitudinem videret Sarracenorum cepit ex magna 
fiducia et cordis exultatione dicere equo suo : " Morellebono 
socie, multas bonas dietas feci te ascendendo et equitando sed 
ista dieta omnes alias superabit, nam hodie ad vitam eternam 
me portabis." Et hoc dicto postquam multos Sarracenos inter- 
fecit ipse tandem concubuit in bello felici martirio coronatus. 

XC. [fo. 75 VO ] De quodam autem Templario audivi quod in 
principle ordinis, cum adhuc pauperes essent et valde in reli- 
gionem ferventes, ipse veniens de civitate Tyrenum, ut pecuniam 
ex elemosina susceptam portaret, in Acconensem civitatem, venit 
ad locum quemdam qui Saltus Templarii ex illo tempore nun- 
cupatur, nam cum illi nobili militi Sarraceni insidias posuissent 
in loco ubi ab una parte cacumen prerupte rupis habebat, ex 
alia parte mare profundissimum subjacebat, Sarracenis ante et 
retro in arta semita eum obsidentibus, ut ad nullam partem 
declinare valeret, ipse magnam spem habens in Domino, ut 
elemosinam ab impiis eriperet, calcaribus urgens equum a rupe 
sublimi prosiluit cum equo in abissum maris. Equus vero sicut 
Domino placuit usque ad ripam illesum portavit, qui statim 
tamen, quando ad terram venit, crepuit medius, eo quod undis 
marinis in saliendo fuisset vehementer allisus, et ita Christi 
miles cum pecunia pecles reversus est ad Tyrenum civitatem. 
Hie igitur in solo Deo spem posuit unde et ipsum Dominus 
liberavit. 



42 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

XCI. Fratres enim qui Christi milicie sunt ascripti a duobus 
specialiter sibi cavere debent, unum ne gloriam suam in Christi 
malicia querant vel laudibus hominum acquiescent, aliud ne in 
homine spem ponant sed in solo Deo confidant, cum scriptum 
sit : Maledictus qui confidit in homine et ponit carnem brachium 
suum. De primo exemplificat corvus, qui cum in ore caseum 
teneret, vulpecula, quam renardum appellant, cepit eum laudare 
quod bene sciret can tare et quod pater ejus coardus, dum viveret, 
de cantus amenitate ab omnibus avibus laudare tur, et cepit 
rogare corvum ut cantaret quia valde delectabatur in cantu ejus. 
Tune corvus, laudibus suis inaniter glorians, cepit conari os 
aperire et alta voce cantare, ita quod caseus ab ejus ore decidit, 
quern renardus, voti compos offectus, rapuit et recessit. Ita 
multi querentes gloriam suam, dum laudibus suis inaniter 
attolluntur, gratiam a Deo sibi datam amittunt. 

XCII. [fo. 76 VO ] Frustra quidam manus ad Dominum in 
oratione levat qui eas pro posse suo ad pauperes non extendit, 
et in evangelic dicitur : Qui habet duas tunicas det unam non 
habenti. Martinus supererogavit qui unum pallium dividens 
medietatem pauperi dedit. Aliquando etiam cum precepisset 
unam tunicam dari pauperi et vidisset quod nimis esset vilis et 
manicas curtas et quasi detruncatas haberet, ita quod brachia 
pauperis non operiret, ipse clam vocato paupere tunicam quam 
indutus erat illi dedit et tunicam pauperis induit. Cumque 
missam celebraret et manus suas in altum elevaret ne brachia 
sua populo nuda apparerent subito manicas deauratas, quo 
brachia sua usque ad manus tegerent, additas a Domino curtis 
manicis tunice respexit. Econtra quidam fratres Hospitalium 
multas tunicas et calidas pelles habere volunt, et Christi pauperes 
in hospital! nudi remanent et frigore cruciantur, cum tamen 
gratia pauperum multa possideant proquibussustentandisfideles 
elemosinas hospitalibus prebuerunt. 

XCIII. Aliquando ante quandam nobilem mulierem vidi que, 
cum esset in ecclesia tempore hyemali, quedam paupercula mulier 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 43 

post tergum suum gemebat pre angustia frigoris. At ilia cepit 
cogitare quod pelliceum quo induta erat daret illi pauperi 
mulieri. Sed multum grave erat ei missam relinquere nee 
poterat expectare donee celebrata fuisset missa, eum mulier nuda 
frigore cruciaretur. Unde vocata ilia duxit earn seorsum, 
ascendens turrim seu campanile ubi campane ecclesie depende- 
bant, et dato pelliceo mulieri ad ecclesiam inferius est reversa. 
Finita autem missa capellanus secreto accessit ad earn dicens : 
" Domina quo perrexistis quando .recessistis ab ecclesia ? Sciatis 
quod necunum verbum potui dicere cum essem in secreto misse 
donee fuistis reversa." Ex quo patet quantum Deo placeat 
nudum vestiri qui mulieri sancte, que cum cordis angustia 
missam reliquerat, totum residuum reservavit. 

XCIV. [fo. 77 ro ] Et de beato Martino legimus quod osculatus 
est leprosum qui continue mundatus est a lepra, et de Theobaldo 
bone memorie, quondam comite Campanie, dicitur quod unctum 
secum portabat et sotulares cum uncto manu propria pauperibus 
dabat, ut sic ad compunctionem et devotionem atque humilitatem 
provocaretur et ut pauperes affectuosius pro ipso orarent, atten- 
dentes in tanto viro tante humilitatis obsequium. Ille autem, 
vir nobilis Deo devotus licet secularis, consueverat visitare 
leprosum quemdam extra villam que Sezenna vocatur. Accidit 
quod moriretur leprosus. Cum autem post aliquantum tempus 
comes reverteretur ad villam memoratam descendit more solito 
visitaturus leprosum extra villam, in domuncula in qua habitare 
solebat leprosus. Quo reperto, quaesunt ab eo quomodo esset illi. 
Qui ait : u Bene per gratiam Dei nunquam mihi melius fuit." 
Expectantibus autem militibus et servientibus extra domum 
leprosi, venerunt quidam cives de villa predicta domino suo 
occurrentes et quesierunt a militibus ubi comes esset. Qui 
dixerunt: " Loquitur cum leproso qui in ilia domuncula com- 
moratur." At illi dixerunt : " Mortuus est leprosus ille, jam 
mensis preteriit ex quo sepelivimus eum in cymiterio talis 
ecclesie." Cum autem comes exiret dixerunt illi : u Quare 
in vanum borastis ? Leprosus ille dudum mortuus est et 



44 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

sepultus." At ille valde ammirans et ad domunculam leprosi 
revertens non invenit ilium, verumtamen magnam sen sit- odoris 
suavitatem et ita dominus illi ostendit quantum grata habeat 
opera pietatis. Raro enim vel nunquam invenimus quod homines 
pii et benigni licet seculares et peccatores malo fine vitam ter- 
minarent sed tandem a Domino visitantur. E contrario impii et 
crudeles et sine affectione homines frequenter pessimi a morte 
solent spiritum exalare. De primis Cornelius centurio, de 
secundis exempli ficat Herodes. 

XCV. Novi quandam nobilem dominam que valde compatie- 
batur infirmis et maxime leprosis. Yir autem ejus miles, potcns 
et nobilis a Deo, abhominabatur leprosos, quod eos videre non 
poterat nee eos infra septa domus sue intrare permittebat. 
Quadam die, cum leprosus quidam extra domus ambitum ante 
portam clamaret, quesivit domina si manducare aut bibere vellet. 
Cui ille : " Ecce hie crucior vehementissimo solis ardore, non 
manducabo neque bibam nee aliquod a te servicium recipiam, 
nisi tuleris me in domum tuam." Cui ilia : " Numquid nosti 
dominum meum quantum abhorreat leprosos et ipse redire debet, 
quia diu est quod ivit venatum. Si te inveniret in domo sua 
forsitan et me et te occideret." Illo autem non acquiescente 
sed gemente et plorante, mulier nobilis non potuit planctus ejus 
sustinere sed propriis brachiis ipsum in domum suam portavit. 
Cumque rogaret ut refectionem reciperet, nullo modo acquiescere 
voluit, nisi prius in propria camera viri sui et in lecto ejus 
domina ipsum ferret, ibi enim desiderabat quiescere antequam 
manducaret. Cumque ilia sicut tota spiritu pietatis et compas- 
sionis affluebat gemitus et lacrimas leprosi ferre non posset, 
tandem victa precibus eum in lecto suo quiescere fecit, pulvinar 
suum sub capite ejus subponens et coopertorio grisio corpus 
leprosi tegens. Et ecce vir ejus de venatione fatigatus rediens 
ait uxori: " Aperi cameram illam ut dormiam et requiescam." 
Estus quidem magnus erat. Cumque ilia stupefacta et tremens, 
et de morte leprosi magis quam de sua metuens, nesciret quid 
faceret et aliquantulum tardaret, dominus cum magna indigna- 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 45 

tione thalamum ingrediens, post modicum tempus ad uxorem 
regressus ait : " Modo benefecisti que lectum meum optime 
preparasti, sed miror ubi tales species aromaticas reperisti quibus 
tota camera ita respersa est odore suavitatis quod visum est mihi 
quod fuerim in paradyso." Quo audito mulier, que non nisi 
mortem expectabat, ingressa camera ita invenit, sed leprosum 
non reperit. Que pre ammiratione et miraculi magnitudine 
cuncta per ordinem marito suo narravit. At ille valde com- 
punctus, qui prius velud leo fuerat, mansuescere cepit velud 
agnus, et meritis uxoris sue ita ad Deum conversus ducere 
cepit vitam non minus religiosam quam uxor. Ecce quam 
acceptum est Deo officium visitandi infirmos et incarcerates, qui 
scilicet in carcere egritudinis detinentur vel etiam in carcere 
materiali et compedibus captivi tenentur, quos visitare debemus 
corporaliter ad eos eundo consolando et reficiendo et si valemus 
a carcere et morte eripiendo juxta illud : Domine quis similis 
tibi et respondens ait : Eripiens inopem de manu fortiorum 
ejus. 

XCVI. [fo. 77 VO ] Unde legimus quod quidam episcopus, cum 
predicaret in ecclesia quod centuplum reciperent, qui omnia que 
haberent pauperibus erogarent, quidam dives hoc audiens valde 
commotus est et compunctus, et omnia que habuit in manu 
episcopi dedit. Episcopus vero omnia pauperibus erogavit. 
Patre autem mortuo filii episcopum in causam traxerunt bona 
paterna repetentes ; qui cum reddere non posset inspiratum est 
ei ut filiis responderet : " Eamus ad patrem vestrum." Cum 
igitur ipsurn de tumulo extraxissent, invenerunt in manu ejus 
cartam, in qua scriptum erat quod non solum pecuniam, quam 
dederat in manu episcopi, sed insuper centuplum recipisset. 
Quod videntes filii episcopum absolverunt 

XCVII. [fo. 79 ro ] Gum igitur manus domini non sit abbre- 
viata, non debetis nimis pusillanimes aut meticulosi esse, nee 
bona pauperum quibus indigerent avare retinere. Exemplum 
enim habetis Johannem Alexandrinum a quo est hospitale 



46 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

Sancti Johamiis. Hie enim ita operibus affluebat quod quasi 
litem et pactum cum domino habuit ut, quicquid Deus daret, ille 
totum pauperibus erogaret. Sicut autem Deus illi dare non 
cessabat ita ille Christo in pauperibus reddere non tardabat ; 
tandem in hoc campio et sancto conflictu Johannes victus iuit 
ct Deus vicit, qui tam copiose illi declit quod quibus daret non 
invenit sicut legimus de Moyse 

XCVIII. De quodam heremita legimus quod, cum fere nudus 
ambulasset, quesitum est ab eo : " Quis te spoliavit ? " At ille : 
u Codex iste evangelii, qui est preda cclestis docens omnia 
pauperibus esse erogata." Cum autem quidam obiceret ei 
dicens : " Quomodo omnia dedisti qui ilium adhuc habes?" 
Statim dedit et aliis, vendito evangelic, ait : u Ipsum verbum 
vendidi, quod omnia vendi docuit et pauperibus erogari." 

XCIX. [fo. 80 r ] De sancto autem Furseio legimus quod, 
cum anima egrederetur de corpore, concurrerunt demones 
ipsum ante tribunal judicis accusantes, et, quia sancte conver- 
sationis fuerat, non invenerunt quid ei obicerent nisi quod 
aliquando capam a feneratore quodam acceperat, et jam contra 
ipsum sententiam imminebat sed, angelis suis orantibus pro ipso, 
decrevit Dominus ut anima ad corpus rediretur et penitentiam 
ageret. Unde quidam demonum valde iratus aniinam fenera- 
toris, a quo receperat capam, in faciem ejus projecit. Unde 
postquam suscitatus fuit omnibus diebus quibus vixit apparuit 
in facie ejus combustio, ex anima feneratoris igne ghehennali 
succensa ; nee tamen credimus quod sanctus homo sciret capam 
illam ex fenoratore fuisse acquisitam, sed debuisset diligenter 
inquirere, sicut qui in macello carnes emunt, utrum sit sana 
vel leprosa aut fetida diligenter intendunt 

C. Unde legimus de quodam heremita quod, cum vellet 
matrem suam ultra flumen portare, manus suas pallio involuit. 
Cumque mater indignaretur dicens : " Numquid mater tua 



JACOBI VITKIACENSIS. 47 

sum?" respondit : u Non mireris mater, caro enim mulieris 
ignis est." Caveant igitur fratres conversi ne cohabitant aut 
nimiam familiaritatem habeant cum sororibus conversis vel cum 
aliis quibuscumque mulieribus. 

CI. Unde caveat sibi et provideat institutum, exemplo hyrun- 
dinis que, cum esset cum aliis avibus et semen lini magno a 
quodam rustico seminaretur, dixit illis : " Venite et manducemus 
semen istud quia ex illo posset nobis malum pervenire." At ille 
ceperunt hyrundinem irridere et dicere : " Quid potest hoc 
modicum semen nocere nobis ? " Quibus hyrundo : " Quia 
mihi credere non vultis noil remanebo vobiscum in agris sed 
acquiram mihi familiaritatem alicujus boni viri, in cujus domo 
nidificare possim et morari." Procedente tempore, semen in 
agro projectum crevit in linum et collecto lino hide factum est 
rete in quo inciderunt avcs ille inprovide que consiliis hyrundinis 
acquiescere noluerunt 

GIL [fo. 82 V ] Quosdam autem vidimus qui in egritudine et 
afflictione valde videntur devoti et multa Deo promittunt et voto 
se obligant et astringunt, postquam autem sanitatem recipiunt 
promissa non reddunt, similes cuidam peregrino qui cum ad 
ecclesiam Sancti Michaelis que prope mare sita est pergeret, et 
inundationes maris contra se venire videret, cepit clamare: 
" Sancte Michael libera me ab hoc periculo et vaccam meam 
tibi dabo." Cum autem mare valde appropinquaret ut eum fere 
submergeret, cepit amplius clamare : " Sancte Michael succurre 
mihi hoc necessitatis articulo et dabo tibi vaccam cum vitulo." 
Recedente autem mari cum jam esset in tuto ait: " Ne la vache 
ne le veel " id est : " Nee vaccam nee vitulum tibi dabo." 

CIII. Audivi de milite quodam qui morabatur in quadam 
villa in dyocesi Parisiensi sita. Quidam autem pauper et reli- 
giosus scolaris diebus dominicis portabat aquam benedictam in 
parrochia ilia secundum consuetudinem gallicanam, sed quociens 
in domum militis intrabat mala verba et contumeliosa ab illo 



48 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

. w^A^f? 
milite nequam audiebat et mullam elemosinam illi dare volebat. 

Accidit autem quod Deus militem ilium gravi egritudine flagel- 
lavit et clerico domum illam ingresso valde humiliter dixit : 
" Domine, pro Deo, ora pro me," et precepit ut elemosina daretur 
illi. Cui clericus ammiratus respondit: a Tu semper me vitu- 
perare solebas, quo nunc pro te orem rogas ?" At ille : " Domine, 
nonne videtis quod gravi irifirmitate torqueor in uno pede ? " 
Quod audiens clericus flexis genibus cepit alta voce orare ut 
Deus similem egritudinem inmitteret in alio pede. Cui miles 
ait: " Domine, quid dicitis ? Ego rogaveram vos ut pro infir- 
mitate tollenda Dominum rogaretis." Clericus autem respondit : 
" Tu leo eras quando fuisti sanus, nunc vero factus es quasi 
agnus unde supplico Domino ut quantum tibi dedit in uno pede 
det tibi in alio." Hyllariter igitur infirmitates tanquam summi 
regis nuncios debetis suscipere et Deo gratias agere quod nos 
dignatur visitare. habentes ante oculos mentis sufferentiam Job 

O 

et finem domiui nostri Jesu Christi, qui est benedictus in secula 
seculorum. 

CIV. [fo. 83 VO ] Unde legimus quod cum angelus Dei diceret 
heremite: " Eamus et sepeliamus quemdam peregrinurn quern 
latrones in hoc nemore occiderunt." Cum appropinquarent 
cadaveri, quod jam per dies aliquod super terram jacuerat, here- 
mita cepit obturare nares suas. Cui angelus ait: " Quare nares 
tuas constringis ?" At ille: "Non valeo fetorem sustinere." 
Paulo post juvenis quidem pulcher corpore et ornatus sertis 
floreis cum phaleris et sella aurea equitando transibat et, cum 
adhuc longe esset, angelus abhominari cepit et obturare nares 
corporis quern ad tempus assumpserat. Cui heremita valde ad- 
mirans ait : " Quare nares tuas ita stringis et a pulchro juvene 
illo faciem evertis qui cum esses juxta fetidum cadaver talia non 
fecisti?" Angelus autem respondit: "Quia infracturam lascivus 
ille superbus juvenis magis fecit coram Deo et angelis ejus quam 
cadaver illud quod sepelivimus fecerat coram hominibus, et cum 
universi peccatores fetorem suum non sentiunt nee lepram suam 
abhorrent vel agnoscunt." 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 49 

CV. De quodam etiam heremita legimus quod, cum velud 
alius Job percussus esset, ita quod a planta pedis usque ad verticem 
non esset in corpore ejus sanitas, omnes infirmos qui ad ipsum 
veniebant, facta oratione, sanabat nunquam tamen pro se ut 
sanaretur oravit. Sicut enim felle piscis sanati sunt Tobie 
oculi, ita amaritudinibus coporalis infirmitatis sanantur oculi 
nostri .... 

CVL [fo. 84 ro ] Audivi quod quidam graviter egrotabat et 
cum mortis periculum ei immineret, dixit ei confessor suus ut 
malehabita restitueret. Uxor autem et filii coram quo plorabaut 
et, ne pauperes remanerent in quantum poterant, ipsum a restitu- 
tione avertebant. Uxor autem ejus presbitero promittebat quod 
largas elemosinas pro anima mariti faceret. Appropinquante 
autem morte, cum induci non posset infirmus ut ablata restitueret 
impedientibus filiis et uxore, dixerunt sacerdoti . " Domine, vos 
videtis quod anima recedit a copore. Rogamus vos ut commen- 
dationem faciatis et postmodum mortuum honorifice sepeliatis et 
copiosas oblationes recipietis." Quibus sacerdos ait : " Iste 
ablata restituere noluit et ut a commendationem faciam rogatis; 
ego faciam ex quo vultis." Et statim ille benedictus sacerdos 
ait: " In manus omnium demonium commendo spiritum tuum, 
a me aliam commendationem non habebis." Et hoc dicto homo 
miserabile suspiravit. Quam miseri qui, propter uxores et filios 
aut quoscumque consanguineos, se ipsos in infirmitate sua des- 
piciunt et animarum suarum salutem negligunt ; postquam enim 
anima recedit cito oblivioni traditur ab hiis a quibus valde diligi 
videbatur. 

CVII. Audivi de quadam muliere cum de vita mariti sui 
desperaret et ille morti vicinus usum lingue et ceterorum mem- 
brorum amisisset, vocata ancilla sua, dixit uxor hominis illius 
qui jam in extremis laborabat : " Festina et erne tres ulnas tele 
de borello ad maritum meum sepeliendum." Que respondit: 
" Domina, habetis telam lineam habundanter, date illi quatuor 
ulnas vel amplius ad sudarium." At ilia indignans ait: " Bene 



50 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

sufficiunt ei tres ulne de borello." Et super hoc domina et 
ancilla diutius inter se discordabant. Quod audiens homo ille 
sicut potuit cum magno conamine respondit : " Curtum et 
grossum facite mihi sudarium ne luto inquinetur." Quod est 
dicere secundum vulgare gallicum: " Cort le me faites pour ne 
le croter" 

CVIII. [fo. 86 VO ] Unde legimus quod quidam pauper magno 
frigore solam habebat martam, cujus medietatem aliam sub se 
supra se ponebat, cum deberet dormire et consolans seipsum 
dicebat: " Quanti divites sunt in inferno et carcere angustiati. 
Ego autem extendo pedes meos quantum volo, illi autem multum 
gauderent si ita liberi essent." Et quoniam teste Amos : Non 
erit malum in civitate quod non fecerit Deus ; que autem a Deo 
sunt ordinata. Non debemus Dei ordinationi resistere, sed fir- 
miter credere quod nichil sit in hoc mundo sine rations. 

C1X. Unde cum quidam heremita, spiritu blasphemie temp- 
tatus, cogitaret quod non essent justa Dei judicia, qui bonos 
affligit et mali prosperati sunt, angelus Domini in specie 
hominis apparens ei dixit ei: a Sequere me; Deus enim misit 
me ut mecum venires et ostenderem tibi occulta ejus judicia." 
Et duxit eum ad domum cujusdam boni viri qui liberaliter ct 
benigne recepit eos in hospitio, omnia necessaria ministrans eis. 
In mane autem furatus est angelus hospiti suo ciphum quern 
valde diligebat et valde cepit heremita dolere credens quod ille 
non esset a Deo. Alia nocte hospitati sunt in domo cujusdam 
hominis qui malum hospicium fecit eis et eos male tractavit. 
Cui angelus ciphum dedit quern furatus erat bono hospiti ; quod 
videns heremita contristatus est valde et malam opinionem de 
eo cepit habere. Inde igitur procedente tercia nocte hospitati 
sunt in domo cujusdam boni hominis qui cum magno gaudio 
ipsos recepit et necessaria sufficienter eis ministravit. In mane 
quemdam juvenem famulum suum concessit eis qui eos deduceret 
et ostenderet viam, quern angelus de ponte precipitavit et suffo- 
catus est in aquis. Quod videns heremita valde scandalizatus 
est et contristatus. Quarta autem nocte quidam vir bonus 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 51 

optime recepit eos, copiose cibaria eis cum vultu hylari exhibens, 
et lectos ydoneos eis preparari fecit, seel parvulus quidam, quern 
hospes solum habebat, nocte fiere cepit nee sinebat illos dormire. 
Angelas autem nocte surgens puerum strangulavit. Quod videns 
heremita credidit quod esset angelus Sathane et voluit discedere 
ab ipso. Tune demum angelus dixit ei : " Dominus ob hoc misit 
me ad te ut ostenderem tibi occulta ejus judicia et scires quia 
nichil sit sine causa in terra. Bonus ille homo cui ciphum 
abstuli nimis ilium diligebat et curiose servabat, frequenter cogi- 
tans de cypho cum deberet cogitare de Deo, et ideo pro bono 
suo illi subtraxi et dedi illi malo hospiti, qui nos in hospicio suo 
non bene recepit ut mercedem suam reciperet in hoc seculo et 
in alio seculo nullam aliam haberet retributionem. Submersi 
autem servientem ilium qui firmaverat in animo quod sequenti 
die dominum suum occideret et ita bonum hospitem nostrum 
a morte liberavi et servum suum ab homicidio operis, qui jam 
homicida erat proposito male voluntatis, ut minus puniretur in 
inferno. Quartus autem hospes noster, antequam filium haberet, 
multa bona faciebat et quicquid supra victum et vestitum habere 
poterat pauperibus reservabat ; verum, nato illi filio, manum 
ab operibus misericordie retraxerat et omnia filio suo reservabat. 
Ego autem materiam avaricie domino precipiente abstuli et 
animam pueri innocentis in paradiso collocavi." Quod audiens 
heremita liberatus est ab omni temptatione et Dei judicia que 
sunt abyssus multa cepit glorificare. 

CX. [fo. 88 ro ] Unde legimus quod, cum quidam equus contra 
cervum contenderet de paschuis communibus, que tamen tarn 
equo quam cervo possent sufficere, equus auxilium hominis 
imploravit. Cui homo dixit: "Si vis ut in prelio adjuvem te 
permitte ut sellam imponam dorso tuo et frenum in ore." Quo 
facto, postquam victor discessit ab hoste [fo. 88 VO ] non equitem 
dorso non fremum depulit ore. 

0X1. Audivi de quodam viro religiose qui cum amisisset 
unum oculum cepit gaudere. Monachi autem, qui valde eum 

E2 



52 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

deligebant. dolebant et flebant. Quibus ille ait : u Pro quo 
oculorum meorum doletis, vel pro illo quern amisi, aut pro illo 
qui reman sit mihi ? " At illi flentes dixerunt : u Frater pro 
illo quern amisistis dolemus." Quibus ille : " Cum duos hostes 
haberem cum quibus cotidie pugnare me oportebat, non pro illo 
qui periit ? sed pro illo qui remansit dolere debuistis." Et ita 
consolatus est illos 

CXII. Licet autem paupertas et alie tribulationes bone sint 
quidam tamen illis abutuntur. Unde legimus quod quando 
corpus beati Martini processionaliter ferebatur sanabat omnes 
infirmos qui occurebant. Erant autem juxta ecclesiam duo 
trutani mendicantes quorum unus erat cecus, alius contractus, 
qui ceperunt loqui ad invicem et dicere : " Ecce corpus sancti 
Martini jam defer tur ad processionem, et si nos invenerit 
statim sanabimur, et nemo de cetero nobis elemosinas dabit sed 
oportebit nos propriis manibus operari et laborare." Cecus 
autem contracto : " Ascende super humeros meos quia fords 
sum et tu qui bene vides mihi prestabis ducatum." Quo facto, 
cum fugere vellent apprehendit eos processio et cum pre turba 
fugere non possent sanati sunt contra voluntatem suam. Patet 
igitur quod multi mali pauperes sunt et multi in tribulationibus 
afficiuntur deteriores qui visitatione divina abutuntur 

CXIII. [fo. 89 VO ] Propterea quidam sapiens homo precipit 
famulo suo ut, quotiescumque comederet, diceret ei : "Morieris, 
morieris." Jeronimus quoque ait : Quid est vita presens, 
mundus, et jocunditas temporalis ? . . . . 

CXIV. [fo. 90 VO ] Sicu\t de quodam milite legimus quod, cum 
Hyspaniam cum Karolo imperatore contra Saracenos ivisset, 
imminente mortis articulo, equum suum cum rebus aliis pro 
salute anime sue in testamento pauperibus reliquit eroganda, per 
manum cujusdam militis consanguinei sui de quo non modicum 
confidebat. Ille vero injecit oculum in dextrarium et valde 
placuit ei ; undo cupiditate victus ilium retinuit. Anima vero 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 53 

defuncti post dies 8 illi apparuit et dixit : li Quia de te con- 
fidebam res meas distribuendas fidi tue commisi, tu vero tan- 
quam infidelis et proditor equum retinuisti. Ego conquestus 
sura de te summo judiei quia liberationem meam a purgatorio 
retardasti et ecce ego purgatus et liberatus ad regionem vivornm 
gaudens vado. Tu autem noveris quod eras penas tante iniqui- 
tatis exsolves." Cum igitur confusus et stupens ad diem 
crastinum miser ille rei eventum exspectaret, ecce quam mortuus 
ei predixerat, corvi nigri ipsum rapientes, elevaverunt in aera 
et, eo dimisso super rupem ex alto decidens, confractis cervicibus 
miserabiliter exspiravit. 

CXV. Audivi cum essem Parisius de quodam scolari quod in 
morte culcitram suam dimisit in manu socii sui, ut illam pro 
anima ejus daret. Cum autem socius ejus distulisset et culci 
tram festinanter dare negligeret, licet earn sibi retinere non vellet, 
apparuit ei in sompnio socius tanquam jacens super duras et 
asperas cordas cujusdam lecti lignei ubi miserabiliter torquebatur. 
Ille vero evigilans sequenti die culcitram pauperi hospitali dedit 
et iterum nocte apparuit ei socius suus jacens supra culcitram, ita 
quod predicti funes ipsum non poterant contingere vel moles- 
tare. 

CXVI. Legimus enim de quodam nobili juvene, qui unicus 
erat parentibus suis, quod ipsis ignorantibus assumpsit habitum 
religionis. Pater autem ejus qui alium non habebat heredem 
vehementer doluit et comminatus est abbati et monachis, nisi 
filium suum illi redderent, quod abbatiam incenderet et omnia 
bona eorum dissiparet. At illi, valde timentes tyrannum, dixerunt 
monacho : " Ecce pater tuus venit cam multitudine armatorum 
et nisi cum ipso ad seculum redeas monasterium nostrum igne 
succendet et omnia bona nostra nobis auferet violenter." Quibus 
ille respondit : " Nolite timere, concedite mini equum ut vadam 
obviam patri meo." Cumque pater videret filium crinibus 
detruncatis et veste vili deformem, vix eum cognoscere potuit, et 
pre nimio dolore pene corruit in terrain et dixit filio : " Fili, 



54 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

quid fecisti mihi sic, oportet te redire et ego omnem terrain 
meam tue voluntati expono." Cui filius ait : " Pater est quedam 
consuetude valde periculosa in terra nostra propter quam com- 
pulsus sum exire et liabitum monaclialem suscipere." Cui 
pater : " Omnes terre mee consuetudines in arbitrio tuo relinquo 
ut secundum voluntatem tuam illas valeas revocare vel immutare, 
et die mihi que sit ilia consuetude propter quam recessisti, et 
promitto tibi firmiter quod earn removebo." Tune filius ait: 
" Hec est ilia consuetude quam ego valde timeo, quod, ita cito 
quandoque citius, moritur juvenis sicut senex ; nisi hanc remo- 
veritis numquam revertam vobiscum, nam quomodo promittitis 
me futurum heredem vestrum vel vobis succedere cum non sim 
certus quod debeam plus vivere. Ita enim cito moritur vitulus 
ut vacca, ita cito moritur filius ut pater, puer ut senex." Quo 
audito pater ait : " Fili, quomodo hanc consuetudinem quam 
Deus introduxit possum avertere ?" Et compunctus vehementer 
assumpsit curn filio suo habitum religionis. Cum igitur continue 
ad mortem festinemus et horam mortis ignoremus ... ita erga 
mortuos vos habeatis sicut vobis fieri velletis. 

CXYII. [fo, 91 ro ] Unde cum quidam veniret ad fratrem 
suum carnalem qui claustrum intraverat et ab eo aliquid peteret, 
respondit : " Vade ad alium fratrem tuum carnalem qui claus 
trum [non] intraverat et ab eo pete." Cui ille : " Tu scis quia 
frater noster mortuus est et jam non est in hoc seculo. 1 Cui 
monachus ait : " Et ego mortuus sum et nichil tibi dabo." 

CXVIIL Et de quodam abbate legitur quod novicium quem- 
dam misit ad benedicendum ossa mortuorum, postea ad maledi- 
cendum ossa mortuorum, et querenti quid respondissent ossa 
dixit novicius : "Nichil, sed tacuerunt." Cui abbas: "Ita 
et te oportet esse mortuum si vis in hoc monasterio remanere ut 
nee benedictione nee maledictione monearis." 

CXIX. [fo. 93 ro ] Unde dicitur de Sarahadine Damasi et 
Egypti soldano quod, imminente mortis articulo, precepit ut 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 55 

modicum tele per totum regnum suum circumferetur post 
mortem ipsius, et voce preconaria clamaretur quod nichil 
amplius secum deferebat ex omnibus que habebat. Unde Job 
de vanis et reprobis hominibus ait : a Elati sunt ad modicum et 
non subsistent quia carnis gloria dum nitet cadit ." . . . 

CXX. Hec sunt verba Gregorii ex quibus ostenditur quam 
sit vana et transitoria gloria hujus mundi, que in mortis neces 
sitate hominem non sequitur sed deserit. Unde legimus quod 
quidam vir potens et magnus cuidam servo suo castrum custo- 
diendum commisit in quo hostes domini recepit, propter quod 
dominum eum suspendi jussit. Cum que traheretur ad mortem 
rogavit quemdam amicum suum quern valde dilexerat ut ei in 
tanta necessitate subveniret. Qui dixit ei quod alios amicos 
cito inveniret, tantum tamen pro illo faceret quod unum lintheum 
illi daret. Invento autem alio amico quern plus etiam dilexerat 
rogavit ut eum juvaret, Respondit quod tantum pro ipso faceret 
ut cum eo per modicam viam iret, et ipsum usque ad patibulum 
conduceret, et statim in domum rediret. Invento autem tercio, 
quern parum respectu aliorum dilexerat et parum pro ipso fecerat 
et quasi dimidium amicum reputabat, cum verecondia cepit ei 
supplicare et ejus auxilium implorare. Qui respondit: u Non 
immemor modici beneficii quod mihi fecisti ; cum usura reddam 
tibi ; ponam animam meam pro anima tua, vitam meam pro 
liberatione tua, et suspendar pro te." Primus amicus possessiones 
terrene que in morte dant tantum panniculum ad sepeliendum 
et cito novos amicos inveniunt. Secundus amicus uxor et filii 
et consanguinei qui usque ad sepulcrum sequuntur et statim ad 
domum revertuntur. Tercius et vetus amicus est Christus qui 
pro liberatione nostra voluit in patibulo crucis suspendi, et insuper 
quartus amicus qui nos precedit viam preparando et pro nobis 
regem intercedendo, opera scilicet misericordie et alia bona que 
facimus ante mortem, ut nobis succurrant in neccessitate. . . . 

CXX1. [fo. 94 VO ] Memini cum aliquando in quadam ecclesia 
de cruce suscipienda predicarem, aderat ibi quidam homo 



56 BXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULQAEIBUS 

Cisterciensis ordinis conversus qui frater Symon vocabatur, qui 
frequenter divitias revelationes et secreta Dei consilia videbat. 
Cumque cum lacrimis videret multos, relictis uxoribus et filiis 
el patria adque possessionibus ad crucem accidere, supplicavit 
Domino ut ei ostenderet qualiter premium crucesignatis colla- 
turus esset ; qui statim vidit in spiritu beatam Virginem filium 
suum tenentem, et secundum quod unusquisque signum crucis 
corde contrito recipiebat, filium suum illi dabat. 

CXXII. [fo. 96 VO ] Nam et ego cum aliquando in quadam 
villa predicarem, quidam, uxore sua dissuadente, ad sermonem 
cum aliis noluit venire ; cepit tamen quasi ex curiositate de 
solatio per fenestram inspicere et quid ego dicerem latenter 
ascultare. Cumque audisset quod per crucis compendium, 
absque alia penitentia, tantam indulgentiam obtinerent quan- 
tamque plerumque obtinent qui per annos Ix jejunant et portant 
cilicium, nihil enim amplius potest remitti quam totum. 
Dominus enim papa nichil excipit sed universaliter omnia 
dimittit tanquam Dei minister, qui non vult esse avarus ubi 
Dominus est largus. Audiens insuper quod pro labore modici 
temporis penitentia hujus seculi et pena purgatoria remittitur, 
et pena gehenne evitatur, regnumque celorum acquiritur, ipse 
valde compunctus et a Deo inspiratus, timens uxorem que ostium 
clauserat et ne egrederetur observabat, per fenestram in turbam 
exilivit et ipse primus ad crucem venit et quia bonum aliis 
prebuit exemplum et multi secuti sunt eum, ipse particeps 
extitit meriti universorum. Qui ex malo exemplo corripit bono 
exemplo debet restituere Deo quod illi abstulit. Justum quidem 
est qui cum multorum destructione se perdidit cum multorum 
edificatione se redimat. 

CXXX. [fo. 97 ro ] Cum igitur Dominus radios gratie sue 
per universum mundum diffundat, quidam pusillanimes velud 
cera ad hunc solem ita liquescunt, quod sigillum crucis non 
recipiunt .... exemplo cujusdam filii imperatoris Karoli qui 
vocabatur Gobaut. Volens Karolus, ut dicunt, probare filiornm 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 57 

obedientiam, accepta parte pomi quam in manibus tenebat, dixit: 
" Gobaude, aperi os et accipe." Kespondit quod non aperiret 
nee tanturn vituperium pro patre sustineret. Tune pater vocato 
alio filio nomine Lodovico dixit: " Aperi os et accipe quod tibi 
porrigo." Cui ille : " Sicut placet vobis de me tamquam de servo 
vestro facite." Et, aperto ore, pomum de maim patris recepit. 
Cui pater statim subjunxit: " Et ego do tibi regnum Francie." 
Et cum tercio filio, qui Lotharius vocabatur, preciperet ut coram 
cunctis os aperiret, pater aperienti dixit : " Per partem pomi 
quam recepisti in ore investio te de ducatu Lotharingie." Tune 
Gobaudus sero penitens ait : " Pater, pater, ecce aperio os. 
Da mihi partem pomi." Cui pater : a Tarde aperuisti, nee 
pomum nee terrain dabo tibi." Et ceperunt omnes deridere 
ilium dicentes : " A tart bea Gobaut." Id est : " Tarde hyavit 
Gobaudus." Consuetude quidem est nobilium et potentum 
quod per cyrotecam vel per aliam rem vilis precii vasallos suos 
investiunt de feodis preciosis. Sic Dominus per crucem, ex 
modico filo vel panno, vasallos suos investiet de regno celesti, et 
modo ludentium ad aleas vel decios, ingenti exposito fardello, 
vos invitat ; in hoc tam sancto ludo aut tenes aut dimittis, vide 
quid facias, optio tibi datur, non remanebit in Deo nisi in te 
remaneat 

CXXIV. [fo. 99 ro ] Unde de quodam milite nobili legimus 
quod iturus ultra mare fecit adduci ad se filios parvulos quos 
valde diligebat, et cum eus diu aspiciens amplexaretur, dixerunt 
famuli ejus: " Dimittere pueros istos et abeatis, quia multi vos 
expectant ut vos deducant." Quibus ille : " Idcirco filios meos 
coram me adduci feci ut, excitato afFectu ad ipsos, cum majori 
angustia mentis pro Christo relinquam illos, et ita magis merear 
apud Dominum." Laborare igitur oportet in hoc seculo qui 
quiescere vult in alio . . . 

CXXV. [fo. 99 VO ] Quidam autem velud cocodrilli ita armati 
simt squamis viciorum et diviciarum quod sagitis verbis Dei 
non possunt penetrari, nee aliquibus rationibus vel exemplis ad 



58 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

Christi servicium incitari, similes asino qui consuevit morari 
in molendino. Cumque molendinum incenditur non vult rece- 
dere ab ipso. 

CXXVI. Mimdus iste undique est incensus igne viciorum, 
et miseri atque obstinati peccatores, licet cotidie verbis Dei 
stimulentur, malunt igne comburi in hoc mundo quam recedere 
ab illo, tandem igne gehennali comburendi. Lupus infernalis 
jam comedit eos usque ad viscera dentes figens et ipsi lupum 
non metuunt nee detrimentum suum avertunt ; sicut de asino 
dicitur quod adeo piger et durus est quod permittit renes suos 
a lupis devorari usque ad pulmonem ita ut suam non videatur 
sentire lesionern. 

CXX VII. Et de symia dicitur quod nucem abicit, dum exterius 
in cortice amaritudinem sentit ; usque ad nuclei dulcedinem non 
pervenit. Ita stulti in hoc seculo, dum attendant exterius amari 
tudinem laborum,nunquam pervenient ad dulcedinem premiorum, 
juxta illud : Qai viderunt me foras fugerunt a me. Difficile 
autem est ut Ethiops mittet pellem suam 

CXXVIII. [fo. 100 ro ] Legimus autem de quodam heremita 
cum cellula ejus valde remota esset ab aqua et cotidie multum 
oporteret ipsum laborare, cogitabat quadam die quod cellulam 
aliam faceret prope aquam. Cumque pergeret sicut proposuerat 
adimpleret, vidit dum esset in itinere angelum tabulas tenentem 
et stilum seu grafium. Cumque heremita quereret ab angelo 
quid ageret, respondit . " Dominus misit me ut scriberem passus 
tuos quos fecisti. dum cotidie laborares aquam ad cellulam tuam 
deferendo." Quod attendens heremita a proposito suo resiliit 
et cellam suam per unum miliare amplius quam esset ab aquis 
removit. Licet autem ab inicio labores duri sint et asperi 
postea ex consuetudine et unguento divine gratie leves redduntur 
sicut quadriga nova stridet et cum difficultate trahitur, sed 
postquam uncta fuerit et trahi consueverit facile ducitur . . . 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 59 

CXXIX. [fo. 100 ro ] Audivi de quodam qui cum in ecclesia 
esset pre turba exire non posset, invitus sermonem audiens, 
metuens velud serpens ne incantaretur, dixit : " Si possem per 
Dei gratiam istum sermonem evadere jam centum evasissem." 
Vos igitur fratres Dominum tanquam incole et perigrini exoretis 
ut a vobis mandata sua non abscondat . . . 

CXXX. [fo. 102 VO ] Beatus Gregorius narrat de quadam 
moniali, quod, omisso crucis signo, comedit lactucam et dyabolus 
in ipsam introivit. Cumque a quodam sancto viro compelleretur 
ut exiret respondit: " Que est culpa mea, quid feci, quare me 
compellis ? Ego super lactucam sedebam et ipsam non signavit 
et ideo cum lactuca me comedit." 

CXXXI. De quodam etiam judeo narrat Gregorius quod cum 
iter faceret, nocte super veniente, divertit ad quoddam cimeterium 
juxta templum Apollinis, cumque malignus spiritus nocte super 
ipsum veniret, quia, licet judeus ille fidem crucis non haberet, 
pre timore se signaverat, non potuit illi demon nocere et reversus 
ad socios ait: " Inveni vas vacuum videlicet signatum." Quod 
audientes demones fugerunt et ille, virtutem crucis in sui libera- 
tione expertus, factus est christianus. 

CXXXII. De quodam etiam peregrino legimus quod, cum 
egrotaret in partibus alienis et non haberet aliquam amicorum 
consolationem, misit Deus angelos ut consolarentur eum ei 
animam ejus absque dolore mortis afferent. Qui revertentes 
dixerunt : " Anima ejus non vult a corpore ejus exire." Tune 
Dominus misit David ut coram peregrino cantaret cum cithara. 
Audiens vero anima peregrini modulationes dulcis soni exivit a 
corpore cum gaudio et delectatione. 

CXXXIII. Ecce quomodo Deus diligit peregrines et conso- 
latur eos qui pro ejus amore communem parentum et consan- 
guineorum consolationem reliquerunt. In vita etiam patrum 
legimus quod duo fratres erant, unus peregrinationi deditus, 
alter quieti. Contigit autem ut peregrinus moreretur et dedu- 



60 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

centes ejus animam angeli, cum deberet intrare in celum, facta 
questione de illo dixit Domino : u Modicum neggligens fuit, sed 
quia peregrinus erat aperite illi." Mortuus vero est et frater 
ejus. Senex autem quidam, qui viderat ad peregrinum venisse 
angelos, ad fratrem ejus nullum vidit adesse, et querens a Domino 
quidnam esset, respondit ei: " Vox divina sonat, peregrinus ille 
nullam amicorum consolationem habuit a consanguineis et 
amicis." Multaque alia exempla reperimus in scripturis de 
consolatione peregrinorum et virtute crucis et de merito ac 
premio crucesignatorum qui se et sua dederunt Domino nostro 
Jesu Christo . . . 

CXXXIV. [fo. 104 ro ] Legimus autem quod quidam homo, 
dum fugeret a facie unicornis, decidit in foveam magnam et pro- 
fundam, et, extensis manibus, apprehendit arbusculam imam, et 
aperiens oculos vidit duos mures, unum album et alium nigrum, 
arbuscule radicem incessanter rodentes, et insuper quatuor 
aspidum capita que arborem corrodebant et consumebant, et in 
fundo fovee vidit drachonem cupientem ipsum devorare. Supe- 
rius autem supra caput ejus filo tenui pendebat gladius acutissimus 
qui capiti ejus imminens paratus erat ipsum perforare. Cum 
autem in tanto esset periculo [fo. 104 VO ] elevatis oculis vidit modi 
cum mel quod de ramis arbuscula distillabat, et statim tantorum 
periculorum oblitus, cepit manum porrigere et mellis dulcedini 
inhiare, et ecce subito et improvise arbore que corrodebatur 
cadente, et gladio cadente super caput ejus, corruit in foveam 
plenam igne, et dracho insidians rapuit ipsum et cepit devorare. 
Unicornis bestia crudelis que omnes insequitur et nulli parcet 
est mors ; fovea mundus iste ; arbuscula mensura vite nostre que 
continue diebus ac noctibus velud duobus muribus corroditur ; 
per murem album dies, per nigrum noctes designantur. Quatuor 
aspidum capita quatuor sunt elementa in corpore nostro quibus 
inordinatis et conturbatis dissolvitur corporis compago. Serpens 
dyabolus; profundum fovee infernus; gladius imminens capiti 
sententia districti judicis; stilla mellis dulcedo delectationis tem- 
poralis ; casus hominis hujus vite finis. 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 61 

CXXXV. Quam miseri qui pro stilla mellis, id est, pro 
modica et transitoria delectatione obligant se ad hauriendum 
totum mare, id est, penas interminabiles gehenne, dum 11011 ser- 
viunt Domino in tirnore, videlicet per potentiam suam, pauperes 
opprimendo calumpniantur egenis similes lupo qui, dum biberet 
in superior! parte fluminis et agnus in parte inferior! (lupus) cepit 
calumpniari et agnum accusare, et contra ipsum occasiones 
querere ; dicens quod agnus turbaverat sibi aquam et quod im- 
pedierit ejus potum, tanquam fluvius non sufficeret sibi et agno. 
Agnus turn cepit cum amore humiliter se excusare, dicens quod 
aquam non turbaverat ille, cum biberet in parte inferior!, et quod 
fluvius bene sufficiebat utrique, unde nullam injuriam sibi fecerat 
cum biberet nee potum ejus impedierat. Cui lupus valde indig- 
natus ait: " Ausus es bibere mecum in uno cypho." Cum 
obsecrationibus loquitur pauper, dives autem affatur rigicle. 
Unde agnus tremens et humilians se ait: " Domine mi, fluvius 
est communis nam non solum bestie sed rane et volucres libere 
bibunt ex eo." Cui lupus : " Nunquid minaris mihi sicut et 
pater tuus, qui multa dampna mihi intulit, jam sunt sex menses." 
Cui agnus: "Non infero minas, necdum natus eram ante menses 
sex." Cui lupus fremens et torvo aspectu agnum intuens ait : 
" Audes, o furcifer, flli mortis, mihi respondere et de pari mecum 
contendere ? " Et rapiens ilium devoravit. Venatio leonis 
onager in heremo sicut pascua divitis pauper. 

CXXXVI. Quam miseri et ingrati divites, qui vivunt de labore 
pauperum et multa beneficia ab eis recipiunt et nichil nisi malum 
pro bono eis retribuunt, similes lupo qui fere usque ad mortem 
cruciabatur osse in gutture ejus affixo, et cepit rogare gruem ut 
rostrum in os ejus mitteret et os de gutture extraheret, multaque 
illi promisit si ipsi in hoc periculo subveniret. Gruis vero im- 
mittens rostrum cum magno labore os a gutture lupi extraxit. 
Cumque mercedem peteret, lupus ait: " Sufficiat tibi quod te 
permisi abire, cum potuissem tibi collum abscidisse, quando illucl 
in ore meo posuisti ; satis est quod vitam tibi reservavi juxta 
illud ut liceat paucis cum dentibus hide reverti." 



62 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

CXXXVII. Multi hodie milites per angarias, quas tornees 
Gallic! appellant, a suis hominibus accipiunt et nee eis panem ad 
manducandum tribuunt, cum tamen scriptum sit : Non retinebis 
opus mercenarii usque mane. 

CXXXVIII. Multi hodie dicunt, quando arguuntur quod 
vaccam pauperi agricole abstulerunt: " Sufficiat rustico quod ei 
vitulum dimisi et quod eum vivere sino. Non feci ei tantum 
mali quantum possern si voluissem, accepi anserem et dimisi ei 
plumam . . . ." 

CXXXIX. [fo. 105 ro ] Audivi de quodam milite qui liben- 
ter ad predicationem ibat et tamen valde seculariter vivebat. 
Cumque alii milites eum deriderent, eo quod verba Dei frequen 
ter audiebat et contrarium faciebat, ipse respondit : u Confido in 
Domino quod aliquando hanc malam vitam dimittam, unde, licet 
ea que audio non faciam, volo tamen instrui qualiter debeam 
habere, si aliquando Deus visitaverit me ut ad cor reversus ipsi 
serviam. Quidam autem e contrario non solum Dei verbum 
audire renuunt sed audientes irrident, et quoscumque possunt 
avertunt et predicationem impediunt, quod non minus est sacri- 
legium quam si campanas frangerent ne aliqui ad ecclesiam 
venirent. Campana enim Domini dicitur predicator." 

CXL. Audivi de quodam milite, qui nunquam veritatem 
audiebat in predicatione nee bene instructus erat in fide, cum 
diceretur ei quare non libenter audiret missam que tante est 
dignitatis et virtutis quod Christus et angeli ejus semper veniant 
ad ipsam, ipse simpliciter respondit : " Istud ego nesciebam, 
sed putabam quod sacerdotes missam adimplevissent propter 
oblationes." Postquam autem veritatem audivit deinceps 
libenter et devote missam audire cepit. 

CLXI. Memini quod quadam die loquebar cum quadam 
milite, qui valde libenter torneamenta frequentabat et alios 
invitabat, precones mittens et hystriones qui torneamenta pro- 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 63 

clamarent, nee credebal ut asserebat hujusmodi ludum vel 
exercitium esse peccatum. Alias autem satis devotus erat. Ego 
autem cepi illi ostendere quod 7 criminalia peccata comitantur 
in torneamentis. Non enim carent superbia cum, propter 
laudem hominum et gloriam inanem, in circuitu illo impii 
ambulant et vani non carent invidia, cum unus alii invideat, eo 
quod magis strennus in armis reputetur et majorem laudem 
assignatur. Non carent odio et ira cum unus alium percutit, 
et male tractat, et plerum letaliter vulnerat, et occidit ; sed et 
hide quartum mortale peccatum incurrunt quod est accidia vel 
tristicia. Adeo enim vanitate occupantur quod omnia bona 
spiritualia eis insipida redduntur, et quia non prevalent contra 
partem aliam, sed cum vituperio sepe fugiunt, valde contristantur. 
Non carent quinto criminali peccato id est avaricia vel rapina, 
dum unus alium capit, et non redimit, et equum quern cupiebat 
cum armis aufert illi contra quern pugnando prevaluit, sed 
occasione torneamentorum graves et intollerabiles exactiones 
faciunt et hominum morum bona sine misericordia rapiunt, nee 
segetes in agris conculcare et dissipare formidant [fo. 105 T ], 
et pauperes agricolas valde dampnificant et molestant. Non 
carent torneamenta mortali peccato vi quod est castrimargia dum 
mutuo, propter mundi pompam, invitant ad prandia et hivitantur 
non solum bona sua sed et bona pauperum in superfluis com- 
messationibus expendunt, et de alieno corio largas faciunt 
corrigias. Quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi. Non 
carent 7 mortali peccato quod dicitur luxuria, cum placere 
volunt mulieribus impudicis, si probi habeantur in armis, et 
etiam quedam earum insignia quasi pro vexillo portare con- 
sueverunt. Unde propter mala et crudelitates que ibi fiunt 
atque homicidia et sanguinis effusiones, instituit ecclesia ut qui 
in torneamentis occiduntur sepultura christiana eis denegetur. 
In circuitu quidem impii ambulant unde cum mola asinaria et 
cum circuitu vite laboriose demerguntur in profundum maris, 
id est, in profunditatem amaritudinis et laboris. Cum autem 
dictus miles hec verba audiret et aperte veritatem quam nun- 
quam audierat agnosceret, sicut prius torneamenta dilexit ita 



64 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

postea semper odio habere cepit. Multi quidem propter igno- 
ranciam peccant qui si audirent veritatem et diligenter in- 
quirerent non peccarent sicut memorati milites diligenter inter- 
rogabant Johannem Baptistam : u Quid faciemus et nos?" 
Quibus ipse respondit ut neminem concurrerent violenciam 
faciendoj nee calumpniam facerent falso aut fraudulenter accu- 
sando, sed contenti essent stipendiis queideo, teste Augustino, 
constituta sunt militantibus nedum sumptus quas predo grassetur. 
Non prohibet Johannes militare, dum concedit stipendia recipere, 
sicut nee Dominus prohibuit censum reddi Cesari, eo quod pro 
judeis militabat et a violentia hostium defendebat 

CXLII. [fo. 106 VO ] Quam fatui qui exultant dum filii nas- 
cuntur dominis suis. Non enim gaudendum est de dominorum 
pluralitate. Dicitur enim quod sol deus scilicet qui dicitur 
Phebus, accepta uxore, genuit alium solem. Cum autem multi 
gauderent eo quod duos soles haberent, terra lugebat et mira- 
bantur alii querentes a terra cur non gauderet. Quibus terra 
respondit : u Unus solus jam aliquando siccabat me quod fruc- 
tificare non poteram, quanto magis duo soles me siccabunt et 
sterilem reddent." 

CXLIII. Majores igitur se reddere debent amabiles minoribus 
et non odibiles neque contempnere debent minores, quia nocere 
possunt et juvare ; periculosa enim res est desperatio. Multi 
enim servi lesi aliquando dominos suos occiderunt vel domos 
eorum incenderunt ; sicut dicitur de symia, que valde pre omni 
bus animalibus fetum suum diligit, quod aliquando fetum suum 
in brachiis tenens ostendebat urso, at ille irruens in symiam 
fetum rapuit et devoravit. Symia vero supra modum dolens 
cepit cogitare quomodo posset se vindicare et afferens ligna de 
nocte posuit ilia et disposuit circulariter circa ursum ubi erat 
relegatus, et, igne apposito, combussit eum qui primo parvi- 
pendebat quicquid ei symia viribus facere poterat. 

CXLIV. Eadem modo Jegimus quod aquila fetus vulpis 
rapuit et cum prece nollet reddere, vulpes sub pede arboris 



JACOBI VITBIACENSIS. 65 

ignem copiosum accendit et pullos aquile fuino extinxit. Non 
debent ergo contempni minores quia quandoque ingenio superant 
fortiores ut non solum nocere valeant sed juvare. 

CXLV. Sicut dicitur de leone qui murem cepit et supplicabai 
ei mus quod permitteret eum abire, cum non esset ei magnus 
honor si victoriam haberet de parvo et vili animali, et promisit 
mus leoni quod si posset loco et tempore serviret ei. Leo autem 
precibus acquievit, et postmodum accidit quod leo incidit in 
retia et cum captus esset nee se a retia explicare valeret, mus 
reperit eum in magna angustia et tribulatione et accedens 
cepit rodere vincula et ita leo auxilio muris illesus evasit. Non 
debent igitur principes contempnere personas miserabiles nee 
impugnare eas .... 

CXLVI. [fo. 107 ro ] Hec autem sapientia, sicut in libro 
sapientie dicitur, non introibit in malivolam animam, nee habi- 
tabit in corpore subdito peccatis quantum ad carnalia peccata, 
in malivolam a mm am quantum ad peccata spiritualia que sunt 
superbia, invidia, ira et alie spirituales nequitie. Unde cum 
quidam sapiens vellet loqui de Christi fide cuidam crudeli 
tyranno ait illi : " Si rationem vis audire a me, rex, inirnicos 
tuos de meclio preconii tui eice et voca amicos tuos." Cui rex 
ait : u Qui sunt inimici mei ? " Eespondit vir sanctus : " Ira, 
impacientia, concupiscentia ; assideant vero ad audientiam pru- 
dentia, cquitas et patientia." Post multa verba, que vir ille de 
Christo dixit, reprehendendo regis pagani maliciam et errorem, 
rex ait: u Nisi in principio sermoiiis promisissem tibi, quod de 
medio concilii mei iram removcrem, statim carnes tuas igni 
traderem, et, quoniam anticipaiis talibus me circumvenisti 
sermonibus, fuge ex oculis meis ne ultra te videam." Ecce 
quomodo in malivolam regis animam sapientia non introivit, 
uncle et diabolus in ea inhabitavit . . . 

GXLVII. [fo. 108 VO ] Audivi de quodain serpente quod fere- 
bat pulcram rosam in ore. Quidam attendens tantam rose 

F 



66 EXEMPLA EX SEHMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

pulcritudinem cepit earn palpare et odorem cum naso attrahere, 
et quia venenum non attenclit, infestus veneno periit. Ita 
adulator pulchra verba liabet exterius sed latet venenum interius; 
mel et lac sub lingua meretricis, id est adulatoris. Dilexerunt 
eum in ore suo et lingua sua mentiti sunt ei. 

CXLVIII. Quod manifestum est in Xerse rege Persarum 
potentissimo qui, cum innumerabilem exercitum haberet, alii 
dicebant maria non sufficere classi ejus, alii aerem telis ejus ; 
unus solus philosophus dixit ei veritatem ; u Victus eris a te 
ipso, ista tua moles opprimet te." 

CXLIX. Similiter de quodam regi legimus quod curiam 
teneret, et totum ejus palatium deauratum esset, et pavimcntum 
pannis sericis opertum ad jactantiam, et mensa ejus vasis aureis 
et argenteis repleta. Quidam sapiens Philippus, cum sederet ad 
mensam juxta regem, attendens quod omnes adularentur ei et de 
superfluo apparatu laudarent, conspuit in barbarn ejus et statim 
a satellitibus regis captus est, ut in carcerem duceretur, et rex 
ad se reversus ait : " Sinit e eum, nullo modo credere possem 
quod tarn sapiens homo ista sine ratione feceret." Cumque rex 
ab eo quereret cur tantum vituperium illi fecisset, respondit : 
u Ego, cum vellem spuere, respexi circumquaque et non potui 
videre nisi aurum et argentum et pannos sericos ac lapides 
preciosos, non vidi locum viliorem quam barbam tuam et ideo 
conspui in ipsam." Et ita cognita veritate dimissus est a rege. 

CL. De quodam satellite et pessimo ballivo cujusdam comitis 
audivi quod, volens ei placere blandis verbis et maliciosis factis, 
ait; " Domine, si mihi credere velitis, faciam quod magnam 
pecunie summam omni anno lucrari potestis." Cumque comes 
ab eo quereret quomodo solem Dei vendere posset, ait ille 
nequam : " Multi siccant telas et albificant ad solem per totam 
terram nostram, si pro qualibet tela xii denarios accipiatis, 
magnam pecuniam acquiretis." Et ita malignusi lie induxit 
dominum suum ut venderet solis radios qui communes sunt 



JACOI3I VITRIACENSIS. 67 

omnibus. Hoc autem vicium adulationis non solum Christian! 
seel etiam pagani aspere reprehendunt . . . 

CLI. [fo. 109 VO ] Aiidivi quod quidam demon, per os hominis 
in quern introierat, libenter et frequenter veritatem predicabat et 
multa de divinis scripturis exponebat. Cumque a quodam 
sancto viro adjuraretur ut diceret ei quare veritatem predicaret 
cum hostis esset veritatis, respondit : " Hoc facio propter malum 
audientium, qui veritatem audientes et non facientes deteriores 
redduntur." 

GLII. [fo. lll vo ] Multi enini decepti sunt dum decipere 
voluerunt, incidendo in foveam quam fecerunt, sicut dicitur de 
leone quod volens equum devorare locutus est cum equo verbis 
pacificis, in dolo dicens quod esset medicus et quod volebat 
inanere cum eo, ut sanaret eum si forte aliquando incurreret 
infirmitatem. Equus autem perpendens fraudem cepit gemere 
et claudicare. Cui leo ait : " Quid habes in pede ?" Dixit 
equus : "Nuper dum per silvam irem spina infixa est in pede 
meo et valde pedem doleo, rogo te si aliquid novisti de medicina 
adjuva me." Cui leo : " Ego spinam de pede tuo extraham et 
postmodum unguentum apponam." Cumque leo caput pedi 
equi supponeret equus fortiter pede leonem percussit et ipsum 
excerebravit et fraudem fraude resolvit. 

CLIII. Similiter de vespertilione legimus quod cum aves 
pugnarent cum quadrupedibus, cum videret quod quadrupedia 
prevalerent, jungebat se eis gradiendo per terram ; habet enim 
alas in pedibus seu pede in alis, et fingebat se quadrupedem. 
Quando autem volucres prevalebant jungebatur eis et volabat. 
Quod attendentes aves insurrexerunt in earn et deplumaverunt 
illam, inhibentes ei ut non volaret nisi de nocte. Hujusmodi 
enim dolosi duplices et mendaces, quia male agunt lucem odiunt 
in tenebris ambulantes. 

CLIV. De vanis autem et superbis atque avaris kominibusj 

F2 



68 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARLBUS 

qui vanitatem diligunt et mendacium querunt, legimus quod 
Domiiius cuidam heremite ostendit in spiritu tres homines quorum 
unus in monte excelso trahebat ventum ore aperto et ut de vento 
plus attralieret flagellum in manu tenebat. II ii sunt vani et 
superbi homines qui vane glorie ventum attrahunt et multa 
opera faciunt ut ab hominibus laudentur. Secundus sedebat 
super fornacem fabri et aperto ore scintillas sorbebat. Hii sunt 
avari qui ad ignem avaricie, id est ad fornacem dyaboli, sedent 
ut transitorias divitias absorbeant. Tercius super fluvium Jor- 
clanis sedebat et totum absorbere nitebatur. Hii sunt luxuriosi 
qui totam vitam suam in fluxu deliciarum consumere conantur. 
Hii homines per quatuor animalia designantur quia ex puris 
vivunt elementis, talpa terra, per quam avari ; cameleon sive 
accidii (?) aere, hii sunt vani et superbi ; allec aqua, hii sunt 
luxuriosi ; salamandra igne, sarcinis. Caveatis ne sitis gravi corde, 
ne corda vestra graventur crapula et ebrietate et curis hujus 
seculi. Non diligatis vanitatem sed stabilitatem 

CLV. [fo. 113 1 ] Audivi quod quedam ex nimia simplicitate 
nolebat ab indignis sacerdotibus sacramenta recipere, et quia 
non ex certa malicia sed ex ifmorantia istud faciebat, Deus volens 

o / 

ipsum revocare ab errore immisit ei in sompnis sitim vehemen- 
tem et quasi intolerabilem, et videbatur ei quod esset super 
puteum ubi quidarn leprosus cum fune aureo in vase pulcherrirno 
limpidissimam aquain do puteo extrahebat. Cumque multi acce- 
derent et biberent, illo accedeiite, leprosus manum retraxit ct 
ait: ic Quomodo de manu leprosa vis aquam recipere qui a malis 
sacerdotibus dedignaris accipere sacramenta ? " Pessima igitur 
hereticorum doctrina qui ex una ministri dicunt pendere 
virtutem sacramentorum. 

CLVI. [fo. 113 VO ] Audivi autem de ove, capra et jumenta, 
quod habuerunt societatem cum leone et inierunt fedus cum eo ? 
et ceperunt cervum qui, cum per partes divisus esset et unus- 
quisque partem acciperet, dixit leo: " Prima pars mihi debctur 
ratione regie dignitatis, secunda quia in venando plus vobis 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 69 

laboravi, terciam si quis acceperit sciat quod amicus non erit 
mcns." Et ita totum accepit cum alii ipsum offendere non ancle- 
rent. Bonnm est igitur et utile malorum consortia evitare et 
maxime fortiorum. 

CLVII. Dicitur quod mus urbanus, qui scilicet in civitate 
morabatur, invitavit ad prandium murem ruralem et cum delicate, 
in domo in quo victualia reponebantur, cepisset procurare ipsum, 
venit procurator domus reserans ostium. Mures vero timore 
percussi reliquerunt prandium et fugerunt cupientes evadere 
mortem. Tandem, recedente liomine illo, reversi sunt mures et 
rogabat urbanus ruralem ut comederet; ille vero nolebat sed 
dicebat quod plus amabat ruralem paupertatem cum gaudio et 
securitate sustinere quam splendidas epulas in strepitu civitatis 
cum periculo, tristicia et timore. Expedit igitur ut exeat homo 
aBabilone et periculosahabitatione maxime, ubi fortior debiliorem 
consuevit opprimere. 

CLVIII. Dicitur quod lupus ct vulpes sociaverunt se leoni in 
venatione, et cum cepissent vaccam et ovem dixit leo lupo quia 
divideret et partiretur. Lupus ait: " Domine, vos habeatis 
taurum, ego vaccam, et vulpes overn." Indignatus leo, elevato 
pede, lupum percussit et pellem de capite lupi unguibus avulsit, 
et dixit vulpi ut predam partiretur. Cui vulpes : " Domine, 
justum est ut vos, qui rex noster estis, taurum habeatis, domina 
autem nostra uxor vestra regina vaccam habebit, filii vero vestri 
leonculi habeant ovem." Cui leo dixit: u Optime divisisti. Quis 
docuit te ita bene partire ? * Vulpes autem intuens lupum ait: 
" Domine, iste cui rubeum pilleum fecistis docuit me itapartiri." 
Patet igitur quam utile sit consilium exire de Babilone et 
malorum societatem visitare atque in pace et securitate servire 
Domino .... 

CLIX. [fo. 115] Etsicut de Balthasar rege Babilonis dicitur 
quod, metuens ne pater ejus mortuus revivisceret, fecit cum 
dividi in trecentas partes et totidem vulpibus ad devorandum 



70 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGABIBUS 

doclit. Itacor hujusmodi ncgociatorum in varias partes dividaiur 
et vulpibus infernalibus ad devorandum datur 

CLX. Claudere igitur debetis cordis hostium contra curas et 
sollicitudines que serpunt et cordi venenum infundunt sicut ser- 
pentes ; undo dicitur de colubro quod cum frigore hyemali ita 
affligeretur quod pene moreretur. Homo quadarn pietate ductus 
eum in hospicio suo recepit, calefaciens et lac ei ad potandum 
prestans, unde receptis viribus totam domum cepit toxicare et 
veneno inficere. Quod videns homo primo ut exiret a domo roga- 
vit, postmodum precepit. At ille tarn precibus quam preceptis 
exire recusavit sed insuper adherens homini venenum infundit 
in ipsum. Ecce quomodo serpens in greraio vel in domo, id est 
cura temporalium, male renumerat hospitem suum .... 

CLXI. Patet ergo quomodo hujusmodi sollicitudines multipli- 
cantur et serpunt et hominem extravagantem de domo sua 
eiciunt, sicut dicitur de catula pregnante quod rogavit canem ut 
apud ipsum in doma sua posset parere, qui egressus est a domo 
sua donee liberius catula peperisset. Postquam autem peperit 
et aliquanto tempore catulos suos nutrivit ct reversus canis ait: 
" Ecce peperisti, redde mihi domum meam." At ilia non 
solum recusavit sed cum catulis suis invasit canem et a domo 
ilium ejecit. Fatuus est qui ad pedes suos proicit quod in 
manu tenet et a futuris periculis sibi non cavet. . . . 

CLXII. [fo. 116 VO ] Audivi de quodam carnifice qui carnes 
coctas vendere consueverat, cum quidam, ut melius forum 
haberefc, dioeret ei : a Jam sunt vii anni quod ab alio carnes 
non comparavi a vobis." Ille valde ammirans respondit : 
" Tanto tempore hoc fecisti et adhuc vivis ? " 

CLXIII. Intellexi preterea cum essem in partibus trans- 
marinis quod quidam christianus, qui in Acconensi civitate 
carnes coctas et pulmenta corrupta peregrinis vendere con- 
sue verat, captus est a Sarracenis, et roavit ut duceretur ac 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 71 

soldanum, cni dixit: " Domine, ego sum in potestate vestra et 
si vultis potestis me occidere vel incarcerare sed sciatis quod 
magnum dampnum incurretis." Querenti autem soldano quare 
detrimentum incurreret, respondifc : " Non est annus in quo 
plus quam centum de hostibus vestris peregrinis non occidam, 
quibus carnes coctas veteres et fetidas et pisces corruptas vendo." 
Quod audiens soldanus ridere cepit et eum abire permisit. 

CLXIY. [fo. 116 VO ] Audivi de quoclam qui multum de 
grano congregavit et per m altos annos ut carius venderet 
expectavit. Deus autem semper bonum tempus dabat unde 
miser ille, spe sua frustrate, tandem pre tristicia super granum 
suum se ipsum suspendit. 

CLXV. [fo. 117 VO ] Dicitur quod vulpes invitavit ciconiam ut 
secum manducaret et liquidas sorbmnculas- preparavit quas 
cyconia rostro capere non potuit, et ita vulpes illudens cyconie 
totum comedit. Cyconia vero illudere volens illusorem vulpem 
ad prandium invitavit et posuit cibum in vase unum modicum et 
strictum foramen in superiori parte habente. Cumque ciconia 
rostro infixo cibum caperet vulpes intrinsecas ad cibum per- 
tingere non potuit, et totum cyconia manducavit. Dolus an 
virtus quis in hoste requirat ? Fidem non servanti fides non est 
servanda. Probandi igitur sunt spiritus nee credendum est 
omni spiritui. 

CLXVI. Exemplo scrophe pregnantis quando cum lupus 
promitteret quod novis fetibus, postquam pareret, obsequium 
prestaret, respondit scropha : " Nolo ut milii ministres, nam 
nondum peperi et viscera mea ministerium tuum causa abhor 
rent/ Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes. 

CLXVII. [fo. 119 VO ] Audivi de quoclam qui licet de propria 
hereditate haberet unde posset mediocriter vivere, ipse ut dives 
et magnus haberetur pecuniam ad usuram mutuabat, sed in usus 
suos earn non audebat convertere et seorsum illam reponebat. 



72 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

hac intentione, ut in morte totum restitueret ct licet forsitan 
[fo. 120 1 ] excusaretur a tanto et non a toto, dupliciter fcamen 
peccabat vanitate simul et usuraria pravitate et periculo magno 
animam exponcbat, nam multi feneratores in mortis egritudine 
usum loquendi solent amittere ita quod non possunt connteri 
Quidam autem amore pecunie ita occupantur quod ulli de 
debitis et pecunie, in ipsa infirmitate, loquuntur juxta illud 
Jeremie. Fecit divitias et non in judicio, in medio dierum 
suorum delinquet eas et in novissimo suo erit insipiens. 

CLXVIII. Audivi autem de quodam quod, cum in ultima 
infirmitate laboraret et pecuniam suam relinquere nullo modo 
vellet, vocavit uxorem et filios et fecit eos jurare quod mandatum 
suum adimplerent. Quibus sub obligatione prestiti juramenti 
precepit quod pecuniam suam in tres partes dividerent, unarn 
liaberet uxor de qua se remaritare posset, aliam filii ejus et filie, 
terciam in sacculo ad collum ejus ligarent et cum eo ipsum 
sepelirent. Cum autem sepultus esset cum ingenti pondere 
pecunie et de nocte vellent pecuniam resumere, aperto tumulo, 
viderunt demones denarios illos ignitos in ore feneratoris 
ponentes et perterriti fugerunt. 

CLXIX. De alio audivi quod in morte nicliil voluit resti- 
tuere sed tamen largas elimosinas, propter honorem seculi, 
facere cupiebat, uncle in testamento suo summam pecunie 
reliquit et filios atque alios amicos suos adjuravit ut pecuniam 
illam, per tres annos post mortem suam, darent ad usuram ut 
multiplicato fenore totam peccuniam pro anima sua erogarent. 
Ecce quomodo in novissimo suo factus est insipiens. 

CLXX. Sicut quidam alius fenerator dives valde, cum jam 
inciperet laborare in extremis, cepit valde contristari et dolere 
et animam suam rogare ut remaneret, quia bene ipsam prgemiaret 
et promittebat ei aurum et argentum et muncli Imjus delicias, 
si vellet remanere cum illo, alioquin vero unum denarium 
vel unam modicam elemosinam pro ipsa pauperibus erogaret. 



JACOB! VITRIACEKSIS. 73 

Tandem viclens quod earn retinere non posset, valde iratus et 
indignatus ait : " Ego bonum hospitium cum diviciis multls 
tibi preparavi, ex quo ita fatua es et misera quod in bono hos- 
picio quiescere noil vis, recede a me, omnibus demonibus qui 
sunt in inferno commendo te." Et paulo post in manus deinonum 
tradidit spiritum et sepultus est in inferno. 

CLXXI. Licet autem in vita sua fenerator multum habundet 
adeo pietatis visceribus caret quod, etiam de superfluis, modica 
non vult impertiri egenis, similis vulpi que cum magnam 
caudam liabeat immo nimiam et usque ad terram pertingentem, 
rogabat earn symia, que cauda indiget, ut modicum de cauda sua 
claret ei, uncle turpitudinem suam posset velare, et dicebat ei : 
<f Sine aliquo cletrimento posses milii subvenire quia valde 
longam et ponderosam habes caudam." Cui vulpecularespondit: 
" Non minus longa vel ponderosa mihi videtur cauda mea 
etiam si minus esset ponderosa, malo," inquit, "pondussustinere 
quam naribus tuis immundis velamen prestare." Hec est vox 
eorum qui dicunt de pauperibus. "Quare trutannis istis darem 
pecuniam meam ? manducare te nequeo nee tibi dare volo." 

CLXXII. [fo. 120 ro ] Audivi de quodam insano quern parentes 
ejus ante ymaginem Beate Marie traxerunt, et dum pro ipso 
orarent ut Deus redcleret illi sanitatem, ipse clamabat : " Maria, 
ne creclas eis quia mentiuntur tibi. Ego enim sanus sum et 
sapientior illis." Et cum increparent eum parentes et instarent 
ut ymaginem crucifixi adoraret, ipse dicebat: u Adorare pos 
sum te, sed numquam diligam te." Ita fenoratores aliquando 
crucifixum adorant, quando ecclesiam intrant, sed more Jude- 
orum dant ei alapas dum spoliant ecclesias et Christum in 
membris suis persequuntur. 

CLXXIII. [fo. 120 VO ] De quodam feneratore audivi quod 
absorbuerat omnia bona cujusdam militis per usuras et, cum 
ipsum ac filios et filias ejus depauperasset, nulla misericordia 
super eo movebatur nee unum denarium illi restituere volebat. 



EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

Quodam autem die petebat fenerator debitum ab illo et, cum 
jam non liaberet pignus vel aliud quod reddere posset, suppli- 
cabat ei ut adhuc ilium expectaret, qui noleba.t sed eum captum 
per dominum terre detineri faciebat. Cum autem vir iiobilis in 
magna esset constitutus angustia accidit quod fenerator mortuus 
est et sepultus est in inferno, et non raultum post miles cum 
ejus uxore matrimonium contraxit, et a debitis omnibus absolutus 
non solum possessiones suas sed omnia que possederat fenerator 
ejus et uxorem habuit. Joculator in nuptiis cantabat et fenerator 
in inferno ululabat. Edebant et bibebant de pecunia misera 
delicata cibaria et os fenoratoris calculis ignitis in inferno pasce- 
batur juxta illud in Parabolis : " Suavis est homini panis mendacii 
videlicet os ejus implebitur calculo." Terebantur in nuptiis 
salvamenta cum pistillo et anima feneratoris malleis ferreis 
attercbatur in inferno et ita accidit militi sicut legitur in Ke- 
[gibus] de David, quod Nabal vir stultus noluit dare illi unam 
refectionem et, cum paulo post moriretur David, uxorem ejus 
duxit in uxorem et omnia bona ejus posscdit. 

CLXXIY. [fo, 121 ro ] Dicitur de vulpe quod persuasit lupo 
macilento in fraudem ut sequeretur earn in promptuario, et cum 
lupus tantum comedisset quod per artum foramen quo intraverat 
egredi non posset, oportuit ut tantum jcjunaret quod macilentus 
neret sicut prius, cum fustigaretur exivit sine pelle. Et fene 
rator pellem diviciarum morte reliquit . . . 

CLXXV. Audivi de quodam milite qui obvians turbe mona- 
chorum ferentium cadaver feneratoris ad sepulturam ait : 
66 Concede vobis cadaver aranee mee et dyabolus habeat animam. 
Ego autem habeo aranee telam, id est totam pecuniam." Merito 
autem aranee comparantur, dum se eviscerant ut muscas capiant, 
et non solum se sed et filios suos demonibus immolant trahentes 
eos per ignem . . . 

CLXXVI. [fo. 122 ro ] Audivi quod quidam fenerator, a quo 
monachi magnam summam pecunie acceperant, ut eum in ecclesia 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 75 

sua sepelirent. Cum monachi nocte intoressent matutinis fene- 
rator de tumulo surrexit et quasi insanus, arrepto oandelabro, 
monachos invasit. Cumque fugerent stupefacti et pavefacti, 
ipse quosdam in capitibus vulneravit, aliis tybias et bracliia 
confregit, et quasi ululando clamabat dicens : " Isti Dei inimici 
et proditores pecuniam meam receperunt et milii promittebant 
salutem et ecce deceptus ab eis inveni mortem eternam." 

CLXXVII. Quam melius fecit quiclam benedictus sacerdos 
qui, cum parrochianus ejus qui fuerat usurarius et non restituerat 
mortuus esset, noluit sepelire eum, eo quod liujusmodi pestilentes, 
secundum statuta sanctorum, carere debent Christiana sepultura, 
nee sunt digni ut habeant sepulturam nisi asininam. Juxta illud 
Ysaiae : " Quasi cadaver putridum non habetis sepulcrum nee 
cum eis eris in sepultura, id est cum sanctis quorum corpora in 
pace sepulta sunt." Cum autem amici ejus valde instareiit, sacer 
dos, ut ulterius eorum molestias non sustineret, facta oratione, 
dixit illis : " Ponamus corpus ejus super asiimm et videamus Dei 
voluntatem et quid disposuerit de ipso ; ad quemcumque locum 
asinus tulerit eum, sive ad ecclesiam sive ad cimeterium sive 
alibi, ego sepeliam ipsum." Cumque cadaver super asinum 
poneretur nee declinans ad dexteram vel ad sinistram sed recto 
itinere tulit illud extra viliam ad locum ubi latrones in furcis 
suspendebantur, et fortiter excutiens ipsum ex dorso projecit 
subtus furcas in sterquilinium, et ibi sacerdos cum furibus ipsum 
reliquit. 

CLXXVIII. Audivi de quodam feneratore quod cum mortuum 
esset, dum sui quibus servierat voluerunt eum honorare et hide 
ludibrium facere, unde cum vicini ejus cadaver levare vellent ut 
ad sepulturam portarent nullo modo poterunt, cumque alii idem 
temptarent nullo modo poterunt et ammirantibus cunctis quidam 
antiquus homo valde sapiens dixit illis : " Yos scitis quod con- 
suetudo est in hac civitate quod, mortuo aliquo homine, qui 
ejusdem officii vel ministerii sunt solent ipsum ad sepeliendum 
ferre. Sacerdotes enim et clerici portant sacerdotes et clericos 



76 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

mortuos usque ad cimiterium, et mcrcatores mercatorem, car- 
nifices carnificem, etc. de aliis, vocemus ejusdem conditionis sen 
ministerii homines." Et vocaverunt quatuor feneratores qui 
statim corpus elevantes de facili usque ad locum sepulture 
tulerunt; non enim permiserimt demones quod servus eorum 
portaretur nisi a conservis ipsius. Patet igitur quanta sit Dei 
misericordia dum ab usuris et iniquitate redimet animas pccca- 
torum ut mutato nomine honorabile sit nomen eorum coram 
ipso. 

CLXXIX. Unde cum quidam predicator vellet omnibus 
ostendere quam ignominiosum sitfeneratoris officium, quod nullus 
publice audet confiteri, dixit in sermonc : u Volo vobis facere 
absolutionem sccundum officium et ministcrium singulorum ; 
surgant porro fabri." Et surrexerunt quibus absolutis ait: 
u Surgant pelliparii." Et surrexerunt et ita sccundum quod 
nominabant diverges artifices consurgcbant et tandem cum 
clamaret : " Surgant usurarii ut habeant absolutionem," licet 
plures essent de usurariis quam de aliis liominum generibus, 
nullus surrexit, sed omnes pre verecondia abscondebant se et 
latitabant, et ita aliis ridentibus et irridentibus illos, qui mi- 
nisterium suum [confiteri] non audebant, feneratores reces- 
serunt confusi. Postquam autem ad dominum convertuntur 
honorabile est nomen eorum coram ipso, ut qui prius vocabatur 
fenerator postquam restitucrit vocetur penitens et justificatus a 
Deo ; qui prius crudelis vocetur misericors ; qui prius avarus 
vocetur largus; qui prius vulpes et symia vocetur agnus et 
columba ; qui prius servus dyaboli vocetur servus domini nostri 
Jesu Christi 

CLXXX. [fo. 123 VO ] Quidam autem tanta avaricia contra- 
huntur quod nee primas partes nee ultimas pauperibus erogant 
sed to turn consumunt et devorant . . . hii stint qui pauperum 
id est reliquias ciborum canibus suis vel gallinis commendendas 
prebent vel usque ad putredinem reservant, sicut audivi de 
quodam divite avaro, qui pastillum unum tantum fecit reservare, 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 77 

quod, dum coram ipso et hospitibus qui secum comedebant 
aperiretur, in mensa mures exierunt . . . 

CLXXXT. Unde de quodam avaro milite audivi quod cum 
manducasset in curia cujusdam iiobilis et post prandium 
repeteret capam suam, quam ejus serviens inter alia vestimenta 
reposuerat, cito invenire non poterat, cepit eum vituperare coram 
omnibus et dicere : " Fili meretricis, affer cito capam meam, 
numquid agnoscis earn?" Ille offensus et indignatus cunctis 
audientibus respondit : u Bene cognosce earn domine, jam sun t 
vii annij sed earn non potui invenire." Quod audientes milites 
ceperunt ridere et militem avarum valde confusum irridere. 

CLXXXII. [fo. 124 ro ] Audivi de muliere quadam cui 
maritus ejus claves et custodiam omnium bonorum tradiderat 
at ilia adeo absque pauperum compassione cuncta reservabat 
quod nihil pro Deo indigentibus erogabat, et cum longam vitam 
sibi promitteret accidit quod mortua est. Cum autem rogarent 
ejus maritum ut pro anima uxoris aliquas faccret elemosinas, 
ille magis cogitans de secundis nuptiis quam de anima uxoris 
defuncte, gallicum proverbium respondebat : " Berta omnia 
bona mea in potestate habuit, to turn habeat quod pro anima sua 
fecit. Sertefu ale mail se le sen dona si en ait." 

CLXXXIII. [fo. 124 VO ] Audivi din quod in quadam villa 
erat quidam rusticus senex, qui longo usu didicerat dies festos, 
et semper in illis diebus, qui in partibus illis feriari solebant, 
caligas suas rubeas calciabat, quod videntes vicini sui dicebant 
familie sue : " Hodie oportet nos feriare nam dominus Goceli- 
nus caligas rubeas portat." 

CLXXXIV. Quidam autem non solum festis diebus laborant 
sed ? quando homines ad ecclesiam vadunt, insidiantur eis et bona 
eorum furto asportant, vel, quia hiis diebus homines in agris 
et vineis non inveniuntur sicut in aliis diebus, tune maledicti 
illi segetes furantur vel fructus in ortis aut uvas in vineis et 



& EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

maleiiciis suis omnibus odiosos se reddunt et tandem ad finem 
malum deveniunt, similes leoni qui quamdiu potens fuit nemini 
parcebat, quando autem factus est senex, utjam defendere se 
non posset, ledebatur ab hiis quos leserat. Aper dente ipsum 
vulnerabat, taurus cornibus ventilabat, asinus calce percutiebat, 
vulpes super eum mingebat, multi etiam propter ejus maliciam 
eum ledebant qui tamen nunquam ab eo lesi fuerant. Bonum 
est igitur benivolum et amabilem se exhibere. 

CLXXXV. Auclivi enim de aliquibus qui non solum ab agris 
inimicorum suorum sepes dissipatas reparabant et si asinum odien- 
tium se videbant sub onere sublevabant, tamen hiis qui od[ieba]nt 
eos. Qui enim multis servit aliquando inveniet remunerationem, 
sicut dicitur de leone qui, cum haberet spinam in pede, neces 
sitate coactus pastori pedem porrexit qui spinam a pede leonis 
extraxit. Accidit autem post dies multos quod leo captus 
imperatori presentatus est vivus et cum aliis bestiis ipsum 
imperatorservarifaciebat, etpostea pastor ille tale quid commisit 
quod, captus et imperatori presentatus, datus est bestiis ad 
devoranclum. Quern leo recognoscens non solum illi pepercit 
sed ab aliis bestiis quod lederetur defendit. Quod cum rclatum 
esset imperatori valdc ammiratus pastorem sibi presentari fecit, 
et cum didicisset veritatem non solum pastorem sed et leonem 
abire liberos permisit. Non igitur agrestes sitis aut rustici 
sed Jiberales et benivoli. . . . 

CLXXXVI. [fo. 125 VO ] Dicitur autem quod lupa aliquando 
infantes rapit et nutrit. Quando autem infans se nititur erigere 
ut super pecles incedat, lupa pede percutit eum in capite nee 
permittit ut se erigat sed cum pedibus ac manibus bestialiter 
eat. q. d. lupus infernalis incurvare ut transeamus et oculos 
ad celum noli erigere 

CLXXXVII. [fo. 126"] Audivi de quodam qui habebat 
anserem que omni die ovum ei ponendo reddebat, et cepit intra 



JACOBI VITEIACBN8IS, 



79 



se cogitare quod ilia que paulatim cle ansere habiturus essct 
simul habere posset ; et, cum cutello anserem aperuisset, unum 
solum ovum in ventre reperit, et ita ex nimia festinantia ea que 
in future posset liabere amisit. 

CLXXXVIII. Multa enim mala proveniunt ex nimia festi- 
natione. Uncle legimus de Beato Martino quod, cum veniret 
Parisius advesperascente die, quidam autem ducentes quadrigam 
valde festinabant se et ante noctem Parisius posse venire dubita- 
bant. Cumque a viro sancto quererent utrum de die possent 
Parisius per venire respondit : " Bene pervenietis si plane in- 
cedatis et non ita festinaveritis." Illi autem videntes ipsum 
pauperem et habitu vili asinum equitantem valde indignati, 
creclentes quod eos irrideret, multis conviciis afFectum etiam 
pugnis impie percusserunt. Cum autem festinarent et Martinus 
plane incederet et eos a longe sequeretur, equis ex iniqua festi- 
natione corruentibus, subversa est quadriga et rota comfracta, 
teste Salomone : a qui festivus est offendet pedibus." Oumque 
Sanctus Martinus plane incedens eos inveniret dixit : u Si 
mibi credidissetis et nolletis nimis festinare possotis de die 
plane incedere et ad civitatem pervenire sicut ego perveniam, 
Domino concedente." Laboremus igitur in hoc seculo ut quies- 
camus et fructum colligamus in alio. . . . 

CLXXXIX. Valde enim fatuus est qui tantum presentia 
attendit et futura pericula non avertit, sicut dicitur de musca 
que fornicam irridebat et miseram reputabat : a Tu, inquit, 
latitas in cavernis tenebrosis, ego vero in nobilibus aulis, tu 
aquain lutosam bibis, ego in cyphis aureis bibo et in scutellis 
argentcis cum divitibus comedo." Cui formica respondit : 
" Noli gloriari in presenti, cum nescias quid crostina pariet 
dies, malo de labore mee vivere et secure latere in caverna 
quam cum timore et periculo persone mee habitare in palaciis 
et bibere in vasis argenteis in quibus si cadas submergeris et 
turpiter ejecta morieris, et licet in presenti etate affluas deliciis 



80 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

in yeme peribis futura, qnia non tibi provides unde vivcre 
possis." 

CXC. De alia musca audivi quod liominem calvum valde 
infestabat et ipsum in capite mordens. Cum homo muscam 
temptaret percutere, avolante musca, caput suum percutiebat, 
que cum decies rediret et homo caput suum pluries percuteret, 
musca illi insultabat et ipsum irridebat. Cui calvus respondit : 
il Quare, o misera et fatua, rides, cum parum ledere possis et 
multum ledi ? " Cumque musca iterum et iterum rediret calvus, 
fortiter percutiens et muscam priusquam recedere posset attin- 
gens, ipsam contrivit et occidit. 

CXCI. [fo. J.27 ro ] Audivi de quodam rustico qui nutritus 
erat iu furno et in stercoribus animalium, et cum transisset 
prope apothecariam, ubi species aromatice terebantur, non 
valens ferre odorem corruit quasi semivivus nee potuit con- 
valescere aut confortari, donee portatus ad domain suam ad 
fetorem fumi et stercorum reverteretur. Ita quidam sic assueti 
sunt fetore et immundiciis peccatorum quod bonum odorem 
verbi Dei sustinere non possunt. 

CXII. [fo. 127 V ] Audivi de quibusdam qui aurum ad 
certain pondus accipiunt et, parte auri subtracta, idem pondus 
restituunt ex contactu enim vivi argenti, absque aliqua addi- 
tionc auri metallum faciunt amplius ponderare, Aliquando 
etiam recipiunt aurum purum vel argentum et facta ammix- 
tione reddunt impurum. 

CXCIII. [fo. 127 V ] De quodam maledicto marescallo 
equorum audivi quod, cum ferraret equos peregrinorum et 
transeuntium, sci enter illos inclavabat vel etiam actun in pede 
equi latenter figebat. Cumque peregrin as per unum vel duo 
miliaria processisset et equus fortiter claudicaret abibat obviam 
liominem quern marescallus in strata premiserat qui dicebat 
peregrine : a Amice, equus tuus inutilis factus est, vis ilium 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 81 

vendere ut saltern pro corio et ferramentis pedum aliquid 
recipias et totum non amittas ? " Peregrinus autem, cum 
equum suum cum aliis ducere [non posset] et societatem nollet 
amittere, equum lassum pro modica pecunia vendebat. Emptor 
vero reducebat eum ad latronem et proditorem videlicet ad 
marescallum qui acum a pede extraliebat vel clavum quern 
infixerat, et, pede reparato, infra paucos dies equum sanum 
decuplo plus quam emeret vendebat. Ecce quam miser et 
hostis anime sue erat faber ille. Quot enim denarios hoc modo 
lucrabatur iste [vel] potius furabatur, tot demones ipsum deferent 
in infernum et tot penis cruciabitur in eternum. 

CXCIV. [fo. I28 ro ] Unde in vita patrum heremita, licet ab 
liominibus remotus esset ut opera sua non venderet, nichilo- 
minus cophinos de foliis palme faciebat et postmodum destruebat, 
ut ociosus non esset sed cor a malis et vanis cogitationibus 
conservaret. 

CXCV. Audivi de quodam clerico qui servum habebat, ut 
cum aliud facere non haberet, nolebat quod ocio torperet. Unum 
ex acervo lapidum, qui in curia ejus erat, faciebat lapides ad 
alium locum transportare et postmodum ad locum referre ; 
servo malivolo tortura et compedes, mitte eum in operationem 
no vacet. Multum enim malum docet ociositas. 

CXCVI. Dicitur de duobus quorum unus erat valde invidus, 
alius supra modum avarus. Cumque in optione eorum a 
quodam potente poneretur ut ab eo peterent quecumque desi- 
derarent, hac condicione ut qui ultimus peteret duplum 
reportaret, avarus quia plus habere concupivit prius petere 
rccusavit. Quod attcndens invidus non potuit sustinere quod 
amplius avarus acciperet, et magis lionoraretur, et ditaretur 
quam ipse. Cumque uterque difFerret et petere noluisset tandem 
invidus, livore invidie stimulatus, prior petens ait: " Volo, 
domine, et peto prornunere ut mihi unum oculum eruatis." Et 
ita factum est quod, extracto uno a capite invidi, duo oculi 

G 



82 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

eruerentur avaro, quia duplum recipere debuit ex pacto. Elegit 
enim invidus esse monoculus ut socius ejus efficeretur cecus. 

CXCYII. [fo. 128 VO ] Audivi tamen de quodam cupido 
sacerdote^ si fas est dicere, quod, cum mater cujusdam juvenis 
mortua esset, nullo modo volebat illi sepulturam exhibere nisi 
prills recepta pecunia. Juvenis vero, qui pauper erat, nesciebat 
quid facere posset. Post multas autem anxietates et delibera- 
tiones in principio noetis posuit matrem suam in sacco et fortiter 
os sacci ligavit et tollens super Immeros tulit ad domain sacer- 
dotis dicens : u Domine, paratam pecuniam non habeo, sed 
bonum pignus vobis affero, globos scilicet seu lussellos de filo 
bono quod mater mea neverat ad telam inde faceret," ,et 
projecto sacco recessit. Tune presbyter, vocato clerico suo, 
gaudens ad saccum accessit et, cum caput mulieris tetigisset, ait : 
" Bonum vadium habemus quicquid sit de aliis. istud lus- 
sellum quod tetigi valde grossum est et bene valet argentum." 
Cum autem os sacci solveret, accidit quod pedes vetule quos 
films ejus reflexerat cum magno impulsu pectus sacerdotis 
fortiter percusserunt. Ille vero stupefactus et terrore per- 
territus, postquam rei veritatem agnovit, valde confusus statim 
corpus defuncte sepelivit et ita deludi meruit delusor et avarus. 

CXCYIII. E contrario de quodam bono sacerdote audivi quod 
habebat quemdam rusticum parrochianum avarum et pessimum. 
qui de laboribus suis numquam decimas dabat nee oblationes 
aliquando ad altare offerebat, nisi pre verecondia, quando alii in 
magnis sollempnitatibus offerebant, et tune semper falsum 
eligebat denarium et ilium offerebat sacerdoti. Et, cum pluries 
hoc feeisset, tandem sacerdos, qui semper inter alios nummos 
falsum nummum inveniebat, diligenter attendens percepit quod 
rusticus ille erat, qui falsam monetam semper oiFerebat, et siluit 
usque ad diem Pasclie in quo idem rusticus sicut consueverat 
falsum optulit denarium. Quando autem ventum est ad com- 
munionem, aliis recipientibus corpus Domini, sacerdos nummum 
falsum paratum habuit et, rustico aperiente os ut reciperet 



JACOBI VITEIAGENS1S. 83 

eucharistiam, ipse falsum nummurn posuit in os ejus. Cumque 
rusticus masticaret invenit minimum falsum quern obtulerat 
et obstupuit. Celebrata autem missa, accessit cum lacrimis ad 
sacerdotem et ait illi : li Domine, peccatis meis exigentibus, 
hodie accidit mihi quod hostia in ore meo commutata est in 
falsum denarium." Sacerdos ait: " Sine causa non accidit 
istud tibi ; die mihi quid fecisti, vide ne celaveris." At ille 
cum magno timore et rubore respondit: a Confiteor peccatum 
meum. Tanta avaritia cor meum occupavit quod semper, 
quando alii offerebant, ego denarium falsum offerebam." Cui 
sacerdos: " Hoc est judicium tuum quod dixisti, propter hoc in 
ore tuo loco eucliaristie falsum denarium reperisti." Et ita facta 
restitutioiie, postquam promisit quod bonam monetam semper 
offeret et insuper de artificio suo sicut alii decimas redderet, 
beneficium absolutionis obtinuit et eucharistiam recepit. 

CXCIX. [fo. 128 V0 .] Unum modicum verbum, Domino 
cooperante, multos peccatores illustrat et ad amorem Dei 
accendit et inflammat. Unde quidam homo, qui primo multum 
secularis fuerat sed postmodum valde religiosam vitam duxit, 
dixit mihi quod unum modicum verbum ipsum ad Deum con- 
verterat. Cum enim intra se quadam die cogitaret si, post 
mille annos, anime dampnatorum possent a tormentis liberari, 
respondebat sibi in cogitatione: "Non," id est non poterunt 
evadere. Et iterum cogitans, si post duo milia annorum possent 
liberari, respondebat sibi in cogitatione : " Non. " Si post centum 
milia : " Non. r Si post mille millia : " Non. 5 Si post milia 
annorum quot sunt gutte in mari : " Non/ Et ita talia cogitando, 
supra modum perterritus et turbatus, cepit attendere quam 
miseri et obtenebrati sunt hujus mundi homines qui, pro modico 
tempore quo victuri sunt et pro transitoria vanitate, poenas eternas 
incurrunt, ubi tarn diu cruciabuntur in inferno quam diu Deus 
erit in paradyso, et ita hec modica dictio, non, ipsum convertit 
nd Deum. 

CO. [fo. 130 V0 .] Audivi de quodani qui tarn diu fuerat cum 

G2 



84 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

meretrice quod omnia expenderat, excepto quod remanserat ci 
capa una. Cum autem, inopia compellente, de civitate recederet 
ct meretrix ipsum extra civitatem conduceret, tandem, illo 
discedente, cepit meretrix valde flere et, cum parum remota esset 
a stulto, cepit multum ridere. Cumque meretricula quedam quo 
secum ierat quesisset ab ilia: " Domina, paulo ante tamen 
plorastis, quomodo ita cito ridere potuistis ?" Cui meretrix : 
" fatua, credis quod plorarem pro leccatore illo? Ego ipsum 
totum spoliavi; sola capa illi rernansit et ideo plorabam quia 
illam liabere non potui." 

CCI. Hii miseri et incauti homines similes sunt cuiclam misero 
scni qui duos liabebat arnicas, unam juvenem ct aliam senem. 
Senex volebat ut amasius ejus assimilaretur ei ; uncle quando in 
gremio suo dormiebat, capillos nigros ei subtrahens, albos ex 
canicie illi relinquebat. Quando vero dormiebat in gremio junioris 
amice, ilia, volens ut juvenis appareret, canos capillos ei subtra- 
hebat, ex quo accidit quod totus depilatus tarn albos quam nigros 
crines amisit. Ita accidit hiis miseris marinariis quos rneretrices 
spoliant et emungunt. 

CCII. Audivi de quodam quo frequenter dicebat a mask) suo, 
quod cum super omnia deligeret et quod mallet mori quam ipse 
moreretur, vel ledi quam ipse lederetur. Quod ille probare volens. 
cum quadam nocte discalciati juxta ignern ambo sederent, ille 
supra pedem suum stupos posuit et similiter supra pedem mere- 
tricis, et accepta candela, utrobique ignem stupis apposuit. At 
ilia sentiens aclustionem festinavit ignem a pede suo excutere et 
ex parte sua stupas extinguere, et ita sollicita crat de se quod 
ad pedem amasii non respexit nee stupas accensas a pede illi us 
excussit, et sic homo ille, mendacia et simulationes meretricis 
deprehendens, cepit exprobrare illi quod de lesione propria magis 
curaret, cum tamen sepe dixisset quod magis vellet ledi quam 
ejus amicus leseret. 

CCIII. De quodam joculatore audivi qui cum esset in maris 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 85 

tempestate, cepifc carries salsas comedere in magna quantitatc. 
Cumquc alii mirarentur et dicerent : " Tu vides quod omnes 
plorant et metuunt, et tu quare manducare non cessas qui lugere 
et Deum invocare debuisses ? " Qui respondit : " Nunquain 
tantum bibere habui quantum habeo hodie et ideo carries salsas 
aportet me manducare." 

CCIV. [to. 131 ro ] Audivi de quodam servo pigro qui nun- 
quam de lecto suo nolebat de nocte surgere sed, cum diceret ei 
dominus : u Surge et vide si pluat," ipse de loco suo canern, qui 
custodiebat domum exterius, vocabat et, si eum complutum sen- 
tiebat, dicebat : "Domine pluit," simulans se de lecto surrexisse. 
Cum autem diceret ei dominus : " Surge et vide si habemus 
ignem/ vocavit catum sive murilegum et, quando sentiebat eum 
calidum, dicebat: " Domine, satis habemus deigne." Dominus 
autem ejus mane surgens inveniebat quod ostium tota nocte 
fuerat apertum, et cum quereret cur liostium 11011 firmasset, 
respondebat: 6t Quare clauderem de nocte cum in mane oporteret 
me ipsum aperire." 

CCV. [fo. 13i vo ] Fidelem autem et bonum servum et bonam 
ancillam principaliter tria oportet habere ; mundum os, mundas 
manus, et mundos renes; mundum os, ne sit mendax, detractor, 
adulator, nugigerulus aut linguosus. Audivi quod quidam 
dives homo, cum vellet ire ad sanctum Jacob um, vocavit quemdam 
servum suum, quern valde suspectum habebat de garrulitate, eo 
quod nichil celare sciebat nee tempus oportunum in loquendo 
expectabat, et dixit dominus illi : " Vide, quando re versus 
fuero de hac peregrinatione, nichil de negociis domus mee vel de 
liiis que interim acciderunt mihi dicas in ilia novitate, quando 
debeo cum vicinis et amicis meis gaudere." Redeunte autem 
domino, servus linguosus et ad loquendum incautus occurrit illi 
cum cane qui clandicabat, et cum quereret dominus quare cam s 
clandicaret, respondit servus: u Domine, cum canis iret prope 
mulum nostrum, mulus fortiter ipsum percussit, ita quod vin- 
culum quo ligatus erat rupit et, cum mulus per domum fugeret, 



86 EXBMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGABIBUS 

venit ad ignom quern ita peclibus commovit quod domum com- 
bussit et in ea combusta est uxor vestra." Ecce quam male 
servus linguosus mandatnm domini sui servavit, non attenclens 
quod est tempus tacendi et tempus loquendi. 

CCVI. Similiter et ancille mundum os debent habere, ut omuls 
sermo turpis vel malus de ore earum non procedat, ut non sint 
verbose vel litigiose. Novi quandam mulierem ita litigiosam 
quod omni die quasi pro nicliilo litigabat et multis multa convicia 
inferebat. Quidam autem bonus homo cuidain alii mulieri, que 
frequenter cum eo litigare volebat, nunquam respondere curabat 
sed sicut latranti dorsum ei convertebat. Quod attenclens quidam 
vicinus ejus dixit illi : " Quare non respondes illi male mulieri? " 
Cui dixit ille: " Nescio litigare." Cui vicinus ejus ait : " Dabo 
tibi bonum consilium. Novi quandam mulierem valde litigiosam, 
vade ad illam et roga earn ut litiget pro te. Ipsa enim optime 
novit litigare." Cui ille: " Immo libentius ducam illam et 
dabo ei pecuniam si velit litigare pro me contra illam malam 
mulierem de qua primo feci mentionem." Dixit ilia: " Quid 
queris? " u Ego/ inquit, " quero si possem invenire mulierem 
litigiosam que pro me litigaret contra quandam malam mulierem 
et idcircoveni ad te." At ilia statim incepit cum nomine litigare 
et multa opprobria illi dicere. Ille vero gaudens ait: a Bene- 
dictus Deus, inveni quern querebam." Quod audiens ilia cepit 
multa plura convicia illi inferre et dicere : a Fili meretricis, 
ribalde, tyneose, alibi queras talem mulierem quia hie non 
invenies earn," Cui ille subridens ait : " Sufficit mihi, nolo, 
aliam numquam possem invenire meliorem." 

CCVII. Valde autem turpis est et periculosa consuetude 
litigandi similiter et mentiendi. Vix enim qui mentiri consuevit 
poterit abstinere, et quanto senior tanto mendatior. Unde 
audivi de quoctam episcopo qui habebat nepotem valde mendacem 
et dolebat multum dicens : " Novit Deus, tolerabilius esset quod 
iste fornicator esset vel prostibula frequentaret quam ita mendax 
esset, nam vicio luxurie saltern in senectute potest remedium 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 

adlriberij homo autem consuetus mendaciis magis mendax solet 
esse in senectute quam in juventute." 

CC VIII. ]STon solum mundum os sed et mundas manus debent 
habere servientes, ut de bonis dominorum suorum vel quorum - 
cumque aliorum nichil subtrahant .... Cum essem Parisius 
audivi quod garciones servientes scolaribus, que omnes fere 
latrunculi solent esse, habebant quemdam magistrum, qui prin- 
ceps erat hujusmodi latronum. Quadam autem die, latrunculis 
ante ipsum congregatis, volens scire qui essent subtiliores et 
meliores latrones cepit ab unoquoque querere qualis esset in 
arte ilia. Cui primus ait : " Domine, sciofurari de uno denario 
unam pictavinam." Magister dixit : (6 Parvum est." Aliusdixit: 
" Domine, novi furari de uno denario unum obolum." Tercius 
dixit : " Et ego de uno denario tres pictavinas sive tria minuta." 
Cumque diversi diversa dicerent, unus surrexit dicens : " Ego 
de una pictavina novi denarium unum furari." Quo audito 
magister eorum fecit eum honorifice juxta se sedere dicens : 
16 Tu omnes superasti, doce nos quomodo istud fecisti." " Ego," 
inquit, " habeo quendam familiarem, a quo semper emo legumina 
et synapum et alia ad opus coquine dominorum meorum 
necessaria, qui pro una pictavina dat mihi quater de synape, 
et ego pro qualibet mensura compute pictavinam unam et ipse 
gratis, quia semper ab eo emere consuevi, dat mihi quartam 
mensuram et ita, una msolam pictavinam ei tribuens, quatuor 
mihi retineo." Ecce quomodo latrunculi isti sapientes sunt ut 
faciant malum et studiosi ad decipiendum qui ita perdunt 
animas suas pro modico furto sicut alii pro magno. 

CCIX. [fo. 132 r ] . . . Hec sunt vacce de quibus in Genesi 
dicitur quod habitabant in palustribus et in palude luxurie, 
Quibus facere cst sicut quidam sapiens fecit cate sue, que pul- 
cram habebat pellem similiter et caudam, nee volebat in domo 
domini sui remanere sed per diversas domos evagaiido querebat 
catos. Cui dominus caudam combussit et pellem ex magna 
parte depilavit, unde videns se turpem et deformatam in domo 



88 EXEMPLA. EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

domini sui juxta ignem remansit. Ita hnjusmocli ancilla pannis 
vilibus et abjecta in domo debet retinui. 

OCX. Unde audivi de quodara qui, cum invenisset uxorem. 
suam cum sacerdote, abscidit ei capillos in rotundum supra aures 
et cum rasorio fecit sibi amplam coronam, dicens : u Tales 
debent esse sacerdotisse." Benedictus sit homo ille .... 

CCXI. [fo. 132 VO ] Audivi de quadarn mulicre, que sibi nigra 
videbatur in facie, cum dedisset pecuniam medico ut nigredi- 
nem vultus auferret, ille promisit quod ita ei provideret quod 
nee modicum nigredinis in tota facie appareret, et dedit ei 
succum cujusdam herbe ex quo mulier faciem abluit et totam 
nigredinem cum pelle succus ille deposuit. Cumque ilia turpis 
et excoriata appareret conquesta est judici qui, audita promis- 
sione medici, valde commendans eum ab impetitione stulta 
mulieris absolvit. Ut igitur mundos renes servientes custodiant 
non solum exteriora sua sed interiora sua attendant .... 

CCXII. De Sancto autem Bernardo dicitur quod, cum esset 
juvenis valde pulcher, hospitatus cst in domo cujusdam mulieris 
que oculos in ipsum injecit et tanta concupiscentia exarsit quod 
nocte consurgens, aliis in domo dormientibus, ivit ad lectum in 
quo latebat sanctus ille et Deo amabilis, qui statim postquam 
illam percepit clamare cepit : " Latrones, latrones ! " Quo 
audito, ilia ad lectum suum festinanter reversa est. Homines 
autem qui in domo jacebant excitati ubique quesierunt etnullum 
latronem invenerunt. Cumque iterum dormirent mulier stimulo 
Sathane excitata ad lectum Bernard! iterum rediit. At ille 
nolens earn diffamare et de periculo sibi metuens iterum sicut 
prius cepit clamare. Quo audito, ilia fugit et hominibus de 
domo consurgentibus postquam totam domum scrutati sunt 
nullum latronem invenerunt. Mane autem facto, cum Sanctus 
Bernardus tota nocte valde fatigatus cum quodam socio equitaret, 
ille cepit eum arguere eo quod tociens : a Latrones, latrones," 
clamasset et homines de domo bis vel ter inquietasset. At ille 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 89 

ut satlsfaceret socio respondit: " Frater, in veritate, qniclam 
latro pluries ad lectum meum hac nocte venit ut spoliaret me 
omnibus jejuniis, vigiliis et orationibus et aliis bonis que in tola 
vita mea congregavi, sed Dominua auxiliatus est mei." Quod 
attendens socius ejus, postquam rei veritatem cognovit, satis- 
factum est ei. 

CCXIII. Fideliter igitur cum mundicia ejus [S. Bernardi] 
manuum et renum dominis vestris serviaris propter Deum prin- 
cipaliter, non tarn en querentes remunerationem ab homine si 
bene feceritis sed a Deo, alioquin similes estis mustele quam, 
cum cepisset homo, rogabat eum mustela ut permitteret earn 
abire, allegans quod multa boria fecisset ei quia domum ejus a 
muribus pugnaverat et ipsum a muriiim inquietudine liberaverat. 
Cui homo respondit: "Non dimittam te abire. Non enirn domum 
meam purgare intendebas sed panem meum sola manducare 
volebas," Quicquid agant homines intentio judicat omnes. 

CCXIV. [fo. 133 VO ] Audivi quod est locus quidam in parti- 
bus Normannie, qui saltus Galteri nuncupatur, eo quod de loco 
illo quidam fatuus, nomine Galterus, de rupe quadam in mare 
prosiliit volens ostendere amice sue quod tantum diligeret ut 
nulhim periculum pro ipsa recusaret, et ilia similittr illi pro- 
miserat quod sequeretur eum quocumque pergeret. Facto 
autem saltu, clum Galterum in aquis suffocatum inspiceret, eum 
sequi noluit, sed paulo post alio adhesit. Multi propter amorern 
pecunie sal turn faciunt in infer num, ipsos tamen non sequitur 
arnica eorum, id est pecunia que in mundo remanet et ab alio 
possidetur. 

COXY. Hii autem assimilantur ovi quam lupus rapiens non 
statim dcntes in gutture ejus infigit sed suaviter supra dorsum 
ejus gerit, metuens ne si ovis statim dentes sentiret, niteretur 
evadere et ipsum impediret et retarderet donee super veni rent 
pa stores qui lupum insequuntur. Postquam autem lupus nemus 
intravit et securus est statim dentes infigit et ovem lacerat et 






90 EXEMPLA EX SEKMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

comeclit. Uncle Gregorius : l Antiquus hostis ad rapiendas, mortis 
tempore, peccatorum animas violenter effrenatur, et quos dum 
vivunt blandiens seducit, morientes seviens rapit." Lupus quidem, 
infernalibus deceptis divitibus, quos suaviter ad infernum trahit 
nondum dentes ostendit, donee securus sit in morte, quando nee 
pastores ecclesie nee orationes sanctorum, ex quo anima recessit, 
possunt succurrere. Si enim omnes sacerdotes qui sunt in 
mundo pro ipso missas cantarent, et omnes angeli Dei pro anima 
ejus orarent, de dentibus luporum infernaliura non posset eripi 
nee ei posset subveniri. 

CCXVI. Si enim pro certo scirem quod pater meus pro uno 
solo mortal! peccato ab hoc seculo decessisset, nonquam pro ipso 
dicerem: " Pater noster," vel elemosinam clarem vcl facerem nee 
unam missam cantarcm, sed dicerem sicut quidam sacerdos quern 
cognovi dieebat diebus dominicis, quando in parrocliia sua post 
sermonem ad orandum pro defunct-is populum ammonebat : 
" Nolite orare pro anima patris mei, qui usurarius fuit et usuras 
restituere noluit, maledicta sit anima ipsius et in inferno sine 
fine crucietur, ita quod Dei faciem nunquam videat et manus 
demonum nunquam evadat." Istud autem dieebat ut aliis pec- 
catoribus terrorem incuteret, et maxime feneratoribus, qui multa 
injuste acquisierant et reddere recusabant. 

CCXYII. [fo. 134 ro ] Dicitur quod lupus macilentus videns 
canem pinguem dixit ei : " Quomodo ita pinguis es et ego sum 
macilentus?" Cuicanisait: a Tota die nichil operis facio nisi 
quod de mensa domini mei comedo ; de nocte autem vigilo cus- 
todiendo domum ejus." Cui lupus : " Quare habes guttur ita 
depilatum ?" Dicit canis : a Ligatus sum de die per collum ne 
de domo exeam et vagus incedam." Cui lupus: "Non invideo 
pinguedini tue. Malo esse macer cum liber tate quam pinguis in 
servitute. Non tantum ventrem diligo at velim servus esse ejus 
amore." Cum igitur stultus saciatur cibo terra eorporis movetur 
ad immundiciam libidinis . 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 91 

CCXYI1I. Audivi quod quidam judeus cum luderet ad aleas 
cum christiano et audiret cliristianum jurantem et blaspbemantem 
Deum eo quod perderet, obturavit aures suas, et, relicta pecunia, 
surrexit a ludo et fugit. Judei quidem 11011 solum Deum blas- 
phemare seel nee blasphemantes an dire voltmt. Quam miseri 
tabernarii, qui pro modico lucro hujusmodi blasphemos homines 
judeis deteriores in domibus suis Deum vituperare paciuntur, 
qui non sustinerent sed irascerentur, si tanta vituperia dicerentur 
de uxoribus suis quanta dicantur de beata Virgine et sanctis. Si 
talia dicerentur de patre et matre eorum vel de aliquo ipsorum 
consanguineo qualia dicuntur de Deo, non sustinerent sed do 
domibus suis expellerent. 

CCXIX. Audivi quod quidam miles, cum Parisius supra 
pontem transiret, audivit quenclam divitom burgensem Deum 
blasphemantem, et valde iratus non potuit sustinere, sed pugno 
ita fortiter blasphemum percussit quod denies illi confregit. 
Cumque ductus esset miles ante regem ut pro tan to excessu 
graviter puniretur, eo quod civitatis libertatern fregisset et rcgis 
burgensem percussisset, postquarn vix audientiam habere potuifc 
libere professus est et ait : " Domine, vos estis rex meus terrenus 
et dominus ligius, si audirem quod aliquis vos vituperaret et 
malum de vobis diceret, non possem sustinere sed dedecus et 
vituperium vestrum vellem vindicare. Iste antequam percussi 
talia de rege meo celesti dicebat, et ipsum blasphemando in 
tantum vituperabat, quod de vobis non possem sustinere, et in- 
dignamini milii si de summo Domino rneo tollerare non potui, si 
ejus dedecus vindicavi." Quod auctions rex valde ipsum com- 
mendavit et eum libere abire permisit. 

CCXX. Non solum autem viri sed quedam mulieres tan tarn 
habent jurandi consuetudinem, quod vix etiam sine ira loqui 
valent quin aliquod juramentum premittant. Unde audivi de 
quadam muliere, cum faceret confessionem suam et sacerdos ei 
proliiberat ut de cetero ab hujusmodi juramentis abstineret, ilia 
respondit : " Domine, si me Deus adjuvet de cetero nonjurabo," 



92 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

Cui sacerdos: " Ecce aclinic juras." u Per Detim de cetero 
abstinebo." Cui sacerdos ait: " Sit sermo tuus, est, est, non, 
non, sicut precepit Dominus, quod etiain ainplius est a malo est." 
Cui ilia: " Domine, verum dicitis et ego vobis dico per beatam 
Virginem et omnes sanctos amodo faciara sicut injunxistis mihi 
et nunquam me jurare audietis." Et ita maledicta mulier ilia 
frequenter promittebat et promittendo contrarium faciebat. 

CCXXI. [fo. 134 VO ] Audivi de quadam muliere litigiosa 
quam frequenter vituperabat maritum stium, et inter cetera 
opprobria coram omnibus ipsum pediculosurn vocabat. Cumque 
maritus frequenter rogasset earn tit a tali opprobrio cessaret, et 
ilia nichilominus et frequenter exprobraret quod miser et pedi- 
culosus esset, tandem sub interminatione gravis pene illi inhibuit 
no talia de cetero diceret. At ilia, prohibitione contempta, 
acerbius et frequentius quam prius hujusmodi convitia marito 
inferre non cessabat. Tandem vir ejus in aquam precipitavit 
earn, cumque fere suffocaretur et os aperire non posset qui]i 
aqua subintraret, ipsa sub aqua manus extenclens cepit signis 
exprobrare et inter cluas ungues pulicum, ac si pediculos 
occideret, exprimere signo quod non poterat \^erbo. 

CCXXII. De alia etiam audivi quod, cum transiret per pratum 
quoddam cum viro suo, dixit vir ejus: " Hoc pratum est falca- 
tum." At ilia : " Immo est tonsur[um]." " Immo falce secatum 
est," ait maritus ejus, "ct falcatum." Kespondit uxor : " Non est 
verum, sed forcipe tonsum ;" et ceperunt diu litigare. Tandem 
maritus valde iratus abscidit linguam uxoris. Ilia nichilominus 
cum digitis forcipes exprimens signo innuebat quod pratum 
tonsum fuerat et cum non posset ore cepit digitis litigare. Sic 
faciunt quidam monachi quando eis silentium imperatur. 

CCXXIII. [fo. 135 ro ] Audivi de muliere quadam, Attre- 
batensis dyocesis, cujus maritus adamavit quandam mulierem 
occasione cujus male earn tractabat et adultere multa dabat. 
Ilia vero, cum aliud non posset facere, frequenter coram ymagi- 
nern beate Marie plorabat et beate Yirgini de meretrice con- 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 93 

querebatur que maritum suum illi auferebat. Quaclam autern 
nocte, cum diu plorasset coram ymagine et j)ost longas vigilias 
modicum dormitasset, visum est ei quod ymago reponderet ei : 
" Non possum vindicare te de ilia muliere, nam licet peccatrix 
sit centies omni die genua flectit coram me dipendo : Ave 
Maria." Ilia vero evigilans valde tristis abscessit et, cum die 
quadam obviaret mulieri, dixit ei : a meretrix pessima, quare 
scdnxisti ct abstulisti milii virum meum, ego conquesta sum de 
te coram beata Yirgine et illam ita incantasti, eo quod centies 
immundo ore illam salutas o^ni die, quod mihi justiciam de te 
non vult facere, sed dixit mihi quod non poterat vindicare me, 
eo quod centies in die genua flectas ei, sed ego conquerar de te 
filio ejus qui mihi in justicia non deerit, sed de te capiet 
ultionein." Ilia vero, attendens quod licet esset peccatrix beata 
Virgo quam tarnen inhonoraverat pro servicio sibi impenso a 
vindicta abstinebat, valde compuncta cecidit ad pedes mulieris 
promittens Deo et illi quod de cetero cum ejus marito non 
peccaret. Et ita beata Virgo pacem fecit inter illas et optimo 
genere vindicte mulieri satisfecit. 

CCXXIV. Audivi autem de quadam bona et religiosa 
matrons quod, cum frequenter verbum Dei audiret, aliquando 
remanebat ut custodiret domum, et commendabat ancille sue 
pallium proprium mittendo illam ad ecclesiam et ad predica- 
tionem verbi Dei, juxta illud Ecclesiasti vii : " Servus sensatus 
sit tibi delectus quasi anima tua, non fraudes ilium libertate," et 
opportunitate bene operand!, ut scilicet possit ire ad ecclesiam 
et missam atque sermonem audire. . . . 

CCXXV. [fo. 135 VO ] Audivi de quodam qui calico Babilonis 
inebriatus accepit cultrum de carruca et ligavit in sacco ct cepit 
fortiter verberare uxorem suam. Ilia vero vehementer cla- 
manto eo quod confrigerentur ossa ejus concurrerunt vicini. 
Quibus ille nequam ait : " Ecce quomodo clamat misera ista eo 
quod verbero earn sacco meo." Cum autem ilia et parentes 
ejus traherent maritum in causam, eo quod male tractasset 



EXEMPLA EX SEBMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

uxorem suam, illc juravit coram judice quod sacco verberavit 
cam et non tetigisset earn nisi sacco; et habuit vicinos suos 
testos, qui saccum exterius viderant sed cultrum interim non 
perceperant, ct ita de manu judicis evasit ct uxorem suam con- 
fractis ossibus ad domum reduxit. 

CCXXVI. Audivi de quodam ebrioso, cum reclirct de 
taberna ct uxorem cognosceret pregnantem, ex fetido et vinoso 
hanclitu puerum in ventre matris necavit ita quod mulier 
abortivum cdidit . . . 

CCXXVII. [fo. 136 r ] Audivi dc quadam muliere mala 
quo ita^contraria crat viro suo quod semper adversabatur ei et 
contraria mandatis ejus faciebat, etquotiens maritus ejus aliquos 
ad prandiurn invitabat et rogabat earn ut vultu bylari reciperet 
bospites, ipsa contrarium faciebat et virum suum valde affligebat. 
Quadam autem die cum homo ille quosdam ad prandium invi- 
tasset, fecit poni mensam in orto suo prope aquam. Ilia vero 
ex parte fluminis redens torvo vultu homines invitos minabatur 
et aliquantum remota erat a mensa. Cui maritus ait : " Ostende 
vultum hylarem hospitibus nostris et accede propius ad mensam." 
Quo audito, ilia statim magis removit se a mensa, ripe fluvii 
qui post dorsum ejus crat apropinquavit. Quod attendens vir 
ejus valde iratus ait: "Accede ad mensam." At ilia volens 
contrarium facere, cum magno impetu in tan turn a mensa se 
elongavit quod in fluvium cecidit et suffocata non comparuit. 
At ille simulans tristiciam intravit in navim et, navigans contra 
impetum fluvii, cum magna pertica querebat uxorem in aquis. 
Cumque vicini ejus quererent ab eo quare in parte superior! 
quereret earn, cum debuisset earn querere in parte inferiori, 
respondit homo ille : " Nonne novistis uxorem meam que 
semper contrarium faciebat et nunquam recta via incedebat ? 
Credo pro certo quod contra impetum fluvii ascendit et sicut alii 
consueverunt non descendit." 

CCXXVIII De quodam alio similiter audivi quod, cum ejus 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 

uxor numquam vellet obeclire illi, ipse simulavit so ire ad nmi- 
clinas et uxori sue clixit : u Quicquid vis facias, hoc solo 
excepto quod in foramine isto digitum 11011 ponas." Cum ante in 
liomo ille recederet, ac si ad nundinas iturus esset, abscondit se 
in quadam vicina doino. Uxor autem ejus cogitare cepit qtiare 
inliibuit maritus ejus quod in foramine isto digitum non 
immitteret : u Ecce digitum mittam, ut probem quare istud 
mihi prohibuit," et cum magno impetu digitos suos mitteret in 
foramine, clavi acutissimi quos in foramine maritus ejus posuerat 
digitis ipsius infixi sunt, et pre augustia cepit clamare, ita quod 
vicini et maritus ejus concurrerunt. Cui maritus ejus ait : 
" Quare non credidisti mihi et mandatis meis obedire noluisti ? 
Preceperam enim tibi ut quicquid velles faceres dummodo in 
foramine isto digitum non poneres." Et ita uxorem malam 
castigavit ut alia vice preceptis ejus acquiesceret. Uxor enim 
marito, in quantum secundum quod potest, obedire debet. 



CCXXIX. [fo. 136 VO ] Audivi de quibusdam qui uxores 
pregnantes propinquas [puerperii] vexant, cum per modicum 
tempus abstinere non velint nee [possint] gravidis, quod puer 
in utero materno occiditur et baptismo privatur. Maledicta sit 
ilia libido que animam filii sui aufert Deo, non tamen dicamus 
quod quotiens vir modum excedit uxorem cognoscendo peccet 
mortaliter, dummodo ternpore debito, loco et modo, cognoscat 
illam 



CCXXX. [fo. 137 ro ] Audivi de quadam quam maritus ejus 
custodiebat, ita quod numquam sine ipso illam egredi sinebat. 
Ipsa vero cepit multiplex cogitare quomodo custodem suum 
posset decipere, et tandem significavit amasio seu adultero quod 
expectaret earn in quadam domo. Cum autem mulier ante 
domum illam venisset, permisit se cadere in luto magno simu- 
lans quod lubricassent pedes ejus. Cumque tota vestis ejus 
inquinata fuisset, dixit marito suo : a Expectate hie ad hostium 
quia oportet me exuere et muudare vestes meas. In domo hac 



96 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

quam ingressa postquam diu cum adulterio fuit, lotis vestlbus 
exivit et ita maritum decepit. 

CCXXXI. De ilia audivi quod habens maritum odio inebriavit 
ipsum, sicut de filiabus Loth dicitur quod inebriaverunt patrem 
suum, et mittens pro monaclris cepit flere et dicere : " Ecce 
maritus meus laborat quasi in extremis, et rogavit me ut darem 
ei Jicentiam liabitum assumendi." Monaehi vero savisi sunt eo 

O 

quod esset dives et mulier multa illis quasi ex parte viri pro- 
mittebat. Cum autem totondissent eum et ei liabitum mona- 
chalem imposuissent, ilia cepit plorare et alta voce clamare, ita 
quod vicini omnes concurrerunt. Monachi vero ponentes 
hominem ilium supra quadrigam duxerunt ad monasterium 
suum. Mane autem, digesto vino, homo ille excitatus postquam 
in habitu regular! se repperit et circa se monachos in domo 
infirmorum aspexit, cepit contristari et mestus esse, et tamen 
pre verecondia et confusione noluit ad domum redire quia ab 
omnibus apostata diceretur. 

CCXXXII. De alia audivi quod multum diligebat maritum 
in vita sua, quo mortuo sepulto, ilia diebus et noctibus nolebat 
recedere a sepultura. Accidit autem diebus illis quod quidam 
miles, qui valde offenderat regem, suspenderetur in furcis juxta 
cimiterium erectis, et precepit rex cuidam ex militibus suis quod 
custodiret suspensum ne consanguinei ejus venirent et ipsum 
asportarent. Et ait rex militi : u Nisi bene custodieris ilium 
idem faciam de to quod feci de illo malefiictore." Cum autem 
miles ille aliquot noctibus vigilasset custodiendo suspensum, 
cepit valde sitire et videns ignem succensum in cimiterio invenit 
mulierem memoratam que lugebat supra maritum suum, et dum 
biberet, hausta aqua ex puteo, consanguinei suspensi corpus ejus 
clam tulerunt ; et cum rediens 11011 invenisset suspensum mente 
consternatus ad mulierem illam rediit et cepit conqueri illi et 
flere. At ilia, injectis oculis in militem, dixit ei : Quid 
faceretis pro me si vos et omnia bona vestra de manu regis 
possem liberare ?" Cui ille: " Quicquid omnino facere possem 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 97 

libenter pro te facerem, sed non video quomodo posses me 
juvare." Cui mulier: ic Jura mihi quod mecum contralies 
matrimonium et ego liberabo te de periculo regie indignationis." 
Cumque ille jurasset eidem, inquit ei : u Accipiemus corpus 
mariti mei et suspendemus istud in patibulo, nemine alio 
sciente." Quo suspense, rex credidit quod esset corpus illius 
malefactoris et ita miles de manibus regis evasit. Ecce quam 
subita mutatio predicte mulieris, que, alio superveniente, non 
solum primi mariti amorem oblivioni tradidit, sed insuper ipsum 
extractum de sepulture suspendit. Varium et mutabile pectus 
femina semper habet. 

CCXXXIII. [fo. 138 ro ] Audivi quod quidam demon in 
Francia loquebatur et divinabat per os demoniac! et multa 
abscondita manifestabat, et erat opinio omnium quod non 
mentiebatur. Cum autem quidam venissent ad eum et de 
multis interrogarenfe, Guinehochet de omnibus vera respondebat, 
sic enim demon ille se vocari faciebat. Tandem unus eum 
temptans ait: " Die mihi quot filios habeo." Cui Guinehochet 
respondit : " Unum solum filium habes." Tune ille convocatis 
omnibus ait : " Dicebatur quod iste non mentiebatur et ecce 
manifesto mentitus est mihi, dicens quod non habeo nisi unum 
filium, cum ego, sicut scitis, habeam duos." Cui Guinehochet 
demon ridens et irridens respondit: u Yerum dixi, non habes 
nisi unum, nam alius est sacerdotis." Ille vero erubescens et 
valde iratus ait: a Die mihi quis ex duobus est sacerdotis filius 
ut eum eiciam." Demon respondit : a Non dicam tibi. sed 
oportebit te utrumque abicerc vel utrumque pascere." 

CCXXXIV. Audivi quod quidam ciconia, recedente masculo, 
alio commiscebatur etstatim abluebatur ita quod masculus rediens 
non sentiebat fetorem. Quadam vero die post adulterinam com- 
mixtionem, cum omnes aque congelate essent, ablui non potuit, 
unde masculus rediens et sentiens fetorem noluit intrare nidum, 
sed statim recedens innumeras cyconias adduxit secum qui rostris 
suis adulteram laniaverunt. Ecce quomodo non solum homines 

H 



98 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

sed insuper aves aclulterium detestari videntur. Dicitur etiam 
quod leo quanclo obviat adultero naturaliter cognoscit et invadit, 
quod tamen non faceret de illo qui simpliciter fornicatur. 

CCXXXV. [fo. 138 VO ] Audivi de quadam muliere quod fre 
quenter querebat a marito suo quid tractaretur consiliis civitatis, 
ille vero nolebat ei consilia revelare quia hujusmodi mulieres 
nichil sciunt celare. Tandem cum nimis importune quereret 
super quo tractatum esset, dixit ei maritus ejus temptans earn : 
" Hodie facimus statutum quoddam sed nolumus quod cito pub- 
licctur, ut scilicet liceat uni viro plures habere uxcres." Quo 
audito, ilia statim ad locum consilii accedens clamare cepit: 
66 Non bonuin statutum fecistis, sed potius statuere debuistis ut 
una mulier plures habeat maritos. Una enim pluribus sufficere 
potest, sed unus vir non valet pluribus mulieribus sufficere." 
Attendentes universi consiliarii cautelam mariti valde ipsum 
commendaverunt. Non enim confidendum est de levitate 
quarumdam mulierum. 

CCXXXYI. Unde audivi de quodam, qui uxorem suam optime 
cognoscebat, quod curiosa et levis erat, semper ab ea sibi cavebat. 
Cum autem ad Sanctum Jacobum homo ille vellet ire ei uxor 
ejus : " Precipite mihi aliquid quod faciam in memoriam vestri 
donee redeatis." Cui maritus ait: "Non habeo aliquid tibi 
novum precipere. Custodi domum et familiam tuam et sufficit 
mihi." At ilia : " Immo volo quod aliquid mihi injungatis 
quod faciam insignum obedientie et dilectionis." Cumque ilia 
valde instaret, dixit ei maritus ejus : " Precipio tibi quod furnum 
istum non ingrediaris donee fuero rcversus." Cum autem re- 
cessisset vir ejus, cepit ilia cogitare : * Quare hoc inhibuit mihi, 
forte aliquando in furno abscondit et vult mihi celare," et statim 
ingrediens furnum cepit querere et scrutari omnes rimas et quos- 
dam lapides extrahere ut videret si quid in pariete abscond itum 
esset, et tantum scrutata est rimas ampliando et lapides remo- 
vendo, quod furnus super ipsam cecidit et renes ejus confregit. 
Redeunte autem marito, cum quereret ubi esset ejus uxor et 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 99 

quare ei obviam non venisset, dixerunt: a Domine, inlecto con- 
tracta jacet ; furnus enim super ipsam cecidit et renes cjus con- 
fregit." Veniente autem marito ut visitaret uxorem, ilia valde 
erubuit cum rei veritatem celare non valebat. 

CCXXXVII. [fo. 139 ro ] De quadam alia muliere audivi quod 
semper contradicebat marito suo. Cum autem maritus et ipsa 
venirent de foro, lepus quidam transivit coram ipsis et cum capere 
vellent evasit. Tune maritus ait : " Quam pulclier et pinguis est 
lepus iste, si cepissemus eum, comederemus frixum cum cepis et 
sagimine." Uxor autem respondit: u Libentius comedo cum 
pipere." Immo ait vir ejus : " Melior est quando cum brodio et 
sagimine paratur." " Non est," ait uxor. Cum autem mulier 
nullo modo vellet acquiescere marito, ille iratus valde fortiter 
ipsam verberavit. At ilia cepit studere et cogitare quomodo posset 
se de marito suo vindicare, et audivit quod rex valde infirmaretur. 
Que accedens ad regis servientes ait : " Habeo maritum qui 
optimus est medicus, sed celat et abscondit sapientiam suam nee 
nunquam vult aliquemjuvare nisi timore et verberibus inductus." 
Cum autem homo ille adductus esset ad regem, ceperunt eum 
multum rogare ut caram regi adhiberet et mederetur ejus in- 
firmitati. Illo autem renuente et dicente : "Non sum medicus." 
Tandem servi regis nuntiaverunt ei verba uxoris. Unde rex 
precepit eum fortiter verberari. Et cum nee sic induci posset 
iterum et iterum verberatus tandem a conspectu regis ejectus 
est, et ita mala mulier verberari fecit maritum suum. 

CCXXXVIII. De quadam autem bona muliere audivi quod, 
cum maritus ejus esset in carcere et precepisset ei clominus quod 
nullus ad manducandum vel bibendum daret illi sed compelle- 
retur fame mori, uxor ejus omni die ingrediens ad eum de 
mamilla sua latenter lactabat ipsum. Cum autem, post dies xv, 
quereret dominus si mortuus esset homo ille et dictum esset ei 
quod vivcret, credidit quod aliquis ex scrvis ei ad manducandum 
dedisset, unde fecit adduci ante se ut cognosceret veritatem* 
Tandem dominus ab ipso extorquens veritatem, postquam cognovit 

H 2 



100 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VTlLGAEIBUS 

quod fecerat uxor ejus fidelis, valde commotus est et compunctus 
et vocans mulierem reddidit ei maritum suum propter fidem quam 
habuit .... 

CCXXXIX. Quidam autem in sermone et in ecclesia mania 
meditantur et ociosa loquuntur, cum deberent liiis qui dicuntur 

cor apponere. Unde quidam sanctus sacerdos, cum videret in 
quadain magna sollempnitate dyabolum dentibus extenders 
pcrgamenum, adjuravit eum ut diceret ei cur istud faceret. 
Cui demon respondit: " Scribo ociosa verba que dicuntur in 
bac ecclesia et quia hodie plus solito talia multiplicantur, 
propter sollempnitatem diei festi, videns quod non sufficeret 
cedula quam attuli, dentibus meis extendere conatus sum per- 
gamenum." Quod audiens sacerdos cepit ea referre populo et 
omnes hoc andientes dolere et conteri ceperunt. Quibus dolen- 
tibus et penitentibuSj dyabolus qui scripserat delere cepit, ita 
quod cedula vacua remansit. Debetis ergo cum omni diligentia 
et devotione divino officio et sane doctrine intendere et non 
manducare unam acerbam sed cibum spiritualem. 

CCXL. [fo. 139 VO ] Audivi de quodam sacerdote qui, cum 
hospitatus fuisset in domo cujusdam bone mulieris et secum 
duceret concubinam suam, et nocte imminente quereret ubi 
lectus ejus preparatus fuisset, domina domus duxit eum ad 
latrinam. u Hie est," inquit, u locus vobis et concubine vestre 
preparatus. Sciatis quod alibi non jacebitis in domo mea. 
Tails locus vobis est ydoneus." Et ita cum magna confusione 
ab hospitio recesserunt. 

CCXLI. Audivi etiam de quodam sacerdote alio, cui episcopus 
ejus injunxit ut relinqueret parrochiam vel concubinam. Cui 
sacerdos respondit : " Angustie mihi sunt undique, sed ex quo 
sic fieri oportet, relinquo parrochiam et retineo uxorem." 
Videns autem concubina quod sacerdos, relicta pingui parrocliia, 
pauper effectus fuisset, ipsum a se abjecit et reliquit, et ita 
miser ille utrumque amisit. 



JACOB! VITRIACENSIS. 



101 



CCXLII. Vere infelices et vecordes qui magis student 
cadavera concubinarum exornare quam Christ! altaria. Sub- 
tilius et nitidius est peplum meretricis quam palle altaris, subtilior 
et preciosior est camisia concubine meretricis quam suppellicium 
sacerdotis. Irnmo tantum expendunt in vestimentis concubi 
narum quod pauperes afficiuntur et vilibus induuntur. Unde 
quidam solebat dicere [fo. 140 ro ] quod optime inter alios sacer- 
dotes sciret cognoscere qui haberent concubinas, et inspiciebat 
illos qui manicas ad cubitum perforatas babebant. In quibus- 
dam autem regionibus ita abhominantur hujusmodi sacerdotisse 
quod illis in ecclesia nolunt pacem dare nee ab illis pacis osculum 
recipere. Opinio enim communis est eorum quod, si sacerdotum 
concubinas ad pacis osculum reciperent, partem in missa non 
haberent. Unde ad earum derisionem solent dicere vulgariter 
quasi quamdam carminationem qua mures carminati a segetibus 
eorum arceantur sub hiis verbis : 

Je vos conme sorriz et raz, 
Que vos n aics part en ccs tas, 
Neplus que n 1 a part en la messe, 
Oil qiii p rent puis a la presteresse. 

Quod est : " Adjuro vos mures et rati, quod non habeatis partem 
in hac collectione manipulorum, vel in hoc acervo granorum, sicut 
n on habet partem in missa qui osculum pacis accipitasacerdotissa." 
Et tenent quod mures postea manipulos vel grana non tangunt. 

CCXLIII. [fo. 140 r ] Audivi de quadam muliere, que vestes 
caudatas per terrain trahebat et, vestigia post se relinquens, 
excitabat pulverem usque ad altare et ad ymaginem crucifix!. 
Cum exirct autem de ecclesia et eamdem propter lutum suble- 
varct, vidit quidam sanctus homo dyabolum ridentem, et 
adjuravit eum ut diceretsibi quare rid ere t. Qui ait : " Quidam 
socius meus sedebat nunc super caudam mulieris illius et 
utebatur illatanquam quadriga sua. Cum autem rnulier caudam 
levavit socius meus a cauda cxcussus in lutum cecidit et hcc 
causa quare risi." 

CCXLIV. Ornatus meretricis non pertinet ad matrimonii 
honestatem sed incitat ad luxuriam, que etiam sine exterior! 



1 02 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

aminiculo omne genus hominum valcle infcstat. Teste enim 
Jeronimo : " Libido fcrreas mentes domat." Unde dici solet quod 
diabolus novem filias genuit ex uxore turpissima et concupiscentia, 
que nigra est velut carbo extinctus per pravorum desideriorum 
adustionem ; fetidam per infamiam ; turgentes habens oculos per 
superbiam ; nasum longum et distortum per macliinationes et 
adinventiones in peccatis ; aures magnas et patulas per curiosi- 
tatem ; libenter audiens non solum rumores vanitatis sed verba 
iniquitatis et detraetionis ; maims admixtas per rapacitatem et 
avaricie tenacitatem ; labia hiantia et os fetidum per immundain 
vel iniquam loquacitatem ; pedes discretes, id est, affectus 
incompositos ; mamillas magnas, tumidas, prurientes, scabiosas ex 
quarum una propinat catulis suis venenum concupiscentie car- 
nalis, ex alia ventum mundane vanitatis. Ex liiis autem filiabus 
octo maritavit totidem generibus hominum, symoniam prelatis 
et clericis ; ypocrisim monachis et falsis religiosis ; rapinam 
militibus; usuram burgensibus; dolum mercatoribus ; sacrilegum 
agricolis, qui decimas Deo sacratas auferunt ecclesiarum ministris ; 
fictum servitium operariis ; superbiam et superfluum habitum 
mulieribus. Nonam autem, id est luxuriam, nulli voluit maritari, 
sed tanquam meretrix improba omnibus generibus hominum se 
prostituit, omnibus commiscens, nulli gencri hominum parcens. 
In fetoro enim unguentorum ejus currunt homines incauti ad 
ipsius prostibulum, tanquam aves ad laqueum, mures ad caseum, 
pisces ad hamum, difficile autem est manus ejus evadere post- 
quam semel arripuerit hoininem .... 

COXLV. Et ideo cum magna diligentia . . . pugnare debe- 
mus . . exemplo cujusdam heremite qui valde temptabatur et 
affligebatur amore cujusdam mulieris quam viderat cum essct 
secularis, et nunciatum est ei quod esset mortua, nee tamen 
temptatio sic oessavit. Unde veniens ad sepulcrum ejus sedit et 
de putredine ejus in pallio suo tulit et, cum temptaretur, ponebat 
putredinem ad nasum suum, dicens et inproperans sibi: " Ecce 
habes desiderium tuum sanare ; " et cum aliquotiens hoc fecisset 
mortue sunt et cessaverunt ejus concupiscentie. 



JACOBI VITEIACINSIS, 103 

CCXLYI. De quadam etiam turpi muliere legimns quod non 
esset aliquis ita religiosus quern non posset decipere ut cum ipsa 
peccasset, et obligavit se summa pecunie duobus leccatoribus, 
quod induceret quemdam sanctum heremitam ut ejus libidini 
consentiret. Accedens autem crepusculo ad hostium celle ejus, 
dicebat quod societatem suam in nemore amiserat et, amissa via, 
quo divertere posset nesciebat, unde instanter et quasi lacri- 
mando cepit heremitam rogare ut ipsam morientem frigore et 
timenteni lupos et alias bestias intuitu Dei in domo sua reciperet 
ilia nocte. Tandem post multam repulsam compassione motus 
cepit earn in angulo celle sue. Ilia vero dicente quia frigore 
moreretur et fame heremita ignem accendit et dedit ei manducare. 
At ilia levatis pannis calefaciens se ad ignem pedes nudos et 
crura cepit ostendere. Que videns heremita statim exarsit in 
earn et cum vehementer temptaretur, cepit Deum orare. At 
ilia magis volens eum accendere appropinquans dicebat : u Domino 
ecce quomodo lesa sum spinis in pedibus et tybiis." Homo vero 
Dei magis ac magis accendebatur et cepit digitos suos cum igne 
can dele comburere et cum anxiaretur valde dicebat : " Si non 
potes hunc modicum ignem sufferre, quomodo ignem gehennalem 
posses sustinere ? " Et ita successive omir bus digitis igne 
crematis, cessavit ardor concupiscentie carnalis. lllam autem 
stupentem et ammirantem horror tantus invasit quod mortua est 
pre timore. Mane autem facto, duo leccatores ad cellam here- 
mite venientes et ei improperantes quod cum ilia muliere 
dormivisset, postquam domum intraverunt illam mortuam inve- 
nerunt. Tune heremiia quid ei nocte ilia accidisset narravit et 
digitos combustos ostendit. Illi vero cognita veritate valde 
dolucrunt et peccatum suum confessi sunt, rogantes heremitam 
ut pro suscitatione sua Deum rogaret ; qui rogavit ct suscitata 
postmodum bene vixit. Ecce quam periculosa sunt luxurie 
blandimenta que etiam viros sanctos alliciunt et impugnant .... 

CCXLVII. Audivi etiam do quodam monacho qui a pueritia 
nutritus fuerat in abbatia ct nunquam viderat mulierem. Cum 
quadam die equitaret cum abbate, accidit quod differatus est 



104 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

equus ejus et, cuin faber calidum fcrrum projecisset in terra, 
monachus ferrum calidum accipit et nullum calorem in manu 
sensit, et miratus est abbas ejus. Cum autem nocte in domo 
secularium hospitati essent, mulier tenebat parvulum et miratus 
monachus quesivit quid esset. Cui mulier : " Anicula est quam 
ego et maritus meus fecimus." Gui monachus: "Valde pulchra 
est anicula ista." Cui mulier : " Vis ego et tu talem faciamus 
aniculam ?" Et monachus nesciens quod esset peccatum ait : 
" Volo." Et concLibuit cum ilia, ignorante abbate. Cum 
autem redireni et iterum equum differratum ferrare vellent, 
dixit abbas. " Fili, accipe ferrum." Et cum accepisset com- 
busta est manus ejus. Quod videns abbas quesivit ab eo quod 
egisset, at ille confessus est quomodo cum muliere jacuisset, et 
postmodum abbas inclusit eum in claustro nee voluit ut de cetero 
equitaret cum eo . . . 

CCXLVIII. Audivi de quadam mala muliere cui maritus 
ejus per omnia credebat quod cum ire vellet ad adulterum 
dicebat viro suo : " Infirmus es, intra in lectum meum et 
sudabis et vide ne surgas donee dixero tibi." Tune ilia firmans 
ostium camere et clavem secum portans ibat et non revertebatur 
usque ad vesperum. Ille vero credens se esse infirmum non 
audebat de lecto surgere donee rediret ejus uxor et diceret : 
" Amice, potes surgere, video enim quod curatus es ab infirmi- 
tate." Quadam autem die, cum ilia diceret adultero quod dili- 
geret eum plus quam maritum suum, ille respondit : "In hoc 
probabo quod verum est quod dicis si meliorem dentem quern 
habet maritus tuus dederis mihi." At ilia ad maritum reversa 
cepit plorare et tristiciam simulare. Cui maritus ait : " Quid 
habes? Quare luges?" At ilk: "Non audeo dicere." "Volo," 
inquit, " ut dicas mihi." Cumque ille multum instaret tandem 
ilia dixit : " Tantiis fetor ex ore tuo procedit quod jam non 
possum sustinere." Ille vero ammirans et dolens ait : " Quare 
non dixeras mihi, possemne aliquid remedium adhibere ?" Cui 
mulier: u Non est ahud remedium nisi ut facias extrahi dentem 
ilium de quo tantus fetor procedit." Et ita ad hortationem 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 105 

uxoris fecit oxtrahi bonnm et sanum den torn quern ilia ostendit 
illi et statim dentcm ill am asportavit et dedit leccatori. Non est 
facile credendi uxori nee consiliis adultere acquiescendi. 

CCXLIX. [fo. 142 ro ] Dicitur quod cornicula, cum se nigram 
et deformem inter alias aves inspiceret, deplumavit se et ex 
diversis avibus varias plumas assumens sibi adaptavit et corpus 
suum exornavit. Que cum sibi pulcra videretur et multiplici 
colore exornata, cepit superbire et, alias volucres despiciens, 
etiam regi avium obedire contempnebat. Tune rex ait aliis 
volucribus: te Ecce cornicula ista de pulcritudine aliena extolli- 
tur et superbit, eatis et plumas vestras illi auferatis." Quo 
facto, turpior quam pritis esset remansit et depilata atque 
mudata coloribus. Hoc modo si ab illis mulieribus, quo de 
aliorum pulcritudine superbiunt, unusquisque quod suum est 
tolleret turpissime remanerent et confuse, videlicet si ovis lanem 
suam reciperet et captam pellem ex qua fiunt calciamenta 
earum, et terra linum suum et varie herbe col ores suos, et ita 
de aliis longe turpiores apparerent quam cornicula plumis alienis 
privata. 

CCL. Audivi de quadam vetula que non poterat inducere 
quandam matronam ut juveni consentiret. Tune ait juveni : 
" Finge te infirmum et significa mulieri illi quod amore ejus 
infirmaris." Habebat autem vetula catellam quam tribus jeju- 
nare fecit et postea dedit manducare panem cum synapi et, 
ducens earn secum ad domum mulieris, cepit lacrimari pre 
angustia synapis. Cumque matrona quereret quare catella ilia 
lacrimas emitteret, vetula suspirans respondit : " Hec fuit 
quedam mulier que permisit mori juvenem amore ipsius. 
Cumque graviter infirmaretur, quibusdam sortilegiis ut se 
vindicaret de ilia, mutavit illam in catellarn, quod Deus permisit 
pro peccato suo, eo quod liominem mori permisit quern a morte 
liberare potuit, et ecce seri penitens plorat eo quod voluntati 
vivens non asensit." Tune matrona timens ne sibi idem con- 
tingeret ait: " Verum quidam infirmatur usque ad mortem, eo 



106 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGABIBUS 

quod illi nolui consentire." Et ita induxit matronam ut juveni 
consentiret. Ecce qualiter subtiles sunt et sapientes ut faciant 
mala ut cogitent adinventiones in peccatis. 

CCLI. [fo. 142 VO ] De quadam iterum muliere audivi quod, 
cum haberet secum quemdam adulterum, et maritus vidisset 
eum in lecto, exiens insidiabatur ei in tali loco quod per alium 
non poterat transire. Malier vero misit ad quamdam vetulam 
levam, valde maliciosam, que multa sciebat, ut in hoc articulo 
juvaret earn. Que mandavit ei ut absconderet juvenem et 
transiens vetula coram marito ait : " Dominus sit tecum et cum 
sociis tuis." At illc : " Quid dicis, vetula ? solus sum." At 
ilia: "Domino, ignoseite milii quia aliqua est hora diei in qua 
oculi ita solent transmutari quod de una persona creditor quod 
sint due." Tune cepit ille cogitaro quod forte ita accidit ci 
quando vidit uxorem, at ivit ut probaret si ita csset, et cum 
videret uxorem solam peciit ab ea veniam quod malum credi- 
disset ab ea. Hujusmodi autem vetule leve sunt inimice Christi 
et ministre diaboli atque liostes castitatis . . . 

CCLII. Benedicta sit quedam nobilis et prepotens domina 
quam ego agnovi. Cum cnim quedam ex ancillis ejus quadam 
die diceret illi : " Domina, talis diligit vos, qui multum probus 
est et pulclier et digum amari." Ilia domina, statim vocatis aliis 
ancillis suis, fecit earn fortiter verberari et postmodum de fenestra 
dornus que super fluvium sita erat in aquam precipitari, et ita 
exemplum dedit aliis ut nunquam talia verba ei suggerere 
auderent. Si enim muliores hujusmodi vetulis et impudicis 
hominibus a principio viriliter resisterent non liaberent tantam 
audaciam. 

CCLIII. Murilegus quidam silvester pulcram habet pellem. 
Qui autem privatus est et jacet juxta ignem, caudam et pellem 
habet combustam ; hoc sunt que nimis private sunt et se 
palpari permittunt. Sicut autem caseus assatur et in muscipula 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 107 

ponitur ut olfatu mures alliciat, sic diabolus quasi odorem 
voluptatis admiscct peccato ut incautos dccipiat. 

CCLIV. Audivi quod multi claudi ot contracti convenerunt 
ad tumulum cujusdam sancti ut sanarentur. Cum autem duo 
fuissent et non recepissent sanitatem, volebant propter sacer- 
dotem recedere, sed valde eonturbabant ccclcsiam et divinum 
officium perturbabant. Quibus sacerdos ait : " Yultis sanari 
ut possitis per vos ire et currere ? " At illi responderunt : 
66 Volumus domine." Tune sacerdos ait: "Proicite omnes 
baculos vestros." Quibus projectis, ait : " Expectate modicum 
donee afferatus ignis, oportet enim comburi ex nobis qui magis 
est contractus ut de cinere corporis ejus proiciam super alios et 
sanentur." Quilibet autem de se timens ne magis contractus 
reputaretur et combureretnr, cepit sibi violentiam infcrre, ita 
quod omnes simul ceperunt fugere, nee unus solus remansit qui 
sine baculo non recederet a loco. Pedibus timor addidit alas. 
Quam miseri qui ignem hujus seculi timent ct fugiunt et ignem 
geliennalem non metuunt. 

CCLV. Audivi de quadam muliere que conquerebatur coram 
judice de juvene qui ei, ut dicebat, violentiam inttllerat et ipsam 
oppresserat. Juvenis autem negabat. Cui judex ait : "Da 
illi decem marcas argenti ut satisfacias de violentia quam ei 
intulisti." Quibus receptis ilia gaudens recedebat. Tune 
judex ait juveni: " Sequere earn et aufer illi pecuniam." Ilia 
vero cepit for liter resistere et clamare ita quod, hominibus 
accurrentibus, juvenis non valuit illi pecuniam auferre. Cum 
autem juvenis et mulier adducerentur ante judicem, dixit 
judex : " Mulier quid liabes, ([uid petis, quare modo ita fortiter 
clamabas ?" Cui ilia : " Domine, quia iste volebat mini pec- 
cuniarn auferre sed ego fortiter restiti et clamavi ita quod non 
potuit prevalere." Cui judex: " Redde pecuniam juveni, si 
enim prius ita fortiter repugnasses et clamares nunquam oppri- 
mero to potuisset, sed tu plus diligis pecuniam quam castitatem, " 
Et ita juvenis a judice cum pecunia recessit. 



108 



EXEMPLA EX BERMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 



CCLYI. [fo. 143 ro ] De quodam hercmita legimus quod cum 
quedam mulier sollicitaret eum ut peccaret cum ea, ipse dixit 
illi : a Sequere me," et duxit earn in civitatem popnlosam et 
cum devenissent ad plateam speciosam ubi erat mercatum, dixit 
heremita: " Accede ut commisceamus. 1 Cui ilia : " Domine, 
ecce multitude hominum qui viderent nos." Cui heremita : 
66 Si tu peccare erubescis coram hominibus et ego magis erubui 
in heremo peccare tecum coram Deo et angelis ejus," 

OOLVII. De alio sancto viro legimus quodintravit in domum 
cujusdam meretricis ut earn averteret. Ilia credens quod causa 
libidinis explende veniret, duxit eum in cameram ubi erat leotus 
ejus. Cui ille ait : " Locus iste non est satis secretus, timeo ne 
aliquis nos videret." Ilia vero duxit eum in alium locum magis 
sec-return. At ille: " Adhuc timeo ne videar in hoc loco." 
Ilia vero duxit eum in locum valde absconditum et secretum et 
tria ostia seravit post ipsum. Cui ille : " Adhuc valde metuo ne 
aliquis me videat in hoc loco." Ilia vero dixit : " Qualis homo 
es? vanus est iste timor, nemo videre nos potest nisi Deus." 
Cui ille : " Si Deus videt nos quomodo in oculis Dei auderemus 
tarn turpe opus facere ? Absit quod, Deo vidente, faciamus quod 
videntibus hominibus, facere crubesceremus." Et sic ilia com- 
puncta conversa est ad Deum. 

COL VIII. [fo. 143 VO ] Dyabolus enim, dum per luxuriam 
inquinat et per superbiam et gloriam de peccato hominem 
attollit et elevat, similis est cuidam joculatori qui docuerat 
equum suum in terrain se prosternere quando dicebat ei : 
u Flectamus genua." Quando vero dicebat: " Levate," equus 
surgebat et, ut truffator ille illuderet hominibus, quando videbat 
monachum vel clcricum vel alium hominem qui volebat emere 
equum, ducebat eum venalem et faciebat ascendero super equum, 
causa probationis, ilium qui emere volebat. Cum autem esset 
in mcdio foro in platea valde lutosa dicebat equo suo: " Flecta- 
mus genua." At ille submittebat se in luto nee aliquo modo 
surgere volebat, quouscpie dominus suus diceret: " Levate." Et 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 109 

ita, cunctis videntibus, postquam ille qui equum ascendcrat totus 
inquinatus erat, tune deinde equus surgebat. 

CCLIX. Nihil autem magis displicet Deo quam cervix erecta 
post peccatum, et licet sit pi as et misericors, valde indignatur 
contra impudentes peccantes. Exemplum de liomini quodam 
qui habebat uxorein que relinquens eum adhesit turpissimo 
leccatori. Marito autera repetente uxorem, et leccatore dicente 
illam esse suain, pugnavit contra ilium in duello, et licet valde 
vulneratus fuerit tandem vicit et uxorem licet ream et sordidam 
recepit. Ilia mariti amorem non attendens et quanta pro ea 
sustinuit, iterum leccatoribus impudenter adhesit. Maritus 
autem valde indignatus et offensus tradidit earn leprosis, id est, 
demonibus et noluit repetere earn. 

CCLX. Si qua autem vidua filios aut nepotes habet, discat 
primum domum suam regere et mutuam vicem parentibus 
reddere \ unde et de cyconia dicitur quod postquam senuerit 
vel debilatata fuerit, eo quod nutriendo pullos valde maceratur 
et debilitatur, postquam tanto tern pore nutritur a pullis quanto 
tempore eos nutrivit. 

CCLXI [fo. 144 VO ] .... quidam per conjecturas prevident 
aliquando vera dicunt, non quia veritatem diligant, sed tit 
peccata detegendo homines infament, sicut de quodam demoniaco 
audiv iqui peccata venientium ad se publice dicebat. Unde, cum 
quidam nobilis et potens miles quemdam militem suum suspectum 
de adulterio cum uxore sua, et in rei veritate sic erat, dixit ei : 
" Eamus ad demoniacum ilium ut interrogemus eum." Ille 
vero valde sibi metuens ivit ad confessionem. Cum autem 
coram demoniaco stetissenfc, clixit dominus : u Qualis est uxor 
mea ?" Cui demon : " Adultera est et fetore libidinis inquinata." 
Et ait: " Quis est qui peccat cum ea?" At ille cepit cogitare 
et cum non posset reperire, ait: <; Paulo ante sciebam, sed 
niodo nescio." Et inspiciens omnes cartas suas invenit quod 



110 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

dclotum crat militis peccatum. Ex quo patet quantum valeat 
vera confessio. 

CCLXII. Vero cnim eonfitentibus et penitentibus nocere 
nequeunt malefici vel divinatores, nee illudere eis qui spem suam 
ponunt in Deo, peccatoribus autem illudere solent, quia Deus, 
cxigentibus peccatis, permittit. Unde et quedam malefice mulieres 
quadam arte diabolica aliquando faciunt ut vir uxorem suam 
noil valeat cognoscere, vel ut informas bcstiales quidam trans 
form ai i videantur. Sic legimus cle quodam cm videbatur quod 
uxor ejus mutata esset in jumentam, et cum earn flens et dolens 
in capistro duccret ad sanctum Acharium, sanctus quidem 
pliantasiis demonum decipi non potuit, dixithomini illi: " Quare 
ploras ?" Cui ille: lt Domino, ecce quo fuerat uxor mea et 
facta est j amenta." Cui sanctus: " Nullam video jumentam 
sed video quod tu adduxisti inihi quandam mulierem." Et 
facta oratione, dyabolica illusione cessante, in speciem mulieris 
reduxit uxorem suam. 

CCLXIII. Aliquando autem demones peccata liominum 
cognoscentes accusant eos ut morti tradantur, et spatium peni- 
tentie non consequantur ; unde audivi quod quedam vakle 
religiosa quondam erat in civitate Romana, que parvulum filium 
habens, semper ilium secum in lecto nocte ponebat quousque 
adultus fuisset ; unde dyabolica suggestione quadam nocte accidit 
quod mater ex proprio filio concepit. Tirnens autem dyabolus 
ne peniteret, eo quod multas elemosinas faciebat, et Beatam 
Virginem frequenter salutabat, transfiguravit se in speciem 
scolaris, et veniens ad imperatorem Romanum, ait : " Domine, 
ego sum peritissimus astronomus ita quod nunquam fallor; 
scio futura predicere, furta latentia revelare, et multa alia novi, 
que certo experimento cognoscere poteritis, si me de familia 
vestra retinere volueritis." Imperator autem suscepit eum 
gaudens, ct ille ccpit ci multa vera predicere, et furta abscondita 
revelare, ita quod imperator ei per omnia credebat, et ipsum 
pre omnibus familiaribus honorabat. Quadam autem die ait 



JACOBI VITEIACENS1S. Ill 

imperatori : " Domine, mirum est quod ei vitas ista non absorbetur 
a terra ; quedam enim detestabilis mulier est in ilia, que ex 
proprio filio concepit et peperit." Imperator hoc audito, vocata 
muliere, valcle mirari cepit eo quod domina ilia inter alias 
Romanes mulieres religiosissima haberetur, et tamen credebat 
clerico suo quia nunquam percipere potuit quod ei mentiretur. 
Cum autem vidua ilia indueias respondendi ab imperatore via 
obtinuisset, ivit cum lacrimis ad confessionem, et die ac nocte 
cepit Beate Virgin! supplicare ut earn liberaret ab infamia et a 
morte. Die autem assignata non invenit aliquem dc amicis 
suis qui auderet ire cum ea, vel clerico imperatoris se opponere, 
quia omnes credebant ei tanquam prophete. Cum autem 
ingrederetur domum imperatoris, cepit demon expavescere et 
fremere. Cui imperator ait : "Quidhabes?" At ille obmutuit. 
Apropinquante autem muliere cepit dirum ululatum emitterc, 
et ait : " Ecce Maria cum muliere ilia venit, et earn per manum 
tenens adducit." Et boc dicto, cum turbine et fetore recedens 
disparuit. Et ita supradicta vidua per virtutem confessionis 
auxilio Beate Virginis a morte et infamia liberata, postmodum 
cautius in Dei servicio perseveravit. Aliquando autem hujus- 
modi vetule pessime simulant se divinare ut pecuniam extor- 
queant ab illis qui illas curiose interrogant. 

CCLXIV. [fo. 145 ro ] Audivi de quaclam muliere quod 
antequam ingrediretur villain, premittebat exploratores qui 
status diversarum personarum inquirebant, et ei nuntiabant. 
Cum autem aliquando veniebat ad oppidum quoddam, mulier 
quedam quam novi, accedens ad earn, ait : " Domina, rogo vos 
ut aliquam divinationem mibi dicatis." Cui ilia: " Tu inquis 
babes filium Parisius qui est in scolis, scias quod ille magnus 
erit et fiet episcopus." Mulier attendens quod verum ei dixerat 
de filio qui in scolis erat, credidit quod ei per omnia dixerat 
veritatem, et gavisa valde de filii sai futura promotione, quia 
pecuniam secum non attulerat, exuit camisiam propriam et 
dedit ill!, et ita episcopatum emit quam vetula fallax per divina 
tionem filio promisit. 



112 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGAKIBUS 

CCLXV. Vidi in quibusdam partibus quando mulieres nube- 
bant et do ecclesia ad domos redibant, in ingressu domus in 
faciem earum frumentum proiciebant, clamantes : u Habun- 
duntia, habundantia," quod gallice dicitur : " plente plente" ; et 
cum plerumque antequam transiret annus pauperes et mendici 
rcmanebant et liabundantia omnium bonorum carebant. 

CCLXVI. Audivi de quadam vetula sacrilega, sive sortilega, 
quo mulieribus dicebat : u Facias hoc que docebo te, et non 
poterit esse quin cito bonum maritum et divitem habeas." Cum 
autem multas seduceret, quedam sapienter respondit ei : " Mari- 
tus tuus pauper est et mendicus ; quomodo divitem maritum 
facies me habere, que tibi subvenire non potuisti in hac 
parte." 

CCLXVII. Sic fertur vilipendisse rane ques medicam jactabat, 
et alia animalia causa medendi ad se vocabat : u Tu inquis, que 
pallida es et inflata, alios curare promittis, et te ipsam curare 
non potes ;" et ita animalia cognita veritate recesserunt. 

CCLXVIII. In partibus quibusdam vidi quod quando obvia- 
bant sacerdoti, statim signabant se, dicentes quod malum omen 
est sacerdoti obviare. Immo pro certo didici, quod cum in 
quadam villa Francie multi passim morerentur, dixerunt inter 
se : u Non poterit hec pestis mortalitatis cessare nisi antequam 
mortuum in fossa humo ponamus, presbjterum nostrum in 
eandem foveam proiciamus." Unde factum est quod cum 
sacerdos foveam accederet ut mortuum parrochianum sepeliret, 
rustici simul et mulieres presbyterum sacris vestibus induturn 
arripueruntj et in foveam precipitaverunt. Hec sunt dyabolice 
adinventiones et demonum illusiones. . . . 

CCLXIX. Audivi de quadam muliere que dicebat se cum 
quibusdam dominabus de nocte super bestias quasdam cquitarc, 
et multa terrarum spacia una hora pertransire. Demones enim 
in sompnis illi illudebant, et talia ostendebant. Cum autem 



JAOOBI VITEIACENSIS. 113 

mulicr ilia quaclam die in ecclesia sacercloti suo diceret : " Do- 
mine, liac nocte multum vobis profui, et a magna molestia vobis 
liberavi ; nam, domine, ille cum quibus de nocte soleo ire 
camcram nostram intraverunt, et nisi avertissem et ipsas pro 
vobis rogassem, multa mala vobis fecissent." Cui sacerdos ait : 
" Ostium camere mea clausum erat et seratum, quomodo intrare 
potuisti ?" Cui vetula dixit : a Domine, nee ostium nee sera 
potest nos retinere vel impedire quin libere ingrediamur et 
exeamus." Cui sacerdos : u Volo probare si verum est, ut de 
tanto beneficio te valeam remunerare." Et clauso ostio ecclcsie 
ac fortiter serato, arrepto crucis baculo, cepit vetulam fortiter 
porcutere. Cumque ilia clamaret et misericordiam imploraret, 
ait sacerdos : u Exi ab ecclesia, et fuge, si potes ex quo sera vel 
ostium non potest te retinere." Et ita vetulam corripuit, et a 
falsa credulitate liberavi t. 

CCLXX. [fo. 145 VO ] De quadam scelerata muliere audivi 
quod cum corpus Domini in ore reservasset, ut eo in sortilcgiis 
abuteretur, conversum cst in earn em et ejus palato adhesit, ita 
quod loqui non potuit. Quedam enim sordida et immunda 
dant viris ad comedendum ut corda eorum ad eorum amorem 
convertant 

CCLXXI. Audivi de hujusmodi virgine que, spiritu elationis 
incitata, jactanter ait quod nollet esse similis Marie Magdalene, 
ex quo accidit ei quod infra mensem, postquam talia dicere 
presumpsit, vilissimo leccatori publice adhesit qui earn honore 
virginitatis spoliavit. Teste utique Gregorio : " Nulla est 
castitas carnis quam non com mend at humilitas mentis." 

CCLXXIL De quadam vero virgine narrat Gregorius, que 
superba fuerat et garrula, quod ipsa mortua et sepulta, custos 
monasterii vidit de nocte demones ipsam ex tumulo extrahentes, 
qui a renibus supra comburebant corpus ojus, a renibus infra 
integrum remanebat, ita quod in mane cinis super pavimentum 
et vestigia combustionis apparuerunt, Patet igitur quod vir- 



114 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 

ginitas sine htunilitate est quasi lampas sine oleo; subtrahe 
oleum lampas non lucet ; tolle humilitatem castitas non placet. 

CCLXXIII. [fo. 146 ro ] De sorore autem Sancti Bernard! 
legimus quod, cum esset secularis valde, venit videre fratres suos, 
qui erant in monasterio, cum pompa magna et ornatu superfluo. 
Quod audientes fratres ejus contempserunt earn et videre nolu- 
erunt, dicentes quod esset retlie diaboli et liamus ad capiendas 
animas. Ilia vero valde doluit et confusa atque compuncta ait: 
" Si despiciunt fratres mei carnem meam, non despiciant servi 
Dei animam meam," et deposito ornatu exterior!, postea feligiono 
vixit. Hujusmodi autem mulieres quando ad publicmn exire 
vel etiam ire debent, magnam diei partem in apparatu suo coxi- 
sumunt. Quant Aeliz fu levee, et quant ele fu lavee, et la messe 
fa cliantee* et deable Ven out emportee, quod est : Quando Aeliz 
de lecto surrexit, et lota fuit, et in speculo aspexit, et vestita et 
ornata fuit, jam truces ad processionem tulerant, et missam 
cantaverant, et demones earn tulerunt qui comites ejus fuerunt. 

CCLXXIII bis . [fo. 146 VO ] Mulier enim cantans in chorea 
est velut instrumentum dyaboli, quod gallice dicitur quailliers, 
quo coturnices capiuntur et ad cujus vocem congregantur, et sicut 
auceps unam avem excecatam ligat in campo ad quam alie con- 
veniunt et, tune rethe expandens, capit illas, ita muliere excecata 
cantante, dum ad illam alie congregantur, retlii dyaboli omnes 
capiuntur. Bethe enim aucupis infernalis est chorea. 

CCLXXIII tcr . Hujusmodi mulieres assimilantur pavoni qui 
turpes habet pcdes, pulchras pennas, cum laudatur superbit et 
caudam attolit, passum latronis, vocem horribilem quasi demonis. 
Turpes habent pedes, afFectuum sordes in pedibus ejus, dum 
libenter peccarcnt, si auderent, pudore seculi, vel quia timent 
ne concipiant vel forte non inveniunt qui requirat; casta est 
quoniam nemo rogavit .... [fo. 147 1 ]. Pavo autem, cum 
laudatur, gaudet et superbit, ct caudam expandit, sed tune 
turpitudinem detegit. Et istc valde gaudent et attolluntur cum 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 115 

de pulcritudine laudantur et per hoc earum turpitude demon 
strator ; fastus itaque pulchris, sequiturque superbia formam. 

CCLXXIY. [fo. 147 ro ] Multi laudantur et magna reputantur, 
que postea nocent, et multa vilipenduntur que postmodum juvant, 
undo de cervo dicitur quod, cum biberet et ad fontem vid[eret] 
cornua pulcra, cepit gloriari et multum laudare et intuens crura 
sua gracilia vilipendebat ea et vituperabat. Cum autem super- 
venirent venatores, cepit fugere auxilio crurium, et ingrediens 
silvam ramis adhesit cornibus et captus est aut detentus. Et 
multe occasione pulcritudinis sue, de qua inaniter gloriantur, a 
venatoribus infernalibus capiuntur ; pavo passum habet latronis, 
et ipse de domibus parentum ad ludos et choreas furtive recedtint 
et retineri non possunt lioris vespertinis et nocturnis, et in locis 
suspectis conveniunt. 

CCLXXY. Narrat Gregorius quod quedam puella vidit Beatam 
Virginem cum multitudine virginum et desiderabat valde esse 
cum illis. Cui Beata Virgo : " Ne riseris per xxx dies, et eris 
nobisoum." Que triginta diebus a risu abstinens mortua est, et 
promissam gloriam recepit ; procul dubio nisi a risu et cantilenis 
atque clioreis cessasset, nunquam cum Beata Virgine inter 
ceteras virgines recepta fuisset .... 

CCLXXVI. Qui autem inhonorat matrem inlionorat filium, 
et qui lionorat matrem honorat filium ejus, inseparabiles enim sunt 
honores eorum ; quod Beata Virgo ostendit, in quadam eccelsia 
Anglic, in qua erat ymago Beate Virginis ex argento et lapi- 
dibus preciosis que filium suuin tenebat et amplexabatur in 
gremio. Quidam autem latro de nocte ingressus est ecclesiam, 
ut furarctur ymaginem, cumquo in Immeris levassct cam et pro 
nimio pondere portare non valebat, cepit ymaginem pueri 
argenteam a matris amplexibus avellere. Beata vero Virgo que 
cum filio suo prius tolli so permiserat, cum vidisset quod fur ille 
filium suum sine matre vcllet asportare et ab ejus bracliiis ipsinn 
avellere, una maims tenons filium alia latronem ita fortiter per- 

12 



116 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONJBUS VULGAEIBUS 

cussit quod in pavimento ecclesie ipsum prostravit. Unde ille 
stupefactus et territus, relicta ymagine, recessit et, converses ad 
Dominum, tantum miraculum publice predicare cepit. Ita igitur 
lionesto vos habeatis quod merito castitatis et honestatis de ipsa 
confidere valeatis. Unde multe hodie virgines et juventule in 
lionore Beate Virginis in die Annunciationis, in diebus sabbati 
vcl per totum annum, cqnsueverunt jejunare. 

CCLXXVII. De quibusdam tamen audivi quod multa ill! 
promittunt, in voto se astringunt, et postea in detrimentum 
anlmarum suarum votum frangunt, fraudem faciendo illi illudere 
volunt, similes cuidam viro et uxoriejus, qui cum Deo vovissent 
quod non nisi in magnis sollempnitatibus vinum biberent vel 
forte cum mercatum facerent. Cum paucis diebus aquam bibis- 
sent ccpit homo uxori dicere : u Non possumus hodie omnino 
abstinere, faciamus mercatum ut possimus bibere vinum." 
vendidit uxori asinum suum. Sequenti autem die dixit uxor 
marito : " Erne asinum tuum et bibemus vinum." Et ita ornn 
die facicbant mercatum ut vinum bibere possent. 

CCLXXVIII. Hanc fraudem multi faciunt sicut ille qui 
voverat quod non comederet carnes nisi hospites haberet, ct 
omni die in qua carnes comedi solent hospites invitabat, similiter 
et monachi quidam quia inhibitum est eis ne comedant carnes 
nisi de venatione, porcos quos nutriunt faciunt cum canibus per 
domum suam in modum venationis fugari, et ita clum tales 
carnes comedunt fraudulenter votum frangunt . . 

CCLXXIX. [fo. 148 r J Vidi quemdam valde religiosum Cis- 
terciensis ordinis monacum, qui adhuc de monachis superstes 
erat, cum audiret quod multi et magni viri de statu hujusmodi 
mulierum male sentirent et contra eas latrare non cessarent, 
rogavit Deum ut ostenderet ei cujusmodi mulieres essent quas 
beguinas seculares nominabant, et accepto divinitus response, 
invenientur in fide stabiles et in opere efficaces, tantum post- 



JACOB! VITEIACENSIS. 1 1 7 

modum eas diligebat quod earum detractoribus semper oppo- 
nebat se. 

CCLXXX. Lancea autem acutissima est lingua detractoris, 
multo pejor quam ilia que aperuit latus Salvatoris. Unde cum 
a quodam religioso quereret is, qui sotulares ejus fecerat.si bonum 
os haberent, respondit : (i Bonum os habent quia nulli detrahunt 
vel maledicunt." Sicut autem aranea de eo qui insidet non 
carpit, nisi id tantum quod renenosum est, et si non invenit vene- 
nosum tamen id quod carpit in ventre suo convertit in venenum. 
Ita detractor venenosus, si quid inter bona multa reprehensibile 
reperit, statim ad detraliendum linguam acuit. 

CCLXXXI. Audivi de quadam muliere que flens et dolens 
supra modum adsacerdotem suum virum religiosum,cum quereret 
ab ea quid haberet, respondit : " Domine, vos nostis filiam meam 
qualiter semper honestate vixit et virginitatem suam custodivit, 
cum talis homo vicinus noster earn sollicitaret, et ut sibi con- 
sentiret nullo modo earn inducere posset, ille recedens ait iratus : 
66 Ego talia de te dicam quod nonquam habebis honorem." Et 
cepit earn ubique diffamare, et dicere quod cognovisset earn, et 
ita vituperata est filia mea et diffamata quam prius multi matri- 
monio sibi copulate cupiebant, quod vix etiam pauperem et vilis- 
simum hominem possem in venire qui cum ea vellet contrahere." 
Ecce quam maledicti et detestabiles sunt hujusmodi homines et 
furibus deteriores. Tollerabilius est enim amittere possessionem 
quam famam. 

CCLXXXII. Narravit mihi quidam valde religiosus quod, in 
partibus quibus commoratus fuerat, accidit quod quedam honesta 
et religiosa matrona frequenter ad ecclesiam veniens die ac 
nocte devotissime Domino serviebat. Quidam autem monachus 
custos et thesaurarius monastorii magnum nomen religionis 
habebat et revera ita erat. Cum autem in ecclesia frequenter 
dc hiis que ad religionem pertinent mutuo loquerentur, diabolus 
invidens honestati et fame eorum immisit eis vehementes temp- 
tationes, ita quod amor spirituals conversus est in carnalem. 



118 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

Uncle condixerunt sibi et assignaverant noctem in qua rcco- 
deret monachus a. monasterio cum thesauro ecclesie, et matrona 
rececleret a domo sua cum summa pecunie quam auferet clam 
marito. Cam autem sic recederent et fugerent, monachi sur- 
gentes ad matutinas viderunt archas fractas et tliesaurum 
ecclesie asportatum, et cum non invenirent monachum festi- 
nanter secuti sunt eum. Similiter et maritus dicte mulieris 
videns archam suam apertam et pecuniam ablatam secutus est 
Qxorem suam, et apprehendentes monachum et mulierem cum 
thcsuuro et pecunia reduxerunt et in arctis carceribus posuerunt. 
Tantum autem fuit scandalum per totam regionem et ita omnes 
infamabant religiosas personas quod longe majus dampnum fuit 
de infamia et scandalo quam de ipsorum peccato. Tune 
monachus ad se reversus cepit cum multis lacrimis rogaro 
Beatam Virginem, cui semper ab infantia servierat et nichil 
umquam tale illi acciderat, similiter et dicta matrona cepit 
auxilium Beate Virginis instanter implorare quam frequenter 
diebus ac noctibus consueverat salutare, et coram ejus ymagine 
genua flectere. Tandem Beata Virgo valde irata eis apparuit et 
postquam eis multum improperavit : u Remissionem," inquit, 
u peccati vobis obtinere a filio meo possum, sed quid possum 
facere de tan to scandalo? Vos enim fetere fecistis nomen 
religiosarum personarum, coram omni populo, ita quod de 
cetero religiosis personis non credetur ; hoc est enim quasi 
dampnum inrecuperabile." Tandem orationibus earum pia 
Virgo devicta compulit demon es qui hoc procuraverant venire, 
injungens eis quod sicut religionem infamaverant, ita quod 
infamia cessaret procurarent illi. Vero cum non possent ejus 
imperiis resistere, post multas anxietes et varias cogitationes, 
reperta via quomodo cessaret infamia, restituerunt nocte mona 
chum in ecclesia et archam fractam sicut prius erat reparantes, 
et in ea tliesaurum imponentes ; archam etiam quam matrona 
aperuerat clauserunt et ferraverunt et pecuniam in ea repo- 
suerunt, et in camera sua et in loco ubi nocte orare solebat 
mulierem posuerunt. Cum autem monachi reperissent domus 
sue tliesaurum et monachum qui sicut consueverat Dominum 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 119 

exorabat, et maritus uxorem reperiret ct thcsaurum, atque 
pecuniam sicut prius fuerat invenissent, ceperunt obstupescere 
et ammirari, et currentes ad carcerem viderunt monaclium et 
mulierem in compedibns, sicut prius eos dimiserant ; sic enim 
videbatur eis quod unus demonum transfiguraverat se in 
speciem monachi, et alius in speciem mulieris. Cum autena 
tota civitas ad videnda mirabilia convenisset, demones, omnibus 
audientibus, dixerunt : " Recedamus, satis enim istis illusimus 
et de religiosis personis mala cogitare fecimus." Et hoc dicto, 
subito disparuerunt. Omnes autem ad pedes monachi et 
mulieris inclinati veniam postulaverunt. Ecce quantum in- 
famiam et scandalum atque inestimable dampnum dyabolus 
contra religiosas personas procurasset, nisi Beata Virgo suc- 
currisset. 

CCLXXXIII. [fo. 149 ro ] Nunquam confidatis in illis qui 
frequenter in facies juventularum oculos figunt, qui manus 
palpant et digitos stringunt, qui pedem pede comprimunt, qui 
manus ad collum vel ad sinum mittunt ? et cetera hujusmodi 
contra religionis honestatem faciunt. Mementote exempli 
lupi et hedi. Capra precepit liedo ne recederet ab ovili donee 
de pascuis rediret. Lupus autem, apropinquante vespere, 
stetit ad ostium ovilis et cepit caprizare, et dixit liedo : " Ego 
sum mater tua, egredere in occursum meum et lactabo te." 
Hedus autem incautus exiens statim devoratus est a lupo. Isti 
enim lupi quasi caprizando verba religiosa a principle habent, 
et postquam incautos attraxerint verba mutant et animas 
devorant. 

CCLXXXIY. Ketulit mihi quidam sacerdos quod quedam 
mulier, que semper in peccatis et in voluptatibus atque deliciis 
carnalibus vixerat, et quasi nihil reputans peccaro, ornnia fere 
peccatorum genera experta fuerat. Cum autem inuitii et 
abhominabilia peccata confiteretur sacerdoti, nunquam voluit 
a sacerdote penitentiam aliquam suscipere, eo quod nunquam 
jejunare consueverat vel penitentiam corporalem sustinere. 



120 EXEMPLA EX SERMONIBUS VULGARIBUg 

Tandem sacerdos compatiens misere ait : " Est aliquid in 
muiido a quo posses abstinere ? " Que respondit : " Non 
possem abstinere a vino vel a carnibus, non possem jejunare 
vel orare, aut mane surgere vel manibus propriis laborare. 
Unum tamen est a quo abstinere de facili possem. Ita enim 
abhorreo porcos quod nunquam potui manducare, vix etiam 
possum eos videre." Cui sacerdos: " Sufficit mihi ex quo aliucl 
non possum habere ; injungo tibi ne in tota vita tua porcos 
comedas." Quod ilia recepit gaudens. Cum autem rediret ad 
hospicium transiens per plateam ubi porci vendebantur, adeo 
temptata est et tantum habuit appetitum manducandi porcos, 
quod nullo modo abstinere potuit, sed porcos emens et in domum 
ferens cum magno appetitu comedit, et statim ad cor rediens, 
reversa.ad sacerdotem,ait: "Domine,pro certo scio quod dyabolus 
nititur animam meam perdere, nam postquam injunxistis mihi 
ut abstinerem a porcis tantam mihi temptationem immisit et ut 
comederem suggessit, quod non potui abstinere sed comedi. 
JSTunc autem quantamcumque penitentiam vultis mihi injungatis. 
Scio enim quod nisi fortiter pugnavero numquam manus dyaboli 
evadere potero." Et ita recepta penitentia sibi injuncta, post- 
modum in bono perseveravit. Valde sibi oportet virginem 
sollicitam esse et dyabolo impugnanti fortiter resistere .... 

CCLXXXV. [fo. 149 V0 .] Hii igitur temptacionibus resistendo, 
nolunt laborare vel penitentiam [agere] . Similes sunt cuidam 
latroni, qui cum deprehensus esset in furto, judex tantam gratiam 
illi facere voluit, ut non suspenderetur in patibulo cum ceteris 
latronibus, sed duci fecit in silva ut eligeret arborem pulcram 
quam vellet ut suspenderetur in ilia hon orifice, et aliam illam] 
eligere noluit. Unde judex iratus precepit eum variis penis cru- 
ciatum in patibulo suspendi. 

CCLXXXVI. [fo. 150.] Oratio enim innocentum valde 
accepta est Deo. Unde de Sancto Bernardo legimus quod, quando 
equitabat in mane et videbat pueros in campis custodientes pecora, 
dicebat monachis suis: u Salutemus hos pueros ut ipsi respon- 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 121 

deant ot bencdicant nobis, et ita orationibus innoccntum muniti 
secure poterimus equitare." 

CCLXXXVII. Audivi quod quidam fur cum duceretur ad 
suspendium, ligatis post tergum manibus, videret patrem suum 
qui dolens et flens sequebatur eum et vocaus patrem, ait : " Pater 
da mihi osculum." Et cum oscularetur eum momordit labia 
ejus usque ad sanguinem. " Hec omnia mala mihi fecisti, 
cum essem puer et, te sciente, inciperem furari et multa mala 
facere, nuuquam me verberasti aut castigasti." Expedit igitur 
quod pueri diligeuter ab initio instruantur. 

CCLXXXV1II. [fo. 150.] Audivi de quodam impio homine 
qui patrem suum senem faciebat jacere iu stabulo,ct unam vilem 
slavinam dederat ei ad iiiduendum. Filius autem illius iniqui 
hominis valde dolebat de avo suo, qui male tractabatur a patre, 
et accedens ad patrem ait : " Pater, erne mihi slavinam." Cui 
pater: "Norme bonas habes vestes, quid hide vis facere?" 
" Ego," inquit, a illam reservabo utcum senueris induam te ilia, 
et tibi faciam sicut facis avo meo, patri scilicet tuo, qui te geuuit 
et nutrivit et quicquid habebat tibi dedit." Benedicti sunt tales 
pueri qui parentum iniquitatibus nolunt consentire. 

CCLXXXIX. Valde quidem difficile est ut a malis parenti- 
bus non corrumpantur [filii] . Unde legitur de quodam homine 
bono, qui simplex erat valde et timens Deum, et cotidie laborans 
in agro de labore manuum mediocriter vivebat. Uxor autem in 
domo remanens tota die cum leccatoribus manducabat et bibebat, 
et, quecumque maritus ejus poterat acquirere, luxuriose vivens 
consumebat, Accidit autem quod mortuus est uterque, et reli- 
querunt unicam filiam quam habebant. Qtie cepit cogitare 
utrum vitam patris aut matris sue deberet imitari. Dyabolus 
autem ante oculos ejus ponebat quod vita patris ejus dura nimis 
et aspera fuisset, et quod in dolore et miseria semper vixisset ; 
mater vero ipsius in magnis deliciis et gauclio et in magna feli 
citate vixerat. Et jam pene adhuc animus ejus inducebatur ut. 



122 EXEMPLA EX SEEMONIBUS VULGAKIBUS 

contempta patris conversatione, matrem imitaretur. Proxima 
vero nocte angelus Domini apparuit ei in sompnis, et vidcbatur 
ei quod duceret earn ad quedam fetida et horribilia loca tormen- 
torum, ubi inter alios dampnatos videbat matrem suam niger- 
rimam igne intollerabili igne succensam, et serpentes omnia 
ejus membra morsu amarissimo corrodebant et laniabant. Tune 
ilia cepit quasi ululando clamare : " Yeni, filia, quia propter 
viles et transitorias delicias sine fine cruciabor, et nunquam 
veniam obtinebo. Cave igitur, filia mea, ne miserabilem et 
turpissimam vitam imiteris, quia nullo modo posses evadero 
cruciatus eternos." Postmodum videbatur illi quod duceretur 
ad locum amenissimum et gloriosum, ubi in consortio sanctorum 
et honorum spirituum videbat patrem suum sole splendidiorem, 
gloria et honore coronatum. Cui angelus ait : " Cujus vitam 
vis imitari patris tui aut matris ?" Cui ilia : " Domine, juro 
vobis, promitto quod nunquam matris mee vitam imitabor, sed 
exemplo patris mei in penitentia et labore vitam meam volo 
consumare." Mane autem facto, quicquid habebat pauperibus 
erogavit, et artissimam vitam ducens in spelunca se reclusit. 
De liiis ergo parentibus qui secundum carnem filios suos dili- 
gunt et de animabus non curant, sed malum exemplum eis 
prebent, aitDominus : u Qui non odit patrem et matrem propter 
me non est me dignus." 

CCXC. [fo. 15 l ro ] Mater quidam silvestris capreoli quando 
egreditur, ut querat victum, percutit enim cum pede, et facit 
signum, ut non exeat evagando nee removeatur de loco. Qui 
ita obediens est, ut etiam, quando homines inveniunt eum, non 
moveatur de loco sed capi se permittat, factus obediens usque 
ad mortem. Quanto magis nos Deo patri nostro et matri 
nostro ecclesie obedire debetis, et florem juventutis Domino 
consecrare. 

CCXCI. . . Et ideo festinare debetis et non confidere de lon- 
gitudine vite, sed primicias annorum vestrorum dare Deo, non 
sicut illi qui florem juventutis sue dant dyabolo, et furfur senec^ 



JACOBI VITRIACENSIS. 123 

tutis promittunt Deo ; offerunt dyabolo mustum prlmeve etatis, 
et Deo promittunt feces senectutis. Isti faciunt sicut dicitur do 
quodam homine nequam, cui pater totam substantiam suam 
dedit, et deveniens ad magnam senectutem, rogavit filium suum 
ut daret ei potum. Qui respondit patri : u Non habeo nisi 
quinque dolia in cellario meo." Cui pater : " Fili, ecce valde 
sitio. Affer mihi de primo dolio." At ille : u Mustum est, non 
dabo tibi." " Da," inquit, u mihi de secundo." Cui ille: 
" Nolo tibi dare." " Da mihi de tercio." At ille : " Ferratum 
est, non dabo." a Da mihi de quarto." Cui ille " Yinum 
vetus est, non dabo." Quintum autem vinum dcbile crat, et 
canis respersum, et tamen dare recusavit, nee patri sitienti 
voluit numerare. 

CCXCII. [fo. 151 ro ] Dicitur autem quod natura sit melocis 
ut dentibus et unguibus in rupe domum faciat, et est mundis- 
simum animal quod fetorem sustinere non potest. Quod videns 
vulpes dolosa coinquinat ejus fossam, et ita melos dimittit cam 
et sic vulpes habitat in domo ilia quam non construxit, et pro 
qua non laboravit. Ita est de Deo et dyabolo. Deus autem 
animas nostras creavit et pro ipsis redimendis multum laboravit; 
postquam autem dyabolus domum nostram coinquinat, Deus, qui 
fetorem sustinere non potest, recedit et domum dyabolo relinquit. 

CCXCIII. [fo. 151 VO ] Etas tenera magis docilis est et 
facilius convertuntur pueri quam senes ; unde cum Sanctus 
Bcrnardus ct fratres ejus ad religionem transissent, unus solus, 
qui puer erat, remansit in seculo et cum, quadam die, fratres 
suos visitaturus ad monasterium accederet, dixit ei Sanctus 
Bernardus: u Tu in seculo remanebis, et totam hereditatem 
paternam solus possidebis, nobis enim jam in hoc seculo non 
licet aliquid possidere." Tune puer valde compunctus ait : 
" Fratres mei possidebunt celum et ego solus possidebo terrain. 
Dante Domino non ita erit." Et recepto habitu, cum fratribus 
suis, omnibus relictis, remansit. Solus autem pater senex in 
seculo remanserat qui converti non poterat, sed omni die filios 



124 EXEMPLA EX SERMON1BUS VULGARIBTTS 

suos tanquam perditos lugebat. Quadam vero die Sanctua 
Bernardua exivit videre ilium. Pater vero precepit ut secundum 
morem Burgundie magnus truncus poneretur in igne, et cum 
ligna sicca et clare ardentia circa ponerentur, truncus ille tamen 
fumabat videlicet ardere non poterat. Tune Sanctus Bernardus 
ait: "Pater, ilia ligna clare ardentia sunt filii tui, tu vero 
truncus senex et antiquus terra repletus, quern filii tui, licet 
exemplum tibi dederint, non possunt accendere; tu enim nil 
aliud facis quam fumare." Quo audito, pater commotus est 
valde, et ad monasterium accedens, habitu monachal! suscepto, 
cum filiis suis Christ! j ago cervicem inclinavit. 

CCXCIV. [fo. 152 ro ] . . . Unde christiani per blasphemum 
deteriores sunt gentilibus et judeis ; unde narrat Gregorius de 
quodam puero quinquennium qui Dei majestatem blaspliemare 
consueverat, et parentes non castigabant eum. Dum pater ejus 
ipsum egrotantem in sinu. teneret, malignis spiritibus adve- 
nientibus, puer treraens clamare cepit: " Obsta pater, nigri 
homines veniunt qui me tollere volunt." Illis autem instantibus, 
puer, more solito, nomen Dei blaspliemare cepit, et statim 
animam in manibus demonum reddidit ; non excusatus est 
propter puericiam, malic ia supplente etatem. 

CCXCV. Caveant igitur pueri ne Deum vel sanctos ejus 
blasphement, nee diabolum nominent, sicut quidain quando irati 
sunt diabolum nominant, vel etiam servientes aut socios suos 
nomine diaboli vocant. Unde iterum refert Beatus Gregorius 
quod quidam stulte servo suo loquens, ait illi : " Yeni, diabole, 
discalcia me." Et statim sensit quod caligarum corrigias cum 
magna celeritate diabolus dissolvebat etquia nominavit diabolum 
ipsum, qui semper invidus est, invenit paratum. 



CCXCVI. De quodam alio audivi qui, cunctis que habebat 
cum deciis amissis, ceperit desperare et blaspliemare Dcum, 
atque invocare dyabolum ; et cum accessisset ad quemdam 
judeum magnum, dixit ei judeus : " Xega Christum et matrem 



JACOBI vrrfciACENsis. 125 

ejus et sanctos, et ego faciam quod plara habebis quam ante 
liabuisti." Qui respondit: " Deum et sanctos negare possem, 
sed piissimam ejus matrem nullo modo negarem." Quo audito, 
judeus iratus expulit ipsum. Cum autem quadam die ante 
ymaginem Beate Virginis transisset, ymago quasi gratias referens 
illi inclinavit, et hoc quidam dives homo qui erat in ecclesia 
vidit. Cum autem alia vice ante ymaginem transiret iterum 
ymago inclinavit illi, predicto divite hoc vidente, et valde 
ammirante, et vocato illo, qui nudus erat, et quasi ribaldus 
incedebat, ait illi: u Que stint hec mirabilia quod ymago 
ilia bis inclinavit tibi ? " Cui ille respondit: " Nescio quare 
hoc fecit; pessimus enim peccator sum, et orania bona paterna 
luxuriose vivendo et cum deciis ludendo amisi." Cui dives: 
u Quomodo potest hoc esse ; fecisti unquam aliquod servicium 
Beate Marie?" At ille: " Nee Deo, nee- illi servivi." Et 
tandem recordatus, ait : " Quidam judeus voluit me divitem 
facere si negarem Beatam Mariam, sed malui pauper remanere 
quam illam negare." Et valde compunctus dives ait: u Bene 
fecisti." Et filiam suam cum multis divitiis illi dedit, et ita, 
Beata Maria procurante, longe ditior factus est quam judeus 
facere noluisset. Ecce quam bonum est servire Beate Virgini 
et ipsam honorare. 

CCXCVII. Quidam autem sicut Absalon semel in anno ton- 
duntur, quia tamen semel peccata confituntur, sed statim capilli 
crescere incipiunt, quia statim ad peccata redeunt, ct ita sacer- 
dotibus illudunt. Hec est confessio vulpis, que solet in Francia 
appellari confessio renardi. Cum enim debuisset suspendi et 
taxus eum duceret ad curiam leonis, facta confessione de omni 
bus peccatis, eodem die vidit gallinas juxta domum cujusdam 
hominis, et taxo ait : " Ilia est via qua incedere debemus, scilicet 
juxta domum illam quam videmus." Cui taxus respondit: 
" Miser, hodie confessionem mihi fecisti de cunctis peccatis tuis, 
et confessus eo quod multas gallinas devorasti, et promisisti Deo 
in manu mea quod de cetero abstineres." Cui renardus ait : 
" Verum dicis, sed ego tradideram oblivioni." 



126 



EXEMPLA EX SEKMONIBUS VULGAEIBUS 



CCXCVIII. Memini cum quadam die confessiones quarum- 
dam juvenum audirem et injunxissem eis penitentiam, de eo 
quod aliarum segetes vastassent et ab alienis vineis uvas aspor- 
tassent, unde oportebat eos satisfacere et dampnum restituere, 
ipsi statim, facta promissione quod de cetero abstinerent et 
ablata restituerent, transeuntes juxta vineam que erat prope 
ecclesiam racemos tulerunt, et cum clamore postea fugerunt. 

CCXCIX. Immo de quodam audivi qui nundum absolveretur, 
ante saccrdotem pectus tunclebat, et videns bursam sacerdotis 
plenam denariis, alia manu illam abscidit. 

CCC. [fo. 153 ro ] Quidam autem ad tempus ab actu peccandi 
cessant, et postmodum ferventius ad vomitum revertuntur, 
similes cuidam malo lacrimoso puero qui, cum diu clamando 
plorasset, tacere cepit. Illi autem qui in domo erant gaudentes 
dixerunt : " De cetero pacem Labebimus, nam pucrille quiescit, 
qui nos valcle molestabat, et dormire non sinebat." Quod 
audiens ncquam puer, ait : " Ego fatigatus eram, seel parum 
quiesco, ut postea magis valeam clamare, nunquam permittam 
vos quiescere." 

GOC1. Contigit in Francia quod quidam clericus, cum vellet 
peccata confiteri, ita copiose flebat coram sacerdote quod non 
poterat loqui. Cui sacerdos ait : " Fill, scribe peccata tua et 
afFer milii." Cumque ille scripsisset et sacerdos legissct ait : 
i Volo liabere consilium cum meo superior!." Apcrta autem 
carta coram episcopo, nil nisi cartam vacuam invenit, ct reversus 
ad clericum, ait: u Confide, fili, dimissa sunt peccata tua tibi, 
ecce carta tua vacua et orania deleta inveni." 

CCCII. De quodam alio audivi quod, cum esset in magno 
periculo maris, et haberet quoddam turpissimum peccatumquod 
nunquam pre verecondia voluerat confiteri, timore mortis, cum 
sacerdotem non haberet cui confiteri posset, cunctis audientibus 
qui in navi erant, illud manifestavit, et statim cum tempestas 



JACOBI VITEIACENSIS. 127 

cessasset nullus in navi fuit qui peccatum illucl ad memoriam 

revocasset. 

CCCIII. Mhil autem est quod tantum dampnum faciat 
diabolo sicut vera confessio, unde legimus quod cum quidam 
enorme peccatum commisisset, et illud confiteri non auderet, 
tandem imminente mortis articulo, liabuit voluntatem confitendi. 
Diabolus autem timens ne illucl confiteretur sacerdoti, trans- 
figuravit se in speciem sacerdotis, et dixit liomini illi : " Ecce, 
tu graviter infirmaris, fac confessionem tuam ut salutem conse- 
quaris." Facta autem confessions, dixit dyabolus : " Istucl 
peccatum valde turpe est et abhominabile, et multos scandalizare 
posset. Injungo tibi ne do cetero alicui sacerdoti confitearis." 
Mortuo autem illo homine, allegabat dyabolus quod animam 
habere deberet, eo quod homo ille nunquam peccatum sacerdoti 
confessus fuisset. Bonus autem angelus e contrario dicebat quod 
bona et simplex intentio hominem ilium salvare debebat, maxime 
cum dolus dyaboli non debuit eidem patrocinari. Dominus 
autem judicavit pro illo homine, et jussit animam ad corpus 
redire ut confessionem faceret, et de peccato penitentiam ageret. 
Maxime igitur debetis confessionem diligere, amplecti et 
frequentare ...... 

Exempla casu omissa quse prioribus addenda sunt. 

CCCIV. [fo. 22 VO ] Similiter ypocrite et heretici vulpecule 
sunt diaboli, qui se mortuos mundo fingunt et lingua venenosa 
et verborum blandiciis in tantos clicipiunt, similes vulpi que se 
simulat mortuam et clum jacet, aperto ore et lingua extracta, 
volucrcs animal mortuum reputantes, quasi ad cadaver accedunt, 
ct videntes linguam rubeam, clum comedere volunt, vulpecula 
dentes stringit et aves deceptas retinet et comeclit. 



^. [fo. 46 ro ] Unde cuidam monacho querenti cur Christus 
de cruco non descendit cum dicerctur ei : Descende de crticc, 
respondit quidam sapiens: Ne tu de claustro exires, sed in cruce 



128 EXEMPLA EX SERMONiBUS VULGAEIBUS 

religionis perseverares. Turpe est referre pedem, nee passu 
stare tenaci. 

CCCVI. [fo. 50. vo ] Quldam ita pusillanimes sunt quod ictibus 
inimici statim cedunt malentes peccatis consentire et vastari 
quam tentationibus molestari, similes quidam fatuo qui, cum 
muscis valde infestaretur, domum propriam combuscit tit muscas 
pariter combureret. Ita multi dum muscas sustinere nolunt 
igne luxurre se vastari et incendi permittunt. 

CCCVII. [fo. 63 VO ] Beatus Ambrosius narrat quod cum olim 

multitudo fidelium ad martyrium traheretur, quadam virgo sponte 
ad locum in quo Christian! occidebantur, caepit cum ardent! 
desiderio currere, ut cum aliis sanguinem effunderet pro Christo. 
Quidam autem civis loci illius, dives valde et nobilis, sed paganus, 
caepit ab ilia quaerere: Mulier quo vadis ? Cur ita curris ? Cui 
hilari et sereno vultu respondit: Domine, ad amicum mourn 
curro, qui me cum aliis amicis suis ad nuptias et solemnes epulas 
vocavit. At ille attendens, quod Christum vocaret amicum stium, 
et quod curreret ad martyrii locum, putans earn fatuam, et quasi 
irridens ait : Die amico tuo, ut mittat mini de rosis suis. Quuin- 
que ilia felici martyrio ad amplexum amici sui pertraxisset, non 
multum post, quidam pulcherrimus juvenis cum copliino pleno 
pulcherrimarum rosarum et suaviter redolentium ante ilium 
astitit, quum tamen non esset tempus rosarum, et dixit illi.: 
Amicus mulieris, quae modo coram te transiit, sicut petisti de 
rosis suis, mittit tibi. Et dimissis rosis subito non comparuit. 
At ille valde territus et compunctus caepit cogitare, quod Deus 
Christianorum ad martyrii rosas vellet et ipsum vocare, et statim 
ad locum martyrii currens, quod Christianus esset caepit clamare, 
et protinus cum aliis decollatus, postquam roseum sanguinem 
Christo obtulit, ad rosarium paradisi pervenit. 

CCCVIII. [fo. 63 yo ] Quidam autem licet in principle con- 
versionis sue ferveant in medio tepescunt et in fine penitus re- 
frigescunt, similes cuidam avi quern Grallici bruer appellant. Hec 



JACOEI VITEIACENSIS. 129 

enim avis in principle ex magna probitate, more nob ilium volu- 
crum accipit alaudas et perdices ; secundo anno passeres et 
minutas aves ; tercio anno scarabeas, mures, muscas et vermes, 
et ita semper declinando in pejus tandem ad tantam ignaviam 
devenit quod fame se mori permittit. 

CCCVIII. [fo. 77 VO ] Quidam enim similes puero quern Gallic! 
chamium vocant qui multas nutrices lactendo exhaurit et tarn en 
non proficit nee ad incrementum pervenit sed ventrum durum 
babet et inflatum. Corpus autem ejus non perducitur ad in 
crementum. 

CCCIX. [fo. 116 VO ] De quodam autem audivi quod cum ali- 
quis vellet equum emere ipse oculam parum claudebat et quos- 
dam equivocas faciebat, postmodum si ille qui emerat equum 
inveniebat quod esset mains dicebat pestifer ille : Nonue innui 
vobis ut non emeretis ? Si vero bonus inveniebatur equus dice- 
bat: Ego innui vobis ut emeretis. 

CCCX. [fo. 117 VO ] Audivi de quodam tabernario qui subver- 
tit urceum vini peregrine bibenti ut iterum de vino suo emeret, 
et simulavit casu factum esse dum ad pedes suos non respiceret 
et ita in urceum inpegit, et cepit verbis dolosis consolari pere- 
grinum dicens : Hospes, non cures de vini effusione, hoc est 
signum magne habundantie, multa bona hoc anno habebitis, et 
nolebat aliquid reddere peregrine. Exeunte autem tabernario, 
peregrinus clepsedram a dolio extraxit ita quod totum vinum 
effluxit. Cum autem tabernarius rediret dixit peregrino : Quare 
vinum meum efFudisti ? Oportet quod reddas milii. Cui pere 
grinus ait : Hospes, hec effusio magnam habundantiam prefigu- 
ratj multa bona tibi provenient in hoc anno. Cumque reddere 
recusaret et tabernarius peregrinum ad judicem traheret, judex 
peregrini rationem audiena ipsum liberavit, ineidente tabernario 
in foveam quam fecit : Ve qui decipis nonne et ipse decipieris. 

CCCXI. [fo. i30 ro ] [cursarii niarini, pyrate] gloriantur in 
malicia sua et letantur cum malefecerint . . similes latroni- 



130 EXEMPLA EX SBEMONIBUS VULGARIBUS 

bus qui quando vident furcas riclent et dicunt inter se: Ecce 
furce, iste eriguntur ut pusillanimes et meticulosi terreantur et 
patibulum deridendo vocant vulgariter ; espoente coard. Quos- 
dam tamen vidi cum essem peregrinus in navibus mercatorum 
qui in ternpestate valida cum jam mortis periculo imminente 
credebant se nullo modo posse evadere incipiebant timere et 
lugere et peccata confiteri et cum Deum invooare debuissent, 
ipsi vestimenta sua scindebant et crines laniabant nihil aliud 
dicentes nisi ve mihi sive wai me clamantes, et si qui forte ex 
ipsis timore servili ducti confitebantur peccata, cessante tempes- 
tate eodem die ad consueta redibant visitantes meretrices suas, 
que in sentina latitaverant et more solito biscoctum peregri- 
norum et cetera victualia furantes et quibusdam subtilibus in- 
strumentis quasi imperceptibiliter vegetes perforando vinum 
extrahebant et quecumque poterant absque timore Dei peregrinis 
auferebant. 

CCCXII. [fo. 130 ro ] Audivide quibusdam pessimis et prodi- 
toribus quod accepta pecunia pro ministrandis victualibus pere 
grinis usque ad portum, cum per dies paucos navigassent quia 
modica victualia in navi posuerant fame et inedia occidebant 
peregrinos vel in insulis proiciebant vel quod omnem credulitatem 
excedit in servos et ancillas Sarracenis vendebant. Vidi quos- 
dam nautas ad Acconeum civitatern navigantes qui a quodam 
liomine navem conduxerant hoc conditione quod si in mare 
periisset nichil solvere tenerentur. Cum autem aliquantulum 
remoti essent a portu, ignorantibus peregrinis et mercatoribus 
qui secum in navi erant, perforaverunt sentinam et cum navis 
mergeretur, intrantes bargain omnes submerserunt, et bargas 
suas pecunia et bonis peregrinorum onerantes, cum venissent 
ad portum ceperunt simulare tristiciam, et ita submersis et 
sufFocatis peregrinis et bonis eorum asportatis, pretium navis 
non solverunt dicentes quod non tenebantur solvere nisi navis 
salva et integra ad portum devenisset. 



JACOBI VITKIACENSIS. 131 

CCCXIII. [fo. 147 VO ] De Moyse autera parvulo dicunt 
Hebrei quod coronam quam Pharao in capite ejus posuit in 
terra projecit viclens in ea ymaginem Jovis, et voluit Pharao 
interficere eum eo quod sapientes Egypti dixerunt regi quod puer 
ille destrueret Egyptum. Quidam autem liberavit eum dicens : 
Videanms si ex infantia fecit ; et allatis carbonibus incensis, 
posuit in ore suo et lingua ejus lesa est uncle impedite lingue 
factus est ad loquendum .... 

CCCXIV. [fo. 146 VO ] Quando autem homo 11011 vult amittere 
vaccam suam ligat ad collum ejus campanulam ut audito sono 
securus sit de ilia. Sicut vacca que alias precedit in collo 
campanam gerit, sic mulier que prima cantat coream ducit quasi 
campanam dyaboli ad collum habet ligatam. Quando autem 
dyabolus sonum audit securus redditur dicens : Nondum vaccam 
meam amisi. 



THE EXEMPLA. OF 

JACQUES DE YITKY 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 



I. [fo. 4 ro ] A bishop bestowed an archdeaconry upon a nephew 
so young that he befouled his stall, as he was wont to do his 
nurse s lap. 

This exemplum is referred to by Lecoy de la Marche in Etienne 
de Bourbon, p. 360, n. 2. 

II. [fo. 4 VO ] The demon wrote to certain negligent prelates in 
Sicily a letter as follows : " The princes of darkness to the princes 
of the churches, greeting. We thank you, because as many as 
have been entrusted to you have been sent to us." 

This story is repeated in the Libro de los Enxemplos, cxxv., at */ 
greater length. The devil, in the guise of a man, sends the letter 
to an archbishop by a lay brother, and in token of its truth strikes 
the lay brother on the face with his hand. The mark remains 
until the archbishop sprinkles the spot with holy water. 

III. [fo. 4 VO J Fable of the frog which promised to guide the 
mouse through a pond. It tied the mouse s leg to its own by a 
bit of string; but a kite carried off the mouse and the frog too. 

This exemplum is also found in Brit. Mus. MS. 26,770, f. 78, 
which contains a brief selection of Jacques de Yitry s exempla. 

The literature of this widely spread fable may be consulted in 
Fables Incdites, etc., par A. C. M. Robert, Paris, 1825, i., p. 257 (La 
Fontaine, iv., 11); (Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, nouvelle edition, 

L2 



136 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

par Henri Regnier, Paris, Hachette, 1883, i., p. 306 ; Wendunmutli 
ron Hans Wilhelm Kirclilwf herausgegeben von Hermann Oesterlcy, 
Stuttgart, 1869, bk. 7, 71. 

The fable was a favourite one with mediseval writers, and is 
found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum flistoriale, bk. iii., 2 (in 
Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, Paris, 1884, ii., p. 236) ; Speculum 
Doctrinale, iv., 114 (cited by Oesterley) ; Bromyard, Summa Prae- 
dicantium, Antwerp, 1614, part ii., p. 275 (P. xiii., 37) ; Nicholas 
Pergamenus, Dialogus Creaturarum in Die beiden aeltesten lateinis- 
chen Fabelbucher des Mittelalters : des Bisclwfs Cyrillus Speculum 
Sapientiae und des Nicolaus Pergamenus Dialogus Creaturarum her 
ausgegeben von Dr. J. G. Th. Graesse, Tubingen, 1880, Dial. 107, 
p. 258; Scala Celt, Ulm, 1480, fo. 73 ro ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 
ccci. 

IV. [fo. 6 VO ] Fable of the larks which made the owl king to 
defend them. A lark flying in the rear of the flock was captured, 

and the king, in answer to the complaint of the others, replied, 
that it was a dangerous spot. Another was caught flying in front, 
and the king said it was an exposed position. At last a third was 
caught in the centre of the flock, and the king exclaimed : " Why 
do you disturb me ? What do you wish me to do for you ? It 
has always been the custom for larks to be caught by hawks. 

V. [fo. 8 ro ] Fable of the statue of an archer set up to frighten 
away birds. At first the birds were terrified, but when they saw 
that the archer did not draw his bow they approached him, and 
finally flew upon him and befouled him. 

VI. [fo. 10 ro ] A priest was unable to satisfy a bishop s cook 
who was demanding endless dishes for his master. Worn out at 
length by his importunities he said, " I have nothing to give now 
but the flanks of the crucified." And he had them roasted and 
set before the bishop. 

VII. [fo. 10 ro ] Hunters are wont to escape from the tigress 
whose cubs they have stolen by placing a mirror in her path. 
The tigress imagines she beholds her offspring in the glass, and 
delays long enough for the hunters to escape. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 137 

This trick of the hunter is mentioned in Alexander Neckam s 
poem, De Laudibus Divinae Sapientiae, edited by Thomas Wright, 
London, 1863 (Uerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores~), 
p. 489: 

Tigris, sublato foetu, velocior aura 

Instat atrox, sed nee segnius hostis abit. 
Iram consumit speculo delusa petito, 

Sic orbata rcdit ad sua lustra dolens. 

The same idea is repeated by Bartholomew Glanville in his 
De Proprietatibus Rerum, Strasburg, 1505, bk. xviii., cap. cii. 

YIII\ [fo. ll vo ] A certain person admired a rich and powerful 
king, and called him happy. The king, who was wise, made him 
sit in a high place upon a chair which threatened to fall, under 
which burned a great fire, and above which hung by a slender 
thread a sword. Then the king commanded delicate viands to be 
brought, and told the man to eat. He answered that he could 
not, since he was in danger and constantly feared to fall. Then 
the king replied : "I am in greater danger, sitting in a chair 
which threatens to fall, fearing the sword of divine judgment and 
the fire of hell. Why, therefore, did you call me happy ? " 

The episode of the " Sword of Damocles," found in the above 
exemplum is generally connected w r ith that of the " Trumpet of 
Death," which occurs in XLIL, in the note to which the entire 
story will be discussed. 

IX. [fo. ll vo ] It was the custom in a certain city for the king 
to reign but a single year, and then be sent away into exile. A 
wise king during his year of rule sent precious stones, clothes, 
food, and many servants to the island of the sea which was to be 
his place of exile, and thus made it a pleasant abode. 

This parable appears for the first time in the romance of Bar- 
laam and Josaphat, attributed to John of Damascus, and may be 
found in Boissonade s Anecdota Graeca, Paris 1829, iv., p. 118 (in 
Liebrecht s German translation, Minister, 1847, p. 98). The Latin 
version, which was freely used during the middle ages, incor 
rectly attributed to Georgius Trapezuntius, may be found in the 
earlier editions of Joannes Damascenus (Basel, 1548) ; in Lippo- 



r 



138 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

mannus Vitae Sanctorum, Rome, 1556, vol. v., and in the edition of 
the Vitae Patrum published at Cologne. 

In the editions of the Vitae Patrum, by Rosweyd, the early 
Latin version has been replaced by one made in 1577 by Jacobus 
Billius. Jacques de Vitry was the first to use this story in the 
west, and after him it enjoyed great popularity. Versions are 
found in the Legenda Aurea, eel. Dr. Th. Graesse, Dresden, 1846, 
p. 817 ; Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, 15, 17, and 
Speculum Morale, 2, 1, 4, p. 708 (cited in Oesterley) ; and in the 
Gesta Eomanorum, ed. Oesterley, cap. 224. It is also found in 
the following collections of sermons andexempla. Brit. Mus. MS. 
26, 770, fol. 78 ; 11, 284, fol. 78; Scala Geli, fol. 21 V ; Peregrinus, 
Sermones, Dominica, ix., post festum Penthecostes ; Paratus, Ser- 
mones de Tempore, ii. ; Speculum Exemplorum, iv., 18 (from Vincent 
of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale) ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, 
Mundus, ii. (" Vincentius Belvacensis ex Historia Barlaam et 
j Josaphat, lib. 15 et 17 "). 

Other versions are cited by Karl Goedeke, Everij-Man, Romulus 
und Ilelcastus, pp. 16, 205, and R. Koehler in Jalirbuch filr 
romanische und Englische Sprache und Literatur, Neue Folge, ii., 
p. 22. 

X. [fo. 13 VO ] A fool had a cask half full of wine, and tried to 
fill it by drawing out the wine from the bottom and pouring it in 
at the top. 

XI. [fo. 13 VO ] A fool put a cat in his chest to protect cheese 
against the mice. The cat devours both cheese and mice. 

This story is quoted from Jacques de Vitry, by Etienne de 
Bourbon, 487. It is also found in Brit. Mus. MS. 11, 284, fo. IP ; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, P. xiii., 36; Odo de Ceritona 
in Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii., p. 610 ; Libro de los Gatos 
(in Escritores en Prosa anteriores al Siglo XV.}, xvi., p. 347 ; and 
Pauli, Schimpfund Ernst, 35, where some additional references by 
Oesterley may be found. 
x^ 

XII. | fo. 15 VO ] The shepherd who forsake* his flock, after 
recefvlng milk and wool from it, is compared to the tortoise which, 
in winter draws its head into its shell, but in summer puts out 
its horns. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 139 

.XIII. [fo. 15 VO ] A hermit was indignant at Adam s transgggs- 
sion, and a companion to correct Mm inclosed a mouse in a dish, 
and gave it to him, saving: " Brother, do not see what there is 
in this dish until my return." The hermit could not resist his 
curiosity, and raising the cover the mouse escaped. When his 
companion returned, and did not find the mouse, he said to the 
hermit : " You blamed Adam because he so lightly transgressed 
the command, but you have transgressed it more lightly." Then 
the hermit s presumption ceased, and his anger was changed into 
pity. 

A similar story is told by Etienne de Bourbon (298), of a 
scholar who asked his master how Adam could be so blinded as 
to eat the forbidden fruit. The master put a bird in a dish, and 
forbade the scholar to look into it during his absence. The story 
also occurs in the Scala Celi, 136 ro (cited from Csesarius Heister- 
bacensis, Dialogus Miraculorum, iv., 75) ; Discipulus, Sermones 
de Tempore, 4, F. ; Libra de los Enxemplos, cccxx. ; Odo de Ceritona 
in Hervieux, Les Fabulist es Latins, ii., p. 706 ; and Pauli, ScJiimpf 
und Ernst, 398. This story has survived until the present day, 
and is to be found in the popular literature of Italy attributed to 
the traditional joker Bertoldo, Astuzie sottilissime di Bertoldo, 
Florence, Tipografia Adriano Salani, p. 27. See also 0. Gruerrini, 
La Vita e le Opere di Giulio Cesare Croce, Bologna, 1879, p. 240, 
where the author cites, besides the versions above mentioned, 
Dupont-Gratien, Controverses des sexes masculin et feminin, 1536 ; 
Rabelais, Pantagruel, iii., 34; and Swift and Grecourt. 

X*"^ ^~^j * 

(XIV. [fo. 15 V ] A monk, who was tempted to eat meat, killed 
a peacock, cooked it and hid himself in an empty cask to eat it. 
The abbot discovered him, pardoned him and led him to the 
cellarer, who gave him food and drink, and thus by his con 
descension kept the monk in the monastery. 

XV. [fo. 17 ro ] Fable of the ass following the example of the 
dogs and caressing his master. The dogs were rewarded, but the 
ass was beaten. , 

Fables Inedites, etc., par A. C.M.Robert, i., p. 233 (La Fontaine, 
iv., 5) ; (Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i., p. 281. 
For literature of this fable consult Gesta Romanorum, ed. H. 



140 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES 1)E VITRY. 

Oesterley, cap. 79; Weber, Indische Studien, iii., 352; Benfey, 
Pantschatantra, i., 1LO. 

Mediaeval versions are found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum 
Historiale, iii., 3 (Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii., 237) ; Specu 
lum Doctrinale, iv., 117 (cited by Oesterley); Dialogus Creaturarum, 
ed Graesse, Dial. 55 ; Hollen, Preceptorium, Colon. 1489, 63 b 
(cited by Oesterley) ; Holkot, In Librum Sapientiae Regis Salo- 
monis, Basel, 1586, lectio 173, (Oesterley wrongly cites lect. 167). 

XYI. [fo. 17 VO ] Priests fond of banqueting are compared to the 
ass of a leper, which, after it had grown fat on the alms bestowed 
upon the leper, kicked over its master. 



s [f 0> igroj Laymen and clergy are compared to the two 
sisters Aholah and Aholibah mentioned in Ezekiel, cap. xxiii. 

XVII. [fo. 18 ro ] A king, who was obliged to go to remote 
regions, left his daughter in charge of his seneschal, who ill- 
treated and killed her. 

There is a version of this story in the Gesta Romanorum, cap. 
182, where it serves as an introduction to the parable of the 
" Three Friends in Need " (Petrus Alphonsi, Disciplina Clericalis, 
ed. Schmidt, p. 35), which is not to be found in Jacques de Vitry. 

XVIII. [fol. 18 VO ] Fable of the dog crossing the water with a 
piece of cheese in its mouth, which, seeing the reflection in the 
water, drops the cheese in its eagerness to get a second piece. 

Fables Ine dites -pax A. C. M. Eobert, ii., 49 (La Fontaine, vi., 17) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Kegnier, ii., 55. For the 
history of the fable see Benfey, Pantschatantra, :., 79, 468 ; 
Weber, Indische Studien, iii., 339 ; Loiseleur Deslongschamps, Essai 
sur les Fables Indiennes, Paris, 1838, 51. Copious references may 
be found in Oesterley s Kirchhof s Wendunmutli, 2, 35, 7, 129; 
and Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, 426. To these references may be 
added Etienne de Bourbon, 266 (p. 224). The medieval sermon- 
books, etc., which contain this fable are : Vincent of Beauvais 
Speculum Ilistoriale, 3, 2 (Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii., 236) ; 
Speculum Doctrinale, 4, 111 (cited by Oesterley) Dialogus Creatura- 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 141 

rum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 100; Scala Cell, Ulm, 1480, fol. 19; Brom- 
yard, A, xxvii., 14; Martinus Polonus, Sermones, Strasburg, 1484, 
Sermo ccxviii., G. 

XIX. [fo. 20 r ] A. certain holy man, while in choir, saw the 
devil loaded down with a full sack. He adjured the devil to tell 
him what he was carrying, and the devil replied that the sack 
was full of the syllables and words and verses of the psalms 
abbreviated or omitted by the clergy during that service. " These 
I diligently preserve for their accusation." 

This story is cited from Jacques de Vitry by Etienne de Bourbon, 
212 (p. 184), who, in the same place, and again later (404, p. 354), 
tells a story, on the authority of Geoffroi de Blevel, of a dead 
priest who came to life and told, among other terrible things seen 
by him, that he had met a great number of priests and clerks 
weighed down beneath large bags, which contained, as he was 
informed, the words and sentences of the psalms which they had 
neglected to pronounce distinctly. 

Wright in his Latin Stories (Percy Society, vol. viii.), xlvi., 
gives this tale from the Arundel MS. 506, [fo. 46 V0 ]. The same 
story is found in Caesarius Heisterbac. Dialogus Miraculorum, ed. 
Strange, Cologne, 1851, dist. iv. cap. 9 ; and from him is cited 
in Herolt s (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, Strasburg, 
1495, c. 3 ; in Major s Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Douay, 1619, 
Cantus, v. (p. 90), and Re cull de Eximplis (Barcelona, 1881) cxxiii. 
("J. doV."). 

A counterpart to this story is told later by Jacques de Vitry in 
No. 239 [fo. 158]. 

In the Corona de Monad, Prato, 1862, p. 113, a priest comes to 
life, and, among other terrible things which he has seen, declares 
he beheld a multitude of priests, monks, and clerks greatly tor 
mented and weighed down under heavy weights. These, he was 
told, were those syllables, words, etc,, which they had omitted 
from the psalms and service. 

XX. [fo. 20 VO ] A rustic who is carrying a lamb to market is 
made to believe it is a dog by five sharpers, who post themselves 
at intervals along the road, and ask the rustic to sell them the dog 
he is carrying. He finally believes them, and throws away the 
lamb, which the sharpers take and eat. 



142 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Etienne de Bourbon gives the same story, 339 (p. 287), on the 
authority of " quidam episcopus in terra Albigensium predicavit," 
probably Jacques de Vitry. Wright, Latin Stories, xxvii., has a 
version from Arundel MS., No. 52, fo. 113 VO , and cites Arundel 
MS. 506, fo. 46 V0 . There is also a version in Harl. MS. 268, fol. 
195.* 

The literature of this famous story can be found in Oesterley s 
Gesta Romanorum, cap. 132, PsmlisSchimpfund Ernst, 632, Cloustoii s 
Popular Tales and Fictions, Edinburgh, 187, vol. ii. p. 27, and in 
Benfey s Pantschatantra, i. 355. The only version in mediaeval 
sermon-books, etc., besides Jacques de Vitry and Etienne de 
Bourbon, which I have Pound is in Bromyard, s. vii. 9. 

There is an old English version in Shakespeare Jest-Books, edited 
by W. C. Hazlitt, London, 1864, vol. ii., The Jests of Scogin, p. 56. 

XX. bis [fo. 22 VO ] The fox attempts to catch the bird called 
masange by pretending that peace has been sworn between beasts 
and birds, and inviting her to give him the kiss of peace. The 
bird fears treachery, but the fox says he will shut his eyes so that 
he cannot catch her. Then the bird flew near the fox, which 
opened his mouth to seize her, and derided him for his deceit. To 
the fox are compared clerks and priests, who, feigning religion, 
seduce women. 

XXL [fo. 22 VO ] Fable of the wolf licking the yoke to the sur 
prise of the ploughman, who did not know that the wolf was seek 
ing an opportunity to kill the oxen. 

XXII. [fo. 24 VO ] If any one from hatred or anger deprives the 
people of preaching he is like the foolish and malicious man who, 
to spite his wife, mutilated himself, and so harmed himself rather 
than others. 

XXIII. [fo. 24 VO ] The students at Paris played a game with a 

* This MS. consists of two parts: ff. 1-45, " Hie incipiunt exempla bona et 

moralia de Johanne Patriarcha;" ff. 45-201 v , "Alphabetum narrationum 

Antiquorum primum exemplo," and contains 211 tales and similitudes. The 
same collection is in Arundel MS. 378. There is an interesting English trans 
lation of this collection in Brit. Mus. MS. 25,719 (xv. cent.). Jacques de Vitry 
is cited 43 times. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 143 

cat, placing a die on its paw; if the cat threw a higher number 
than the students they gave it something to eat, if it threw less 
they killed it, skinned it and sold the skin. 



XXIV. [fo. 27 ro ] Fable of the frogs asking fora king; they 
receive first a log, then a stork, which devours them. 

Fables Inedites, par A .0. M. Robert, i., 181 (La Fontaine, iii., 4) ; 
(Euvres de J. de la Fontaine, ed. H. Regnier, i., 213. For literature, 
see Kirchhof s Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 157; Weber s Indische 
Studien, iii., 345; Benfey s PantscJiatantra, i., 384. 

Oesterley cites incorrectly Dialogus Creaturarum, Dial. 118 (I 
have not been able to find the fable in this work) ; and Hollen, 
Preceptorium, Cologne, 1498, fol. 97. 

XXV. [fol. 28 VO ] The ape in fleeing from the hunters takes the 
one of her young which she most loves in her arms and throws the 
other across her back, when the hunters approach she is compelled 
to throw away the one in her arms, the other clings to her back, 
impedes her flight and causes her capture. 

Brit. Mus. MS. 11,284, fol. 7; Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, 
Les Fabulistes Latins, ii., 708. Odo concludes his fable with the 
words : " Moraliza, sicut placet." 

XXVI. [fo. 30 ro ] When Jacques de Vitry was disputing with 
the heretics in the Albigensian territory they cried out that they 
could not be convinced. Then one of Jacques de Vitry s followers 
asked a heretic to sign himself with cross ; he began to do so but 
could not finish. The Christian soldiers perceiving this rose up 
against them caught in evident and manifest error. 

Cited by Lecoy de laMarche in Etiennede Bourbon, p. 278, n. 1. 

XXVII. [fo. 30 VO ] A certain desperate man burned the temple 
of Diana, and when asked why he did it answered, " Since I could 
not become noted for good I wish to be for evil, and because I 
was unknown I have made many speak of me." 

Oesterley in his note to Pauli s Scliimpf und Ernst, 636, cites: 
Strabo, 41, i., 22 ; Cicero, De Divin. 1, 23, 47 ; De Nat. Deor. 2, 27, 
69; Valerius Maximus, 8, 14, exter. 5 ; Macrobius, Saturn, 6, 7, 16 ; 
Hondorff, PromptuariumExemplorum, Leipzig, 1572, 423 &; Gerlach, 
Eutrapeliarum libri iii., Leipzig, 1656, 2, 124. 



144 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE YITRY. 

XXVIII. [fo. 30 VO ] A nightingale said to a man who had 
caught her, "You see hoAv small I am. If you kill and eat me 
you will not obtain much ; but if you permit me to go away I 
will teach you wisdom which can be of great benefit to you." The 
man said, " Teach me, and [ will let you go." The bird said, 
" Never attempt to obtain what you cannot, and never lament 
the loss of a thing which you cannot recover, and never believe 
an incredible discourse." Then the man let the bird fly away, 
but wishing to try him it said, " 0, wretched man ; what have 
you done in releasing me ? I have in my body a pearl larger 
than an ostrich egg." The man was deeply grieved on hearing 
this, and attempted to catch the bird. Then the nightingale said, 
"Now I know your folly, and that you have profited nothing by 
my teaching. You attempted to catch me when you are unable 
to follow my path ; you grieved at the loss of a thing which you 
could not recover, and you believed that there was in me a pearl 
of great size, whereas my whole body cannot attain the size of an 
ostrich egg." 

This famous apologue is first found in Barlaam and Josaphat 
(ed. Boissonade, 4, 79 ; Liebrecht s translation, p. 67, cap. x. ; 
Billius s trans, in Vitae Patrum, ed. Migne, Patrol, vol. 73, p. 479 ; 
Legenda Aurea, ed. Graesse, cap. clxxx. p. 815). From Barlaam, 
or from the source from which Johannes Damascenus drew, the 
story passed into the Disciplina Clericalis of Petrus Alphonsi, and 
thence into a multitude of versions. It may be found in the two 
editions of the Disciplina Clericalis as follows : Edition of the 
Societe des Bibliophiles Francais, Paris, 1824, p. 136, fab. xx. ; 
Seconde Partie, p. 130, conte xix. ; ed. P. W. V. Schmidt, Berlin, 
1827, p. 67, cap. xxiii. 

The literature of the story may be found in Dnnlop s History oj 
Fiction, Liebrecht s trans. Berlin, 1851, p. 462, note 74 ; Loiseleur 
Deslongchamps, Essai sitr Us Fables Indtennes, Paris, 1838, p. 71 ; 
Benfey, Pantscliatantra, i. 380; Gr. Paris, Le Lai de VOiselet, Paris, 
1883. Copious parallels may be found in Oesterley s editions of 
Kirchhof s Wendunmuth, 4, 34, and Gesta Romanorum, cap. 167. 

There are four versions in the mediaeval story-books. The 
Dialoyus Great urar um, ed. Graesse, dial. 100, p. 250, gives a mere 
fragment of the story. " Unde fabulatur de philomela, -quae 
docuit juvenem, qui earn cepit : de se perclita et irrecuperabili 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 145 

nunquam cloleas. Ut legitur in Barlaam : est enim dementia ct 
periculum relinquere rem securam et certam pro alia incerta cfc 
vera (sic)." Not much better is the version in Bromyard, Summa 
Praedicantium, M. xi. 78, who cites Barlaam as his source. Scala 
Celi, fol. 17&, contains the complete story from Barlaam. The 
version in the Spanish Libra de los Enxemplos, liii., is taken from 
Petrus Alphonsi. 

XXIX. [fo. 31 ro ] Fable of the envious frog which tried to 
equal the ox in size, and burst in the endeavour. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i., 13 (La Fontaine, i., 3) ; 
-(Euvres de J. de la Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i., 65 ; Kirchhof s 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 53. 

This fable is found in the Dialogus Creaturaram, ed. Graesse, Dial. 
42, p. 185 ; Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, 3, 5 (Her- 
vieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii., 240) ; Speculum Doctrinale, 4, 119 
(cited by Oesterley) ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, S. xiv., 15 ; 
Gritsch. J., Quadrigesimale, Paris, 1512, Sermo, 50, 11 (cited by 
Robert, Fab. Ined.). 

XXX.- [fo. 31 VO ] Certain philosophers who despised St. Anthony 
because he was an illiterate man visited him in the Desert. The 
saint asked them which of the two was the first, knowledge or 
letters. They considering that knowledge had devised letters, 
replied that knowledge was the first. Then the saint answered, 
" Therefore knowledge can exist without learning." 

This exemplum is taken from the life of St. Anthony, by St. 
Athanasius, in the Vitae Patrum, lib. i., cap. 45 (Migne, Patrol, 
vol. 73, p. 158), where it runs as follows : " Alios quoque similiter 
mundi sapientes, qui enm irridere cupiebant, quia litteras igiioraret, 
tali disputatione colligavit, clicens : Respondete mihi, quid ponis, 
sensus an litterae ? et quid cujus exordium ? Sensus ex litteris, 
an litterae oriuntur ex sensu ? Illis asserentibus quia sensus 
esset auctor atque inventor litterarum ait : Igitur si cui sensus 
incolumis est, hie litteras non requirit." 

The only other version of this story which I have noticed besides 
the one in the text is in the Libra de los Enxemplos, cccxxxvi. 

XXXI.; [fo. 32 ro ] A Parisian student appeared after death to 
his master clothed in a cloak made of parchment covered with 



146 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITKY. 

fine writing. His master, Sella by name, asked the meaning of 
these and was told that they were the sophisms and idle inquiries 
(curiositates) in which he had spent his time. He added that he 
could not describe the burning which tormented him under his 
cloak, but could show it in some way by a drop of his sweat. His 
master held out his hand to receive the drop of sweat which per 
forated it like a sharp arrow. Then Sella forsook the^chpols of 
logic, and entering the Cistercian Order said : 

Linquo coax ranis, era corvis, vanaque vanis ; 
Ad logicam pergo,que mortis non timet ergo.* 

As long as he lived in the order he had his hand pierced, and 
showed it to all at the time when Jacques de Vitry himself was 
in Paris. 

This story is repeated with slight differences by fitienne de 
Bourbon, 9, p. 19. 

This exemplum, as may be imagined, was a favorite one with the 
preachers of the middle ages, as may be seen from an article by 
B. Hareau in Memoires de Vlnstitut, Paris, 1876, vol. xxviii (2), 
pp. 239 264, Les Hecits d Apparitions dans les sermons du moyen age. 
Besides Jacques de Vitry and Etienne de Bourbon, Hareau cites : 
Jean d Aunay, canon of St. Victor, Bib. Nat. MS. 14,961, fol. 132 VO ; 
Eudes de Shirton, MS. 2,593, fol. 109 ; Robert de Sorbon, MS! 
lo,971, fol. 120 VO ; and the following anonymous sermonnaires : Bib. 
Nat. MS. 14,593, fol. 45; 15,971, fol. 53; Cambridge, MS. Pern- 
broke, H. 13. 

The same story is found in Brit. Mus. MSS. 11,284 fol 37 26 
770, fol. 78. 

Versions may also be found in the following sermon-books, &c. ; 
Legenda Aurea, ed. Graesse, cap. clxiii., p. 731 ; Liber abundantia 
exemplorum, fol. 13 ; Martinus Polonus, Sermones cum promptuario 
exemplorum, Prompt, i., 7; Scala Cell, fol. 13; Libra de los Enxemplos, 
ccclxvi ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Conversio, xxvii (" Petrus 
Cantor Parisiensis, et ex eodem Jacobus de Voragine, et Petrus de 
Natalibus, lib. 10, cap. 8, in die commemorationis animarum ") ; 
Passavanti, Lo Specchio di Vera Penitentia, Milan, 1808, vol. i., 
p. 75 ; and He cull de Eximplis, cxxiv. (" J. de V.") 

* I leave croaking to frogs, cawing to crows, vanities to the vain ; I go to the 
logic which does not fear the conclusion of death. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 147 

XXXII. [fo. 32 ro ] Saint Bernard visited the schools of logic at 
Paris, and was asked to decide a dispute. As lie had never heard 
logic in the schools, he replied by putting the fact of man s 
transgression and condemnation into the form of a scholastic 
argument. 

A somewhat similar story is told of St. Bernard in the Magnum 
Speculum JExemplorum, Conversio, x. He was unable to convert the 
students by his sermon, but his prayers were efficacious. The 
collector cites as his source, " Ex libro de illustribus viris ordinis 
Cisterciensis. 

XXXIII. [fo. 33 ro ] A fox once went to a mule and said, 
" What kind of an animal are you ; are you a horse or an ass ? " 

The mule replied, "What is that to you! I am a creature of ^^-r^ 
God s." The fox said, " I wish to learn your parentage," and . 
persisted in her question. Then the mule said, " I am the - 
descendant of the great war-horse of the King of Spain." The 
fox continued, " Who was your father, and who your mother ? " 
The mule, displeased and angry, said, " You will find my pedigree * 
written on the shoe of my right foot." When the fox drew near 
to read the letters, the mule raised his foot and kicked and killed 
the fox. 

There are two parts to this fable, the first, the mule s reply that 
he is the descendant of the great war-horse of the King of Spain 
is La Fontaine, vi. 7 (Fab les Invdites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii., 16 ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, ed. H. Regnier, ii., 22). References 
may be found in Pauli s ScJiimpfund Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 170. The 
fable is found in the Discipline Clericalis, ed. Schmidt, p. 41 ; ed. 
Societe des Bib. Fr. pp. 34, 30; Etienne de Bourbon, 291, p. 244; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, F, vii. 2 (a passing mention only, 
" sicut mula, quae computando et narrando de parentela sua 
semper dextrarium patremnominavit " ; Martinus Polonus, Sermones, 
serm., ccxxx., J. (mere mention : Exemplum de mulo) ; Libro de los 
Enxemplos, cxxviii. 

Regnier, in his notes to Lafont, vi., 7, cites a passage from a 
sermon by the Franciscan Menot (1440 1518), containing a very 
original version of this fable. 

The second part of the fable the fox reading the mule s pedigree 
c -"-his hoof, is La Fontaine, xii., 17 (Fables Inedites par A. C. M. 
1 H;, ii., 364; (Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, ed. H. Regnier iii., 



148 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

292). To the references in Robert and Regnier maybe added 
those of Oesterley in his edition of Kirchhof s Wendunmuth, \vhere, 
however, he has erroneously repeated the citations from Brom- 
yard, Martinus Polonus and Lilro de los Enxemplos, which belong 
to the first part of the fable. 

This fable also occurs in the Cento Novelle Antichc, testo Gual- 
teruzzi, xciv. ; see A. D Ancona, Del Novellino e delle suefonti, first 
printed in the Romania, vol. iii., and afterwards in Studj di Critica 
e Storia Letteraria, Bologna, 1880, p. 339, where additional references 
may be found. 

XXXIV. [fo. 33 r ] A Rustic s axe fell into the river one day, 
and the owner stood on the bridge and waited for all the water to 
flow by. 

XXXV. [fo. 33 VO ] Certain unjust judges in Lorraine were 
wont to cite parties to a place with an equivocal name, and when 
they appeared, to declare that they had summoned them to another 
place and punish them for contumacy. 

XXXVI. [fo. 34 VO ] We read in a certain tragedy of Seneca 
that Nero was seen in hell bathing, and servants pouring molten 
gold in the bath. When he saw a band of lawyers approaching 
him, he exclaimed, " Come hither, O venal race of men, O lawyers, 
friends of mine, to bathe with me in this bath ! There is yet a 
place in it which I have kept for you." 

This story is found in Brit. Mus. MS. 11,284, fol. 4 (" Seneca in 
quadam tragedia "). 

The story is told on Seneca s authority by Peraldus, Summa 
Virtutum ac Vitiorum, Cologne, 1629, ii., 84 ; El Libro de los 
Enxemplos, Romania, vii., p. 490, No. 12 (" leyesse en unos cantares, 
quo fizo Seneca.") Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial., 87, 
p. 235, cites a " certain philosopher " (Graf, lloma nella Memoria 
e nelle Immaginazioni del Medio Evo, Turin, 1882, ii., 581, cites the 
version in the Dial. Great., but does not allude to source of story or 
other versions). No source is mentioned by Bromyard, Summa 
Praedicantium, A., xiv., 47 ; Scala Celi, fol. 7 ; Herolt (Discipulus) 
Promptuarium Excmplorum, P. Ixii. ; and Recull de Eximplis, xxxvi. 

XXXVII. [fo. 34 VO ] Fable of the camel which asked for hoi s, 
and instead of receiving them had its ears shortened. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 149 

See Fabulae Aesopicae euro, ac studio Francisci de Furia, 
Leipzig, 1810, Fab. 152, 281. Other references may be found 
in Kirchhofs Wendunmutli ed. Oesterley, 7, 57 ; and Benfey s 
Pantschatantra, i., 302. The fable is not found, to my knowledge, 
in any of the mediaeval sermon-books, except Jacques de Vitry. 
The only reference to it in popular literature, which I have seen 
is a brief mention in Basile s Pentamerone, v., 2 (Naples, 1644, 
p. 578), " comme a lo cammillo, che disideranno hauere le corna, 
perdette 1 aurecchie." 

XXXVIII. [fo. 34 VO ] A poor woman had a case before a 
wicked and venal judge, and was told that she could not obtain 
justice unless she anointed his hands. The woman took this 
literally, and, providing herself with lard, went to court, and in 
the sight of all began to anoint the judge s hand. When he 
asked her what she was doing, she answered, " I was told that 
unless I anointed your hand I could not obtain justice from you." 
Then he was put to confusion, and blushed, because all saw it 
and laughed. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 436 (p. 378), gives this story as one that 
he had heard. References to other versions may be found in 
Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 124. Wright, Latin 
Stories, Percy Soc., vol. viii., 43, gives the story from Brit. 
Mus. MS., Arundel, No. 506, fo. 47 V and also cites MS. Addit. 
No. 11,579, fo. 89 ro . The sermon-book versions are : Bromyard, 
Summa Praedicantium, J., ix. 21 ; Herolt (Discipulus), Promptua- 
rium Exemplorum, J., 43 ; Libro de los Enxemplos, xxiv. 

The old French versions are mentioned in Histoire Litt., xxiii., 
p. 168, and one has recently been published in Montaiglon et 
Raynaud, Eecueil general et complet des Fabliaux, vol. v., p. 137, 
" De la Vielle qui oint la palme au Chevalier." 

XXXIX. [fo. 36 VO ] The Eucharist was brought to a wicked 
lawyer, called in French " Avant parliers et plaideres," who said, 
as he was wont to do when in health : "I wish it to be first 
decided whether I should receive it or no." The bystanders 
said : " It is just that you should receive it, and we so decide." 
The lawyer answered: "Since you are not my peers, you cannot 

M 



150 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

judge me." Before lie could appeal from this wicked sentence his 
spirit went to hell. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 439 (p. 380), gives the following version: 
" Alius, cum offerretur ei Eucharistia, ait: Judicetur utrum plus 
rectum sit quod accipiam, et cum dicerent astantes : Rectum est, 
ait : Non est rectum, quia vos, cum sitis pares, non habetis me 
recte de hoc judicare." It should be " cum non sitis pares." 

The story is also found in Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 11, 284, 10. 4 ; 
Libro de los Enxemplos, Ixxxii. ; Eecull de Eximplis, xxxv. ("J. de 
V.") ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Advocatus, I. (" Odo de 
Seritone, Parte 7, Speculi Spiritualium, cap. de advocatis"); 
Mich. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, Leipzig, 1603, p. 260. 

XL. [fo. 36 VO ] Another lawyer, who had been accustomed to 
obtain fraudulent delays in his cases to the harm of his opponent, 
begged in vain a delay from the Lord, when at the point of death 
he saw the demons before him. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 439 (p. 380), tells of a lawyer, " cum amici 
sui instarent ut confiteretur et acciperet Eucharistiam, et peteret 
dilacionem, et amici instarent propter iiistans mortis periculum, 
appellans exspiravit." This same version is found in Libro de los 
Enxemplos, Ixxxii. The version in Jacques de Vitry is found in 
Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, J., xlvi.; Eecull de 
Eximplis, xxxiv. (" J. de V.") ; and in Mich. Scotus, Mensa Philo- 
sophica, p. 261. 

XLI. [fo. 36 VO ] Fable of the kite which, when well, polluted 
and stole the sacrifices of the Gods ; when ill unto death it begged 
the dove to intercede for it. The dove refused, because the kite s 
repentance was not genuine. 

Fabulae Aesopicae, ed. Furia, Fab. 87 ; Eomulus, i. 18 (Hervieux, 
Les Fabulistes Latins, ii., L87, 276, 311, 370, 393, 432). Other refer 
ences maybe found in Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley 288 ; 
Robert, Fables Inedites, ii., p. 460. The fable is in Bromyard, 
Summa Praedicantium, M. ix., 41. 

XLII. [fo. 38 ro ] A certain wise king was always sad when he 
held court, and his soldiers murmured at it, but did not dare to 
say anything. At last the king s brother asked him the cause of 
his sadness, and was told that he would soon know. After he had 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 151 

returned to his dwelling trumpeters were sent by the king to blow 
their trumpets before his house. Now, it was the custom when 
any one was condemned to death for trumpets to be blown before 
his door. The king s brother was in great fear therefore, and 
believed he could not escape death. He was afterwards taken in 
bonds to the royal palace, where he was stripped, and three sharp 
darts placed against his side and breast, and, as the king had 
ordered, mimes and minstrels, and singers and dancers entered ; 
but the king s brother was sad in the midst of the merriment. 
Then the king asked him why he did not rejoice with the others, 
and he replied: "Lord, how can I rejoice when I expect the 
sentence of death straightway." Then the king ordered him to 
be losed and dressed, and explained to him his own sadness. He 
feared the trumpet of the mighty king, of divine preaching, of the 
last judgment. The three darts were the fear of his sins, of death, 
and of hell. 

This story consists of two parts : " Trumpet blown before the 
house of one sentenced to death," and "Sword of Damocles." 
The VIII. exemplum of the text contains the second episode alone, 
the XLII. contains both, and represents the complete story as 
found in the Oesta Romanorum, cap. 143, but is only half of the 
original parable, in Barlaam and Josaphat, the second half occurs 
later in Jacques de Vitry, XL VII. 

I. " The Trumpet of Death." The earliest version of this par 
able is found in Barlaam and Josaphat (cap. vi. Liebrecht s trans., 
p. 35, Vitae Patrum, Migne s Patrol, vol. 73, p. 463, trans, of 
Billras).* From Barlaam and Josaphat the parable passed into 
the medieval sermon-books, etc., and may be found in Liber de 
Abnudantia Exemplorum, fo. 30 b (Barl. cited as authority) ; 
Paratus, Sermones de Tempore, s. 1. et a, serm. 145 ; Wright, Latin 
Stories, 103. ("from a MS. in private hands"), Mag. Speculum 
Exemp, Douay, 1610, Judicium, v. ; joined with the second episode, 
Libra de los Enxemplos, 121, 223. It is also in Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 
11, 284, fo. 27 b , 40 b . See also Jahrbuchfiir rom. und eng. Lit. N.F., 
vol. ii. p. 6. 

II. " The Sword of Damocles." This episode is found much 

* Barlaam and Josaphat contains no allusion to the " Sword of Damocles." 
Oesterley s notes to the Gesta Romanorum, 143, and Wendunmuth 2, 21, are 
confusing, as he does not distinguish between the two episodes. 

M2 



152 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

more frequently than I. Copious references are given in Oester- 
ley s Oesta Eomanorum, 143, and Wendunmutli, 2, 21 (Oesterley s 
references to Peraldus, 2, 212 ; Rosarium, 1, 48 ; 2, 8 ; and Herolt, 
serm. 109 are incorrect). The sermon-book versions which I have 
seen are: Holkot, In Librum Sapientiae, Lect. 70; Bromyard, 
Summa Praedicantium, H. i. 22 (Oesterley incorrectly, H. 2, 22) ; 
Scala Cell, fo. 108 b ; Speculum Exemplorum, Strasburg, 1487, Dist. 
ix., 209 ; Fiore di Virtu, Naples, 1870, p. 86. See Jahrbuch fur 
rom. und eng. Lit. N.F., vol. ii. p. 9. 

It is also found in Libro di Novelle Antiche, ed. F. Zambrini, 
Bologna, 1868 (Scelta di Guriositd letterarie, Dispensa xciii.) Nov. 
ix., p. 22 (from Libro de Costumi etc. di Frate lacopo da Cessole, 
Milano, 1829) ; Nov. xliii., p. 104 (from Corona de Monad, Prato. 
1862, p. 31). 

XLIII. [fo. 40 VO ] It is the custom in some places on festal days 
to give to the blind a pig to kill and divide among themselves. 
It often happens, however, that the blind man in killing the pig 
either wounds himself or strikes and kills one of his companions. 

Libro de los Enxemplos, Romania, vol. vii. p. 521, No. 64. A. 
Rambaud, Histoire de la Civilization Frangaise, Paris, 1887, vol. i. 
p. 449, refers to the above sport as " le jeu du pourcel," and says 
it was introduced into France by the English. 

XLIV. [fo. 42 ro ] Fable of the Crab, which, when asked why 
it walked backward, replied : " So I learned from my parents." 

Fables Inedites par A. C. M. Robert, ii. 341 (La Fontaine, xii., 10) ; 
CEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, iii., 237. 

XLV. [fo. 42 VD ] Fable of the wolves proposing peace to the 
shepherds on condition that the latter keep the sheep but give up 
their dogs to the wolves. 

Fables Inedites par A. C. M. Robert, i., 201 (La Fontaine, iii. 13) ; 
(Euvres de J. de la Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 239 ; Pauli s ScUmpf 
und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 447; Kirchhof s Wendunmuth, Oesterley 
ed., 7, 39. 

The sermon-books, etc., which contain this fable are : Dialogue 
Creaturarum, Dial. 8; R. Holkot, In Librum Sapientiae Regis 
Salomonis, Basil, 1586, Lect. lv., p. 196 ; Bromyard, Summa Praedi 
cantium, F. i., 18; Gritsch, Quadragesimale, s. 1. eta. Serm. xxxix., 
F. ; Libro de los Enxemplos, ccclxiv. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 153 

XL VI. [fo. 43 vo ] Some assume the monastic habit only to have 

fin opportunity to steal the sacred vessels. We read of one who 
did this and afterwards repented and became truly religious. 



XL VII. [fo. 44 VO ] We read of a certain wise king who met 
two monks in ragged clothes and fell down and reverenced them. 
His soldiers were surprised at this, and murmured. The king, in 
order to explain his conduct, had two chests made, decorated out 
wardly with gold and silver, but filled with filth and dead men s 
bones. Then he had two others made of rotten wood, mean, and 
of no worth apparently, and covered them with hair-cloth, and 
bound them with ropes made of hair. These he filled with price 
less pearls and odours and ointments. Then he called the soldiers 
who had murmured at his conduct, and placed the chests before 
them, that they might judge which the more valuable were. They 
chose the one ornamented with gold and silver, and despised the 
others. Then the king ordered the chests to be opened, and 
likened to them the monks whom he had met and reverenced. 

This exemplum is the second half of the parable in Barlaam and 
Josaphat, ca.p. vi., the first half of which we have already examined 
in No. XLII. of text. The connection of the two stories in the 
original is this : after the king has met the two men in rags and 
done them reverence, his courtiers are indignant, and ask the 
king s brother to admonish him not to demean the majesty of his 
crown in this way. The king has the trumpet of death blown 
before his brother s house, and when he appears with his family 
in mourning at the palace the king reproves him for fearing death, 
and yet blaming him for saluting with humility those whom he 
calls the heralds of his God, who announce louder than a trum 
pet death and the approach of God. This lesson was for the 
prince ; the second half of the parable contains the lesson for the 
courtiers. 

This story, so famous from the use made of it by Shakespeare 
in the " Merchant of Venice " (Acts II., III.) appears in Jacques 
de Vitry earlier than in any other European medieval version, 
that in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, 14 (cited by 
Oesterley) probably is later. The Barlaam version is contained to 
my knowledge only in the following medieev:J works : Jacques de 
Vitry; Vincent of Beauvais ; Gcsta Romanorum, 251; Brit. Mus., 



154 THE EXEMPLA OP JA.CQUES DE VITRY. 

MS., Add. 11,284. The story reappears in the Italian novelists with 
out the ethical tendency of Barlaam, see Boccaccio x., 1 ; Strapa- 
rola, xii., 4. Two versions in old French are in Jean de Condc, 
" Dis don roi et des hermittes," and in the Roman de Girart de 
Rosillon (see Kohler in Jahrbuch fur rom. und eng. Lit. N. F. ii., 
pp. 9, 14). For the story in general, see Benfey, Pantschatantra 
i., 407 and the various works on the sources of Shakespeare. 

There is another story which is often confused with the above, 
and of which there is a version in the Gesta Romanorum, 109. An 
avaricious person loses his money, which is found by a generous 
person who hesitates to return it, but finally encloses it in a pie or 
loaf, and makes two other similar pies or loaves filled with earth 
or bones, and asks the owner of the lost property to choose one of 
the pies or loaves. This story is found in Etienne de Bourbon, 
414 (p. 361) ; Wright s Latin Stories, 25 ; Cento Novette AnticJie, 
Testo Borghini (see D Ancona, Le Fonti del Novellino in Study di 
Critica e Storia Letteraria, Bologna, 1880, p. 345), see Oesterley s 
notes to Gesta Eomanorum, 109, and Benfey, Pantschatantra^ 1, 604. 

XLVIII. [fo. 46 ro ] Certain monks were enjoined to keep 
silence, and not even to talk by signs with the hands. They were 
so loquacious and curious that they broke the command, and 
conversed with each other by signs made with the feet. 

XLIX. [fo. 46 r ] Two brothers were brought up, one in a 
monastery, the other in the world. When they reached years of 
discretion, the one educated in the monastery knew more deceits 
and cavillings than the one reared in the world. 

L. [fo. 46 VO ] Some spendthrift monks, when reproved for their 
prodigal living by the procurator, replied that they intended to 
cultivate their lands, and enrich their fields, and pay their debts 
from the sale of their grain. All these resolves were forgotten on 
the morrow. 

LI. [fo. 46 VO ] An old woman, while carrying milk to market 
in an earthen vessel, began to consider in what way she could 
become rich. Reflecting that she might sell her milk for three 
pence (obolos), she thought she would buy with them a young 
hen, from whose eggp she would get many chickens, which she 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 155 

would sell and buy a pig. This she would fatten and sell and 
buy a foal, which she would rear until it was suitable to ride. 
And she began to say to herself, " I shall ride that horse and 
lead it to pasture and say to it, Io! Io! 5i "While she was 
thinking of these things she began to move her feet and heels as 
if she had spurs on them, clapped her hands for joy, so that by 
the motion of her feet and the clapping of her hands she broke 
the pitcher and the milk was spilled on the ground, and she was 
left with nothing in her hands. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii. 89 (La Fontaine, vii. 10) ; 
CEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, ii. p. 145. The 
extensive literature of this famous fable may best be consulted in 
Regnier, op. cit. ; Max Miiller, Chips from a German Workshop, 
London, 1875, vol. iv. p. 145 ; Benfey, PantscJiatantra, i. 499 ; 
A. Joly, Histoire de deux Fables de La Fontaine, leurs origines et 
leurs peregrinations, Paris, 1877 (the two fables treated are the 
one in the text, and vii. 1, " Les Animaux malades de la Peste,") ; 
Clouston s Popular Tales and Fictions, ii. 432. 

Jacques de Vitry s version has been published several times, by 
L. Moland, in his edition of La Fontaine, i. p. liv.; by Regnier, op. 
cit. ii. 498; and by Lecoy de la Marche in his lUtienne de Bourbon, 
p. 226, note 2. 

The oldest version of this fable, in which the principal actor is 
a milkmaid, was supposed by Max Miiller, op. cit. p. 170, to be the 
one in the Dialogus Creaturarum, Dial. 100; but the version in 
Jacques de Yitry (Etienne de Bourbon simply copied from him) 
is undoubtedly older, and must now be considered the oldest Euro 
pean version of this famous fable. 

Copious references to sources and imitations may be found in 
the works already cited, and in Kirchhof s WendunmutJi ed. 
Oesterley, 1, 171. 

The only mediaeval sermon-book versions which I know are 
those in Vitry, fitienne de Bourbon and the Dialogus Creaturarum. 

LIL [fo. 48 ro ] A lawyer who had usually been successful in his 
suits, became a monk and lost all the cases he was employed to 
try for the monastery. When the abbot and monks upraided him 
he explained his failures by saying that, while in the world, he 
did not fear to lie and so succeeded in his cases ; now because ho 



156 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

dared tell only the truth the contrary happened. After this he 
was allowed to remain peacefully in the cloister. 

This story is quoted from Jacques de Vitry, by fitienne de 
Bourbon, 442, (p. 382) and Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Morale, 
1316 (cited by Oesterley). 

It is also found in Bronryard s Summa Praedicantium, A, xiv, 
22 ; Wright, Latin Stories, p. 224, says : this story is found in 
MS. Arundel, No. 506, fo. 41 ; Scala Celi, fo. 7 V0 . Eecull de 
Eximplis, ccccxxi (" J. de V."). 

The story is often found in the great collections of Facetiae, 
to which references may be found in Oesterley s notes to Kirchhof s 
Wendunmuth, 1. 127, and Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, 127. To 
these may be added M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophies, p. 260. 

LIII. [fo. 48 VO ] A noble knight became a monk, and was sent 
to the fair to sell some old asses belonging to the monastery and 
buy young ones in their place. He tells intending purchasers 
the truth about the age of the asses and fails to sell them. On 
his return he was accused in chapter, but declared that he had 
forsaken in the world great possessions and many asses, and he 
was unwilling to lie for their asses and injure his soul by deceiving 
his neighbours. He was not again sent out of the monastery on 
secular business. 

This story, which resembles in principle LIL, is also found in 
fitienne de Bourbon, 443 (p. 382), quoted from Jacques de Vitry; 
Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Morale, 3, 7, 12, p. 1317 (cited by 
Oesterley) ; Wright, Latin Stories, 40 (MS. Arundel, No. 506, fo. 
41 VO ); Hollen, 191, cited by Oesterley, I have not been able 
to find; Fiore di Virtu, Naples, 1870, p. 80 (quoted from " Storia 
de Santi Padri"). Eecull de Eximplis, dxcv ("J. de V.") ; 
Other versions are mentioned in Oesterley s notes to Pauli s 
Schimpf und Ernst, 111, to which may be added Nicholas de 
Troyes, Grand Parangon des Nouvelles Nouvelles, xxxiv., and an in 
teresting modern French version in F. M. Luzel s Legendes Chre- 
tiennes de la Basse-Bretagne, Paris, 1881, i. p. 14, "La Vache de 
Saint Pierre." In this story, while Christ and the Apostles are 
on their journeying they settle down for a time in Brittany and 
keep house. Their cow, however, was constantly breaking into 
the fields of the neighbours and doing harm. It was decided to 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 157 

sell the cow, and St. Peter was sent with it to the fair. As, how. 
,ever, he told all intending purchasers of the cow s fault, he failed 
to sell her and returned home at sunset. 

"Notre Sauveur, en le voyant revenir lui demanda: Comment! 
tu n as done pas vendu la vache ? Comme vous le voyez, maitre. 
La f oire etait done bien mauvaise ? car cette vache est a bon marche 
pour vingt ecus. La foire etait assez bonne, et beaucoup de mar- 
chands out voulu m acheter la vache. Pourquoi done n a-t-elle 
pas ete vendue? Quand je leur disais qu elle est voleuse, ils s en 
allaient tous aussitot. Vieux sot! dans ce pays, on ne declare 
jamais les defauts d une bete en foire, avant qu elle poit vendue et 
que 1 on tienne son argent. Je ne savais pas cela, repondit saint 
Pierre, car si je 1 avais su j aurais bientot vendu ma vache." 

LIY. [fo. 48 V ] Fable of the cock which found a precious stone 
on the dunghill and cared nothing for it, but hastened after the 
rotten grain which lay near the pearl. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 81 (La Fontaine, i. 20) ; 
Oeuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Begnier, i. p. 118; Kirchhof s 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 3. 

This fable is also found in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, A. 
xxvi. 32. 

LV. [fo. 50 VO ] A man who had sinned in a bestial manner 
wished to do penance in like manner and so ate grass frequently 
every day. After a time he began to wonder to what order of 
angels one would belong who had done such penance. An angel 
answered him: "By such a life you do not deserve to belong to 
the order of the angels, but rather to the order of the asses." 



[fo. 50 VO ] There was once a priest who thought he sang 
well, although he had a horrible voice like an ass s. One day, 
while he was singing, a woman who heard him began to weep. 
The priest, thinking his sweet voice incited her to tears and 
devotion, sang the louder, and the woman wept the more. Then 
he asked the woman why she wept, and she said : " Sir, I am 
that wretched woman whose ass the wolf devoured the other 
day, and when I hear you singing, I remember that my ass was 
wont to sing so." 

This if the oldest version of this popular story, which still 



158 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

survives in our modern jest-books. The mediaeval versions are : 
Scala Celi, fo. 25 (quoted from Jacques de Vitry) ; Magnum 
Speculum Exemp. ed. Major, Douay, 1610, Cantus, ix., p. 91 (cites 
Hollen, " parte aestivali, serm. 4, littera H ") ; Eecull de Exemplis, 
xcix. (" J. de V."), and Bareleta, Sermones, Lyons, 1505, fo. 25 V0 . 
The modern versions are mentioned in Oesterley s notes to Pauli s 
Schimpf und Ernst, 576. I have been unable to verify his 
reference to Hollen s Preceptorium, Cologne, 1489, 110 ft . There is 
an old English version in Shakespeare Jest-Books, i., " Tales and 
Quicke Answeres," p. 45, xxxi. 

LVII. [fo. 51 VO ] A nun, with whom a prince fell violently in 
love, asked the cause of his passion. She was told that it was 
inspired by her beautiful eyes, whereupon she tore them out, and 
said : " Behold the eyes which he desires ; bear them to him 
that he may leave me in peace, and not cause me to lose my 
soul ! " 

The oldest version which I have seen of this story is in the 
Vitae Patrum, x., cap. 60 (ed. Migne, Patrol, vol. 74, p. 148). 
Etienne de Bourbon repeats the story twice (248, 500), the actors 
being Richard King of England, and a nun of a certain convent. 
Other versions are in Scala Celi, fo. 16 (" rex Anglie ") ; Speculum 
Exemplorum, Dist. ix., 23 (quoted from Jacques de Vitry) ; 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Douay, 1610, Virgo, xx. 
(from Jacques de Vitry) ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 256 (" el rey de 
Inglaterra enamordse de una monja del monesterio de sanct 
Emblay"), 314 (a king and a nun); Eecull de Eximplis, cxiv 
(" J. de V.") ; Fiore di Virtu, Naples, 1870, p. 109 (" Vita de 
santi Padri"). Other versions are mentioned in Oesterley s 
notes to Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, 11, two of whose citations, 
Hollen, 152 a , and Herolt, Serm. v. 14, I have been unable to find. 
Add to Oesterley s citations, Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, 
C. iii., 5. 

Mr. Clouston, in his Popular Tales and Fictions, Edinburgh, 
1887, vol. i. p. 35, says, "this is the well-known tale of St. 
Bridget (see Three Middle-Irish Homilies, by Whitley Stokes, 
p. 65) ; and it has its prototype in the great Indian story-book, 
entitled Katha Sarit Sagara Ocean of the Streams of Nar 
rative where it is related of a prince who abandoned his king 
dom, and adopted the life of a wandering hermit." 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 159 

LVTII. [fo. 51 VO ] Far different was the conduct of another 
nun whom the abbess hid from the pursuit of a noble knight. As 
he was on the point of departing, after a fruitless search, the nun 
began to cry " cucu," as children are wont to do when they hide 
and wish to be found. The wretched nun was derided and aban 
doned by the knight as soon as he had gratified his lust. 

This seems to be the oldest version of this story, which is also 
found in Etienne de Bourbon, 501 (p. 432) ; Bromyard, Summa 
Praedicantium, C. iii. 5 ; Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, 13, and addi 
tional references in Oesterley s notes. 

LIX. [fo. 53 ro ] Fable of the Flea and the Fever which talk 
over their lodgings of the night before. The flea spent it with 
an abbess, who cried out at the first bite and called her maid to 
search for the flea, which thus passed a wretched night. The 
fever, on the other hand, spent the night with a poor woman, who, 
as soon as she felt the fever, arose and went to wash clothes by 
the river. The fever was chilled and nearly drowned. The fol 
lowing night they determined to change abodes, with the most 
satisfactory results. The poor woman slept so soundly that the 
flea feasted undisturbed all night, while the fever had a warm and 
comfortable lodging in the bed of the abbess 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i.,p. 191 (La Fontaine, iii., 
8) ; (Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i., 225. 

To the references in Robert and Regnier may be added those of 
K. Godeke in his article, Asinus Vulgi, in Orient und Occident,!., 
p. 543 (9). The only sermon-book version is that in Scala Celi, 
fo. 75 ro , quoted from Jaques de Yitry. 

This fable is found in Boner s Edelstein, ed. Pfeiffer, Leipzig, 
1844, No. 48. See R. Gottschick in ZeitscJirift filr deutsche PJiilo- 
logie, vol. xi., 1880, p. 324, " Quellen zu einigen Fabeln Boners," 
from which I quote the following : " Jacob Grimm (MonatsbericJite 
der Berliner Akademie, 1851, p. 99 103) thought he had found the 
source of Boner, ISTo. 48, in Petrarch s fable of the Spider and the 
Gout (Letters, iii. 13) ; later (Germania, ii., p. 378, 1857) he con 
sidered the Indian fable of the Flea and the Louse at the fat 
Prelate s a connecting link between Petrarch and Boner. Finally, 
Mulleiihof (Haupt s ZeitscJirift, xiii., p. 320, 1867) published a 
poem byPaulus Diaconus (died at the end of the eighth century), 
" Fabula Podagrae et Pulicis," which in the main corresponds to 



160 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Boner s fable. Now, however, the Scala Geli offers a story of 
" pulex et febris," which is more closely connected with Boner, 
and names Jacques de Vitry as authority." 

LX. [fo. 53 VO ] A nun in love with a young man attempts to 
leave her convent, but is prevented by the Virgin, before whose 
image she has to pass, and which she was always accustomed to 
reverence. At length she managed to pass through the church in 
such a way as not to go before the image of the Virgin. This 
gives the devil power over her, and she leaves the convent and 
gives herself up to a life of sin. 

This exemplum is an incomplete version of the story technically 
called La Nonne Enlevee. The missing part of the story recounts 
the repentance of the sinner, her return to the convent, and her 
discovery that the Virgin had taken her place and performed her 
duties, so that her absence had never been remarked. 

For the complete story, see Caesar of Heisterbach, Dial. Miraculo- 
rum,ed. Strange, vii., 34 ; Miracles de Notre Dame, i., 310 (Societe 
des Anciens Textes Fran9ais) ; Dunlop, ed. Liebrecht, p. 307 (Anm. 
389, c.) ; Wright s Latin Stories, 106 (" from a MS. in private 
hands ")* ; Mielot, Miracles de Nostre Dame, Roxburghe Club, 1885, 
Nos. xliv., xlix. ; Mussafia, Studien zu den Mittelalterlichen Marien- 
legenden, i., Vienna, 1887, p. 73 (Paris, Bib. Nat., MS., Lat. 18,134, 
xiii., cent ; the first part of the story corresponds quite closely to 
Jacques de Vitry s). 

Etienne de Bourbon, 91 (p. 84) tells a somewhat similar story of 
a monk who was tempted to leave his monastery, but on returning 
to ask permission from the image of the Virgin, he was so over 
come with compunction that his temptation vanished. This story 
is copied from Etienne de Bourbon by Martinus Polonus, Sermones, 
Strasburg, 1484, Promptuarium, cap. x. D. 

LXI. [fo. 55 VO ] A Christian virgin was condemned to the 
brothel for refusing to sacrifice to idols. A certain nobleman 
pitying her, afforded her a means of escape by lending her his 
cloak. 

This story is found in Ambrose, De Virginibus, lib. 2, cap. 4 
(Migne, Patrol, vol. xvi., p. 212). The virgin s name was Theodora, 

* Mr. G. F. Warner, in his note to Mielot, Ixix., says Wright s story was 
printed from Egert. MS. 1117, fo. 173, 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 161 

and her acta may be found in the Bollaiidists (April), and in Acta 
Martyrum P. T. Buinart Opera ac Studio, Ratisbon, 1859, p. 428. 
Herolfc, Promptuarium Exemplorum, V., xviii., cites Ambrose as his 
authority. 

LXII. [fo. 55 VO ] A man condemned to death was led out into a 
wood to be hanged. The executioners said, " We must hang you, 
as we have been ordered to do. However, we will do you this 
favour, that you may choose the tree on which to be hanged." 
They led the man from tree to tree, but he could never find one to 
his liking. 

Compare No. CCLXXXV. 

A similar story is found in Astuzie sottilissime di Bertoldo, 
Florence, 110 date, p. 56 (see Guerrini, La Vita e le Opere di G. C. 
Croce, Bologna, 1879, p. 251); Libro de los Enxemplos, lix. (Ixxx., 
a similar story of a man condemned to have his eyes put out who 
cannot find a nail that pleases him to put them out with). Other 
references will be found in Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oester- 
ley, 283. 

The story is also found in Brit. Mus. Harl. MS. 463, fo. 23 b, 
which MS., as has already been shown in the introduction, is a 
collection of Jacques de Vitry s Exempla. There is also an old 
English version in Shakespeare Jest-Books, ii., " The Jests of Scogin," 
p. 152. 



LX1II. [fo. 5G VO ] A confessor, in hearing a certain person s 
sins, stopped his nose. The penitent said : " If you stop your 
nose for the sins which I have told you of, how can you endure 
the greater ones which I have committed ? Perchance their 
stench will suffocate you," and he went away offended. 

Another confessor was wont to spit in the face of sinners and 
revile them, instead of attracting them by his compassion. 

LXIV. [Fo. 57 VO ] Saint Ambrose tells of a Christian virgin 
who was condemned to the brothel for refusing to sacrifice to idols. 
A lion entered the city and delivered the virgin, at her command 
harming no one. 

I have not been able to find this story in Ambrose s works. 
Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, V. xvii., gives it 



162 



THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 



on the authority of Ambrose. The author of the Scala Celi, 
fo. 168 ro , cites as his authority Jhero, who, I presume, is Jerome. 

LXV. [fo. 57 VO ] Ambrose tells us that a matron once^asked an 
abbess to lend her one of the nuns for a time. The one who was 
given her was so gentle and kind that she did not try the matron s 
patience, who requested the abbess to send her the one who was 
the most vexatious in the convent. The abbess did so, and at the 
end of the year the matron said that she had never cultivated her 
patience so much in her life, and asked that the quarrelsome nun 
be left with her always. 

This story is found in the Vitae Patrum, lib. x. cap. 206 (Migne, 
Patrol vol. 74, p. 233). 

It is also found in Herolt (Discipulus) Sermones de Tern/pore, 
Ixvii., C. (" Collationes Patrum, li, xii.") ; Magnum Speculum Exem- 
plorum, ed. Major, Patientia, iv. (" Cassianus, Collat. 18, cap. 
14 "). An Italian version is in Corona de Monad, Prato, 1862, p. 51. 

LXVI. [fo. 59 TO ] Fable of the poor man who earned with his 
own hand a modest living, and when the day was done sang and 
rejoiced in his cabin with his wife and then slept happy and 
secure. His wealthy neighbours, on the contrary, were always 
immersed in care and anxiety, and never sang. They wondered 
at the joy of the poor man, and even complained that with his 
singing he would not let them sleep. One of them, a very rich 
man, said : " I will make him lose his desire to rejoice and sing." 
Then after he had concealed the others in a place from which they 
could see what happened, he threw a bag of money before the poor 
man s door while he was absent. On his return he found it, and 
hid it. That night he began to be anxious and careworn, fearing 
least the money should be stolen from him, or he should be 
accused of theft, and did not rejoice or sing with his wife as he 
was wont to do. After a time the rich man and his neighbours 
began to ask him what had made him so thin and sad. He did 
not dare, at first, to confess the truth, but after the rich man had 
told him he knew his secret, he exclaimed: "Take back your 
money that I may rejoice and sing as I was accustomed to do." 

It is possible, but hardly probable that this fable is connected 
with the story of Mena and Philip in Horace s Epistles, I., 7, v. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 163 

46 98, or with the anecdote of Anacreon, who received five 
talents from Polycrates, Tyrant of Samos, lost his sleep and 
hastened to return the money saying, it was not worth the care it 
cost him (Florilegium of Stobaeus ed. Gaisford, tit., xciii., No. 25, 
cited by H. Regnier.) The story, in its present form, was probably 
original with Jacques de Vitry, and was the base of a large 
number of mediaeval and modern imitations. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii. p. 118 (La Fontaine, viii., 
2) ; (Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, ii., 215 ; Kirch- 
hof s Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 2, 137. 

This story is told very much in the same way by iStienne de 
Bourbon, 409 (p. 357). The rich man hangs a purse of money on 
the poor man s door early in the morning. The poor man finds 
it, and, fearing lest his wife or some one else will rob him of it, he 
pretends to be suffering in his back and keeps his bed, concealing 
the money under it. The rich man asks the wife what is the 
matter with her husband, that he no longer sings. She tells the 
rich man that her husband is ill, and the former says he will go 
and cure him. So he went to the poor man s house, asked for his 
money, obtained it, and restored to him " quies, pristina sanitas et 
jocunditas cum sompno." The version in Wright s Latin Stories, 
70. (MS. Arundel, No. 506, fo. 48 ro ) follows Jacques de Vitry 
closely. A brief version is found in Bareleta, Sermones, Lyons, 
1505, fo. lxxix vo , who cites as his authority the Liber de Septem 
Lonis, i.e. Etienne de Bourbon. 

Other medieval versions are : Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, 
D. xi., 28 (very brief and bald) ; Speculum Exemplorum, Stras- 
burg, 1487, Dist., ix., 60 (probably from Etienne de Bourbon) ; 
Herolt (Discipulus), Promptuarium Exemplar urn, T. viii. (follows 
Jacques de Vitry s version) ; Scala Celi, fo. 80 b . (a brief form of de 
Vitry) ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Lives, ii. 
(Etienne de Bourbon, Collector Speculi Jiujus is cited, as is usually 
the case when the story is taken from the older Speculum Exem 
plorum); Recull de Eximplis, ccxxxiv. (" J. de V."). The modern 
versions will be found in Oesterley s notes to Kirchhof cited 
above, where is also a reference to Vincent of Beauvais (1, 3, 104, 
p. 572, cp. p. 1257). 

LXVII. [fo. 59] The abbot of a rich but illiberal monastery 



: 
, 



164 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITJBY. 

filled the offices with men harsh and unkind like himself. One 
day a minstrel (joculator) came there and was rudely received by 
the porter, who gave him black bread and vegetables, with salt 
and water, and a hard and dirty bed. "When he departed the next 
day he reflected how he could avenge himself on the mean porter, 
and, happening to meet the abbot, he told him that the brother 
who had charge of the hospice had given him a splendid reception 
the previous night, with a rich banquet and large fire ; and upon 
his departure had bestowed upon him a pair of shoes and thongs 
and a knife. The abbot returned in rage to the monastery, and 
had the supposed liberal officer beaten and expelled from his office, 
and one whom he believed to be worse put in his stead. 

This story is found in Wright s Latin Stories, 39., De Halo 
Ablate (MS. Arundel, No. 506, fo. 41 ro ), and is probably taken 
from Jacques de Vitry. The Scala Cell, fo. 104, cites Jacques de 
Vitry as authority for a very condensed version. The same 
authority is cited in Eecull de Eximplis, cccix. The story is also 
found in Pauli s Scliimpf und Ernst, 60. Oesterley cites only 
Scala Celi and Hans Sachs, 2, 4, 125. 

LXVIII. [fo. 61 VO ] An abbot visited a wicked captain of 
robbers, and persuaded him to return with him to the monastery, 
where he could live without the necessity of plying his infamous 
trade. The robber, after he had observed the life of the monks 
for some days, asked what evil they had committed to do such 
penance. When he learned that they had done no wrong, his 
x heart was touched, and he was converted and assumed the habit. 

This story is copied from Jacques de Vitry by Etienne de 
Bourbon, 258 (p. 219). The editor, Lecoy de La Marche, says 
that a story very like this, and which, perhaps, is the original 
source, is told by Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica, iii. 23, 
from the apocryphal acts of St. John. The Scala Celi, fo. 56, 
repeats the story from Jacques de Vitry, and the Magnum Spe 
culum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Conversio, xxxiii., copies it from the 
Scala Celi ("Joannes Aegidius, alius Junior"). Bromyard, 
Summa Praedicantium, E. vii. 2, condenses Jacques de Vitry. 
The version given by Wright, in his Latin Stories, 149 (MS. 
Arundel, No. 506, fo. 48 VO ), is evidently from Jacques de Vitry, 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 165 

as is also the Catalan version in Recull de Eximplis (" segons quo 
recompta Jacme de Uitriaco"). 

There is an Italian version in Corona de Monad, ed. D. Casimiro 
Stolfi, Prato, 1862, p. 21. 

LXIX. [fo. 62 ro ] A poor squire was captured in war, and 
begged his captor to let him go in search of ransom, offering as 
security God and his own bond. He was released, and went and 
sold all his property, but could not reach his creditor on the 
appointed day. The latter was riding out, and saw a monk 
riding a very fine palfrey with worldly pomp. " Whose man are 
you ? " he asked. The monk replied, " I have no other master 
but God." Then the former said : " Your master is my surety, 
and I wish you to make satisfaction for him," and took his horse. 
Soon after, the squire returned with his ransom, which his captor 
refused to accept, saying : " You gave me as security, God, and I 
took from one of his servants this horse in discharge of your debt." 

There is a brief version of this story in Scala Celi, fo. 161 VO , 
attributed to the Speculum Exemplorum, where I have been unable 
to find it, smdin Recull de Eximplis, cccclx. (" J. de V."). It is the 
subject of the first four fyttes of " A Lytell Geste of Eobyn 
Hode," English, and Scottish Ballads, edited by F. J. Child, 
Boston, 1864, vol. v., pp. 44 93. The story is also found in 
Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 60, where other references 
may be found. A better version of the " Geste of Bobyn Hode " 
may now be found in The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, 
edited by F. J. Child, Part v., p. 39 (see note, p. 54). 

LXX. [fo. 62 VO ] A certain abbot before his promotion fasted on 
bread and water, and ate sparingly of meat and fish. When he was 
made abbot he began to eat large fishes, and when he was rebuked 
for so sudden a change, he answered, " I fasted and ate small 
fishes a long time so that I might some day eat large ones." 

The only version of this story which I have been able to find 
is that in Wright s Latin Stories, 98 (MS. Arundel, No. 506, 
fo. 41.) 

LXXI. [fo. 63 VO ] A dormouse wanted to enter a cloister and 

N 



166 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

be saved. In the first one he came to he saw a large rat hanging 
in a sling (balista), and said : " What are you doing here " ? The 
rat answered, " Don t you see that I am hanging on the cross and 
doing penance ? " The dormouse replied, " This cloister does not 
please me, it seems too strict and severe." In the next one the 
dormouse saw another rat in an iron trap, and received the same 
answer. The dormouse thought that cloister too narrow, and its 
discipline too strict. A little further on he saw many rats running 
about a larder, and eating as much meat as they wished. This 
monastery pleased the dormouse, and he wished to remain there 
and do his penance. 

The only other version of this story which I have seen is in 
Pauli s ScUmpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 282. Oesterley gives 
but one reference, Geiler von Keisersberg, Das Evangelibucli, 
Strasburg, 1515, 208, sign. mij. col. 1. As Pauli s work was not 
finished until 1519, he may have copied Geiler, who in turn may 
have taken his version from Jacques de Vitry. 



LXXII. [fo. 65 ro ] A robber is willing to accept from a hermit 
no other penance than to bow and repeat the Lord s Prayer when 
ever he sees a cross by the roadside. Shortly after leaving the 
hermit s cell the robber is pursued by the relatives of one whom he 
had killed. He takes to flight, but stopping to do the penance 
enjoined is captured and put to death. The hermit sees the angel 
of God bearing his soul to Heaven, and begins to murmur at this 
divine judgment, and determines to return to the world. The 
devil, fearing lest he may come to himself and repent, places an 
obstacle in the road over which the hermit falls and breaks his 
neck, and his soul goes to hell. 

A somewhat condensed version of this story is found in Herolt 
(Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, M. xxv., and the complete 
story in the same author s Sermones, xlix. R. The same version is 
found in Fiore di Virtu, Naples, 1870, p. 92, where it is attributed 
to the Vita de Santi Padri. 

The principal donnee of this story is found in several legends in 
circulation among the people of Brittany, see F. M. Luzel, Legendes 
Chrvtiennes de la Basse-Bretagne, vol i., pp. 175, 187, 204, 209. In 
the first two there are two brothers, one a brigand and the other a 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 167 

hermit. The former is saved, and the latter damned, for his 
pride. 

LXXIII. [fo. 65 ro ] Fable of the debate of the Members and 
the Stomach. 

Fables Inedites par A. 0. M. Robert, i., p. 169 (La Fontaine, iii., 2) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine par H. Regnier i., 205 ; Pauli, Schimpf 
und Ernst, ed. Oesterley 399 ; Benfey, PantscJiatantra i., 538. 

This fable is found in Brit. Mus., MS., Harl. 463, fo. 1 ; Brom- 
yard, Summa Praedicantium, R. v. 32; ScalaCeli,fo. 40 ("Legitur 
in Libro de septem donis spiritus sancti quod papa Alexander in 
quodam sermone dixit.") Oesterley also cites Vincent of Beauvais, 
Speculum Morale, 1504 ; Speculum Historiale, 3, 7 (Hervieux, Fabu- 
listes Latins, ii., 243) ; Speculum Doctrinale, 4, 122 ; and Pelbartus, 
Serm. de Temp, aestiv. 20, J. 

LXXIV. [fo. 66 VO ] St. Anthony, when overcome with ennui 
in the desert, saw an angel praying for a time and labouring for 
a time, and saying to himself, "Thus do, and thou shalt be 
saved." 

Vitae Patrum, iii. 105; v. 7, 1 (Migne, Patrol vol. 73, pp. 780, 
894), from which it is taken in the Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, 
ed. Major, Angelus, iii. An Italian version is in Corona de Monad] 
Prato, 1862, p. 180. 

LXXV. [fo. 67 ro ] St. Macharius in the desert saw a devil 
with a tunic covered with phials. He told the saint that he was 
going to visit the monks in the desert, and give them to drink of 
the various vices with which the phials were filled. Saint Anthony 
adjured him to return, and learned that one monk had drained 
all the phials, the others bravely resisting the temptations of the 
enemy. 

Vitae Patrum, iii. 61 ; v. 18, 9 ; vii. 1, 8 (Migne, Patrol, vol 73 
pp. 769, 981, 1027). 

Brit. Mus. MS. Add. 11,284, fo. 26; MS. Harl. 463, fo 1 
col. 2. 

The story is found in Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exem- 
plorum T, xiv. (" Vitae Patrum ") ; Magnum Speculum Exem- 
plorum, ed. Major, Daemon, x. (" Vitae Patrum ") ; Libro de los 
Enxemplos, xl. 

N 2 



168 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

LXXVI. [fo. 67 ro ] A father proposed to visit his son, who 
was a hermit in the desert. A demon assumed the form of a good 
angel, and told the son to beware of the devil, who was going to 
visit him the next day in the form of his father, and advised him 
to have an axe ready to attack him with, so that he would not 
annoy him again. The son followed this advice, and killed his 
father. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 1, col. 2. 

The only version of this story which I have seen is in Libro de 
los Enxemplos, xvi. 

LXXVII. [fo. 68 VO ] Two poor men, one humble and the other 
proud, went to beg for grain at the threshing floor. The humble 
beggar had a small sack, and no one refused to fill it for him. 
The proud beggar, on the other hand, took a big bag, which 
frightened away alms-givers. 

Brit, Mus. MS. Harl. 268, fo. 167 b ; 463, fo. 1 b, col. 2 (printed 
in Wright s Latin Stories, 2). 

Versions are found in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, S, iii, 
9 ; Scala Geli, fo. 149 (from Jacques de Yitry) ; Eecull de Eximplis, 
dxxxv. (" J. de V.") ; Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 607. 
Pauli tells the story of two beggar- students. The sacks were of 
the same size, but one student took small gifts, the other not. 

LXXVIII. [fo. 68 VO ] A certain king and one of his officers 
went about the city at night to see what was done there. Through 
an opening in a wall they looked into a cellar, and saw a poor 
man clothed in rags, and his wife singing and dancing and prais 
ing him. The king wondered at the sight which the officer pro 
ceeded to explain to him allegorically, comparing the earthly and 
heavenly life. Those who love the latter deem the former, with 
its palaces and fine clothing, as dung. 

Barlaam and Josaphat, cap. xvi. (trans. Billius in Vitae Patrum, 
Migne, Patrol, vol. 73, p. 503 ; trans. Liebrecht, p. 112 ; ed. 
Boissonade, p. 133.) 

Harl. MS. 463, fo. 16, col. 2 (Wright s Latin Stories, 4.) ; Libro 
de los Enxemplos, cclxxxviii. 

LXXIX. [fo. 69 VO ] We read in the Lives of the Fathers of a 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 169 

brother who was so obedient that at the prior s call he did not 
pause to finish the letter he had begun. 

The name of the obedient monk was Mark, and the letter he left 
unfinished was 0, as we learn from the source of Jaques de Vitry e 
story, the Vitae Patrum, iii., 143 ; v. 14, 5 (Migne, Patrol, 73, pp, 
788, 948). This story is copied from the Vitae Patrum by Herolt 
(Discipulus), Promptuariam Exemplorum, 0, 4; Magnum Speculum 
Exemp 7 orum, ed. Major, Obedientia, vii. 

LXXX. [fo. 71 ro ] Some Dominicans heard the confessions of 
the nuns and sisters of various convents, and judging from the 
frailties of some that all were wicked, they openly proclaimed this 
in their preaching to the scandal of many. 

LXXX1. [fo. 71 ro ] One of the fathers rudely reproved a young 
man who was tempted by the flesh. The young man in conse 
quence left the desert to return to the world. On the way, how 
ever, he met a pious abbot, to whom he told his story. The abbot 
prayed that the young man s temptation might be diverted to the 
father who had harshly reproved him. The father was straight 
way tempted by a demon, in the form of an Ethiopian, who shot 
darts at him. He in turn purposes to return to the world, but the 
abbot meets him and reproves him for his impatience with the 
young man. 

The story is told at considerable length in the Vitae Patrum, 
v., 5, 4 (Migne, Patrol 73, p. 874), and is taken from the Colla- 
tiones of Johannes Cassianus ii., 13. The Magnum Speculum 
Exemplorum, ed. Major, Confessio, ii., and Scala Celi, fo. 48 VO , cite 
the Vitae Patrum. The English version (and the French on 
which it is based) in Roberd of Brunne s Handlyng Synne, 
Roxburghe Club, 1862, p. 262, cites St. Gregory. 

The story is also found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 2. 

LXXXII. [fo. 71 ro ] A certain king had no sons for a time, but 
at last one is born to him of such a disposition that the physicians 
tell the father that if he sees the sun or fire within ten years he 
will become blind. The prince is brought up in a cave with his 
nurses for ten years, and knew nothing of worldly things. At the 
expiration of the ten years the king commands him to be shown 



170 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

all the things in the world according to their kind men, women, 
horses, gold, silver, precious stones, and everything that can de 
light the eye. The boy asked the name of each, and when he 
came to the women, one of the king s servants said in jest: 
" These are demons seducing men." When the king asked the 
boy what he most liked of all that he had seen, he replied : " I 
like those demons who seduce men better than all else that I have 
seen." 

The source of this story is the Apologue in Barlaam and Josa- 
phat, cap, xxix. (Boissonade, p. 267 ; trans. Liebrecht, p. 220 ; 
trans. Billius, Vitae Patrum, cap. xxx., Migne, Patrol 73, p. 561). 

The somewhat copious literature of this story, made famous by 
Boccaccio s use of it in the Decameron (Introd. to IV. Day), may 
best be found in D Ancona s article on the Le Fonti del Novellino, 
first printed in the Romania, vol. iii., and afterwards in Studj di 
Critica e Storia Letteraria, Bologna, 1880, p. 307 ; Landau, Die 
Quellen des Dekameron, 2nd ed., Stuttgart, 1884, p. 223; F. W. V. 
Schmidt, Beitrdge zur Geschichte der romantisclien Poesie, Berlin, 
1818, p. 27 ; Dunlop, ed. Liebrecht, pp. 230, 462 ; Von der Hagen, 
Gesammtdbenteuer, Stuttgart, 1850, ii., vii. D Ancona cites only : 
Wright Latin Stories, 3 (Harl. MS., 463, fo. 2 ro ), comp. 78 ; Fiore 
di Virtu (in Zambrini, Libro di Novelle, Bologna, 1868, p. 49), 
Naples, 1870, p. 112 (attributed to " Storie di Roma . . . impera- 
dore Teodosio "), and Libro de Los Enxemplos, ccxxxi. (not a very 
close parallel, like Wright s, 78). 

To the above references may be added: Scala Celi, fo. 15 V (cites 
Barlaam and Josaphaf); and Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium 
Exemplorum, L, xxiv. 

LXXXIII. [fo. 72 ro ] The nicticorax is a nocturnal bird, which 
sees at night, and in the day-time is blind to the good in others, 
but willingly sees their evil qualities. 

The nicticorax is the bird mentioned in Psalms, cii. 6, " owl of 
the desert " (Vulgate, 101, 7, " factus sum sicut" nycticorax in 
domicilio"; Septuagint, w%%opa). ^his bird is mentioned 
in the mediaeval Beast-Books, see Dr. Grustav Heider, Physiologus, 
Vienna, 1851, p. 40. " Nocticorax inmunda avis est et magis 
tenebras amat quam lucem " ; The Bestiary of Philippe de Thaun, 
in T. Wright s Popular Treatises on Science, London, 1841, p. 123 ; 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 171 

Fritz Hommel, Die Aethiopisclie Uebersetzung des Physiologus, 
Leipzig, 1877, p. 50 ; Barthol. de Glanvilla, De Proprietatibus 
Herum, Strasburg, 1505, Lib. xii. 27. 

LXXXIV. [fo. 72 VO ] A person who, while in the world, had 
never used a bolster, when he assumed the habit, kept the whole 
monastery awake one night with his complaints, because the 
bolster had been removed for a time to wash the covering. 

LXXXV. [fo. 73 ro ] A crusader, weakened by immoderate 
fasting, was twice thrown from his horse by the blow of the 
enemy s lance. His brother twice saved him from death, and 
finally blaming him for his immoderate fasting, said : "Sir 
Bread-and- Water, take care of yourself, for if you fall again I 
shall not raise you up." He called him Bread- and- Water, be 
cause, frequently fasting on these, he had weakened his body, 
and rendered it unfit for fighting. 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 188 (p. 164). It is also found in 
Brit, Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 2 b. 

LXXXVI. [fo. 73 ro ] During the siege of Ascalon, a number 
of Templars were captured by the Saracens, and hanged above 
the city gate. When the king of Jerusalem, and the other 
Templars, saw this, they were about to relinquish the siege in 
despair, but were dissuaded from this by an eminent man of 
great faith, Master of the Templars, who declared that their 
martyred brethren had preceded them, and gone to God, in order 
to deliver the city to them. The result proved the truth of this, 
for the city was captured, contrary to all hope, two days later. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, f. 2 b, col. 2. 

LXXXYII. [fo. 73 ro ] In the early clays of the order, the 
Templars were considered saints by all, hence the Saracens hated 
them beyond measure, and while they held the other Crusaders 
for ransom, they killed the Templars. A noble knight from 
France, who had crossed the sea on a pilgrimage, was captured, 
together with some Templars, and as he was bald and bearded he 
w as taken for one too. After the Templars were put to death, 
the Saracens said to him : " You are a Templar." He denied it ? 



172 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

but they insisted upon it, whereupon, fired with zeal for the faith, 
he exclaimed: " In the name of the Lord, I am a Templar," and 
was slain like the rest. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 3. 

LXXXVIII. [fo. 73 VO ] A certain rich man feared greatly his 
lord, and sending secretly his property into another country, fled 
himself on a bay horse, taking with him a lad to guide the horse 
and point out the way. The lord sent a servant in pursuit on a 
black horse, and another on a white one ; but the fugitive easily 
outrides them. When the lad tells his master that another is pur 
suing them on a bay horse, the fugitive directs him to guide the 
horse into a stony path and through the water into a miry road. 
They escape : and the horses of different colors are explained by 
Jacques de Vitry as adversity, prosperity, and the reputation of 
sanctity with which the devil tempts man. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 3 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 69). 

LXXXIX. [fo. 75 ro ] A soldier of Christ on the eve of battle 
addressed his steed as follows : " black horse, good companion 
of mine, many a good day s work have I done mounting and riding 
thee, but this day s work shall surpass all others, for to-day thou 
shalt carry me to eternal life." When he had said this, he slew 
many Saracens, and at length fell himself, crowned with happy 
martyrdom. 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 104 (p. 92), and probably taken 
from him by Scala Celi, fo. 71. It is also found in Brit. Mus. 
MS. Harl. 463, fo. 3 b. 

XC. [fo. 75 VO ] A Templar took a tremendous leap with his 
horse from a high rock into the sea in order to escape from the 
Saracens. The horse bore him safely to land, and then fell dead. 
The spot is known as the " Templar s Leap," and is near the city 
of Acre. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 3 b. (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 5). 

XCI. [fo. 75 VO ] Fable of the Fox, the Crow and the Cheese. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 173 

Fables Ine dites, par A. C. M. Robert, i, 5 (La Fontaine i, 2) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier i, 61 ; Kirchhof s 
WendunmutTi, ed. Oesterley, 7, 30. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, 216 ; Babrius, 77 ; Phasdrus i., 
13; Romulus i, 14) was frequently used for the purpose of 
illustration in the sermon-books, etc., of the middle ages. Versions 
may be found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale (in 
Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii. 237 ; Oesterley cites the 
Speculum Doctrinale, 4, 117) ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, 
Gr, ii., 15 ; Scala Geli, fo. 6 ; Dialogue Creaturarum ed. Graesse, 
Dial. 61 ; Libro de los Enxemplos in Romania, vii. p. 489, No. 11 ; 
Fiore di Virtu, Naples, 1870, p. 58. There is also a version in 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 3 b, col. 2. 

XCII. [fo. 76 VO ] Saint Martin once exchanged his coat for a 
poor man s, and while celebrating mass the short sleeves were 
miraculously lengthened by the addition of gold embroidered ones, 
which covered his arms down to the hands. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 4. I have been unable to find 
this miracle in the lives of St. Martin which I have examined. 

XCIII. [fo. 76 VO ] In the winter a noble lady retired to the 
belfrey of the church to bestow her undergarment upon a poor 
woman whom she had noticed suffering from the cold. During 
the lady s absence the priest was miraculously prevented from 
continuing the mass, As soon as she appeared he was able to 
finish the service. 

This story is quoted by Etienne de Bourbon, 151 (p. 128) with 
a slight change, the lady gives her garment to a poor man. 
This story is found in Brit. Mus. MS., Harl. 463, fo. 4, col. 2. 
There are also versions in Scala Geli, fo. 83, and in Novellette, 
Esempi Morali e Apologhi di San Bernardino da Siena (Scelta di 
Curiosita letterarie, etc. Bologna, 1868, Disp. xcvii.) p. 76. 

XCIV. [fo. 77 ro ] Theobald, Count of Champagne, was wont to 
bestow alms upon the poor with his own hand, and was in the 
habit of visiting a certain leper who lived outside of the town 
called Sezenna. Now the leper died, and some time after the 
Count returned to the town and went to visit the leper as usual, 



174 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

asking Mm how he was : lie replied, " Well, by the grace of God 
never was I better." Presently, some citizens of the aforesaid 
town came up and asked the count s servants where he was, and 
said that the leper had been dead and buried a month before. 
The count was amazed when he heard this and returned to the 
leper s hut but did not find him. The Lord, however, filled the 
air with an odour of great sweetness to show how pleasing to him 
is pity. 

Cited by ^Etienne de Bourbon, 150, (p. 127), and in Brit. Mus. 
MS. Harl. 463, fo. 4 b. 

This story is also told by Thomas of Chantimpre (Cantipra- 
tanus), in his Bonum Universale de Apibus Thomce Cantipratani 
Miraculorum et exemplorum memorabilium sui temporis Libri duo, 
Douay, 1605, Lib. ii, cap. xxv, 15 ; and by Caesar of Heisterbach, 
Dialogus Miraculorurn, ed. Strange, Cologne, 1851, Dist. viii., cap. 
xxxi (vol. ii., p. 105.) 

XCV. [fo. 77 ro ] A noble lady whose husband loathed lepers, 
and would not permit them to enter the enclosure of his abode, 
received one into her house during her husband s absence, and 
had him placed in her bed. The husband returned suddenly, and 
entering the chamber found only a sweet odour. The wife, who 
had feared the leper s death rather than her own at the hands 
of her angry husband, confessed the truth to him. He was 
converted, and led as religious a life henceforth as his wife. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 154 (p. 131) gives this story somewhat 
differently on the authority of Greoffroi de Blevex, mentioning 
that it was also found in Jacques de Yitry. It is also in Brit. 
Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 5, and MS. 11,284, fo. 41 b (J. de Y. 
cited). 

There are versions in Scala Celi, fo. 39 VO (" refert Jacobus de 
Yitriaco "), Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, M. 
xxxi. ("Arnoldus in Narratorio," i.e. Arnoldus Greilhoven de 
Roterodainis, Gnotosolitus sive Speculum Conscientiae, Brussels, 
1476) ; Thomas Cantipratanus, op. cit. ii. 25, 13 (p. 252), where 
the story is told of Ada de Bolemcir ; Magnum Speculum Exem- 
plortim, ed. Major, Hospitalitas, v. (from Thomas Cantipratanus). 
The Etienne de Bourbon version is also found in Magnum Speculum 
Exemplorum, ed. Major, Misericordia in Pauperes, xvi. (" collector 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 175 

hujus Speculi"). Jacques de Vitry s version is repeated with 
acknowledgment of source in Eecull de Eximplis, cxxxviii. 

/XOVlJ[fo. 77 VO ] A certain bishop preached that he who gave 
all his goods to the poor would receive a hundredfold. A rich 
man followed this precept and died. The son demanded the 
father s property from the bishop, who answered, " Let us go to 
your father." They opened the tomb, and in the dead man s 
hand they found a paper on which was written that he had 
received not only the money which he had deposited in the bishop s 
hands, but a hundredfold more. 

This story is told somewhat differently by Etienne de Bourbon, 
144 (p. 122). A Saracen is converted, and gives his goods to the 
poor. After his death his sons bring the bishop before a Saracen 
judge. The bishop declared that the deceased received his reward 
in the next world, and took his accusers to the grave and asked 
the dead man whether the promise had been kept. The dead man 
answered in the hearing of all, " I have received a hundredfold, 
and have eternal life." Etienne de Bourbon adds that some say 
letters were found in the hand of the deceased bearing this 
purport. The story is in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, f o. 5 b ; Scala 
Celi, fo. 81 VO ; Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, 
E. xiii. (" Arnoldus," i. e. Arnol. Greilhoven de Eoterodamis) ; 
Libra de los Enxemplos, cclxxxiii. ; Eecull de Eximplis, cclx. 
("J.deV.") 

A somewhat similar story is told in Corona de* Monad, Prato, 
1862, p. 34. A philosopher is converted and gives 300 florins to 
the bishop for the poor. The bishop gives him a certificate that 
God will reward him a hundredfold in the next life. This is 
buried with him. The third day he appeared to the bishop, and 
said he had received his money with interest, and they would 
find this statement in writing at the foot of the document interred 
with him. They opened the grave, and found the writing as 
stated in the vision. 

XCVII. [fo. 79 ro ] Charity of John of Alexandria (Johannes 
JEleemosynarius) , who bestowed upon the poor whatever the Lord 
gave him. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 5 b, col. 2. 



176 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

XCVIII. [fo. 79 ro ] A hermit gave away all lie had, and when 
one asked him who had despoiled him, answered : " This copy of 
the Gospel, which teaches us to give all things to the poor." 
Some one said : " How have you given all to the poor who still 
have this ? " Straightway he sold that, and gave the money to 
the poor. 

Vitae Patrum, Lib. i., Vita Sancti Joannis Eleemosynarii, cap. 
xxii. (Migne, Patrol, vol. 73, p. 359). The story is repeated from 
this source in the Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, 
Eleemosyna, xi. 

XCIX. [fo. 80 ro ] Legend of Fursey, from Bede. 

Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, iii., 19. There are versions in Brit. 
Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 6; MS. 11,284, fo. 3 b; Roberd of 
Brunne s Handlyng Synne, Boxburghe Club, 1862, p. 79 ; Libra 
de los Enxemplos, cxxx., ccxli. (Bede cited in both cases.) 

C. [fo. 80 ro ] A hermit, having to carry his mother across a 
stream, wraps his hands in his garment, in order that he may 
not touch her flesh. 

Vitae Patrum, v., 4, 68 (Migne, Patrol, vol 73, p. 873). 

There are versions in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 6, col. 2 ; 
Scala Celi, fo. 165 (Jerome cited) ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 
ccxxxix. 

CI. [fo. 80 ro ] The fable of the swallow, which in vain urged 
the other birds to destroy the flax-seed as soon as sown. The 
birds ridiculed the swallow, which then abandoned them, and 
built its nest among the dwellings of men. In due time the flax 
grew up, and was made into nets, in which were caught the short 
sighted birds which neglected the swallow s advice. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 40 (La Fontaine, i. 8) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 81 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 113 ; Benfey, PantscJiatantra, i., 
246. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, 327, 385 ; Phaedrus, 7, 12 ; 
Romulus, 1, 20) is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 6, 
col. 2, and in Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 119; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, C. xi. 20. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 177 

CII. [fo. 82 VO ] A pilgrim to St. Michael, in a moment of peril, 
promised his cow to the saint, and when the danger increased he 
added the calf. When he was in safety, however, he said : " Ne 
la vache, ne le veel," that is, " I shall give thee neither the cow 
nor the calf." 

Etienne de Bourbon, 10 (p. 20), tells a similar story of some 
people of Brittany, who were taking a cow and her calf to Mont 
St. Michel to the fair to sell them. 

The story is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 6 b (not 
used by Wright for his Latin Stories, 79. He employed MS. 
Reg. 7, E. iv., fo. 458 VO ) ; Arund. 506, fo. 40 ; MS. 11,284. 
fo. 87 b. Other versions are in Liber de Abundantia Exemplorum, 
fo. 6 (from Etienne de Bourbon) ; Scala Cell, fo. 56 VO (from 
Etienne de Bourbon) ; Martinus Polonus, Sermones cum promp- 
tuario Exemplorum, Strasburg, 1484, Prompt, cap.i. G. (from Etienne 
de Bourbon) ; Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, U., 
xli. (in this version a wave afterwards drowns man, cow, and 
calf) ; Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 305. 

GUI. [fo. 82 VO ] A pious scholar in the diocese of Paris was 
wont on Sundays to carry the holy water about his parish accord 
ing to the French custom, and from time to time took it to the 
house of a knight, who gave him harsh words and no alms. At 
length the knight fell ill, and humbly asked the scholar for his 
prayers and gave him alms. The scholar instead of praying for 
the knight s recovery asked God that the disease which he had in 
one foot might extend to the other, since his illness had changed 
him from a lion into a lamb. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 517 (p. 446) cites this story from Jacques 
de Vitry as usual rather freely. It is also in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 
463, fo. 6 b, col. 2 ; Herolt (Discipulus) Sermones, cxxviii., L (cites 
Jacques de Vitry) ; Eecull de Eximplis, cccxl. (cites J. de V.) ; 
and M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 259. The last version is 
worth repeating. 

" Quidam clericus portans aquam benedictam, quoties venit ad 
domum cujusdam divitis, nihil dedit ei nisi convicia. Tandem 
cum haberet malum in crure dedit illi panem, et rogavit, ut oraret 
pro se. Qui statim oravit, ut Deus illi daret malum in alio crure, 
ut efficeretur magis devotus." 



178 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

CIV. [fo. 83 VO ] An angel and a hermit went to bury a corpse. 
The hermit stopped his nose on account of the stench. Shortly 
after they met a handsome youth, and the angel stopped his nose 
and explained to the hermit that the sins of the young man were 
more disagreeable to God and his angels than the stench of the 
corpse to men. 

There is a somewhat similar story in the Vitae Patrum, vi., 3, 
18 (Migne, Patrol, 73, p. 1014). An old man while walking in 
the desert saw two angels accompanying him. While on their 
way they came across a corpse lying in the road. The old man 
stopped his nose, and the angels did likewise. Then the old man 
asked them if they smelled the odour. They replied, that they 
did not smell the odour of the filth of this world, but they stopped 
their noses on account of the old man, for they perceived the odour 
of souls which had the smell of sins. 

The story is in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 7 (Wright, Latin 
Stories, 146); MS. 26,770, fo. 78. The version in Scala Celi, fo. 
149, is from the Vitae Patrum, which it mentions. Bromyard, 
Summa Praedicantium, M, xiii., 15, says briefly: " Sicut patet de 
Angelo cum eremita ambulante, et tenente nasum cum occurreret 
luxurioso, et non propter cadaver mortuum." The Magnum Specu 
lum Exemplomm, ed. Major, Angelus, xviii., gives the version in 
Jacques de Vitry, and cites as authority D. Antoninus, Summa 
Theologica, part iv., tit. 14, c. 6, s. 1. The same version, finally, 
is found in Libro de los Enxemplos, ccxci. 

0V. [fo. 83 VO ] A hermit who was ill healed by his prayers all 
who came to him, but never prayed to be healed himself. 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 7, col. 2. 

CVI. [fo. 84 ro ] A man at the point of death refused to make 
restitution of goods unjustly acquired. The priest refused to use 
any other formula of commendation than : " Into the hands of all 
the demons I commend thy spirit. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 7 b. There is a version in Herolt 
(Discipulus) Sermones, cxiv,, B., immediately followed by the 
story told in No. CLXXVII. as occurring to the same person, 
This is also the case in M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 221. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 179 

CVII. [fo. 84 ro ] The wife of a man who was at the point of 
death called her servant, and said to her : " Hasten and buy me 
three ells of coarse cloth (de btirello) to bury my husband in." 
The servant answered : " You have plenty of linen, give him four 
ells or more for a shroud." While they were wrangling over this, 
the dying man made a great effort, and said , " Make my shroud 
short and coarse, so that it may not be denied by the mud ; " that 
is, according to the French tongue, " Cort le me faites pour le 
croter." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 7 b, col. 2 (Wright, Latin Stories, 
6) ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, E. viii., 13. 

Wright says that in the manuscript of Bromyard (Brit. Mus. 
Beg. 7, E. iv., fo. 165 VO ), which he used, the French proverb is 
given as follows : 

" Fete le court, que il ne croite 
Que jeo ai grant chemiii a aller." 

This is omitted in the two printed editions I have used, the 
editio princ. s. 1. e. a. fol., and Antwerp, 1614, fol. 

CVIII. [fo. 86 VO ] A poor man, w r ho had but a single fur gar 
ment, wrapped himself up in it to sleep during the cold weather, 
and consoled himself with the thought that he was much better 
off than the rich in hell or tormented in prison. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 7 b. col. 2. ; Bromyard, Summa 
Praedicantium, P. i., 15. 

CIX. [fo. 86 VO ] A hermit, tempted by the spirit of blasphemy, 
thought the judgments of God were not just, for he afflicted the 
good and prospered the wicked. An angel of the Lord in the 
form of a man appeared to him, and said : " Follow me : God has 
sent me to show you his secret judgments." He led him to the 
house of a good man, who received them hospitably. In the 
morning, however, the angel stole from their host a cup which ho 
greatly prized. Thereupon the hermit grieved, believing the 
angel was not from God. The next night they spent at the house 
of a man who treated them badly, but the angel gave him the cup 
he had stolen from the kind host. Again the hermit was sad 
dened, and began to have a bad opinion of the angel. The third 
night they were received into the house of a good man, who wel- 



180 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE V1TEY. 

corned them joyfully and gave them all necessary things. In the 
morning the host gave them a young servant of his to show them 
the way. The angel threw him from a bridge, and he was 
drowned. At this the hermit was scandalised and grieved. The 
fourth night a good man again received them hospitably. The 
host had but one little boy, who began to cry in the night, and 
did not let the guests sleep. The angel arose and strangled the 
child. The hermit believed he was the angel of Satan, and 
wished to part from him. Finally the angel said to him : " The 
, Lord sent me to you to show you his secret judgments, and that 
you might know that there is nothing in the earth without a 
cause. That good man whose cup I took away was too fond of it, 
and thought of it when he should be thinking of God. I took it 
from him for his own good, and gave it to the unfriendly host, so 
that he might receive his reward in this world and have no other 
in the next. I drowned the servant of the other because he had 
determined in his mind to slay his master the next day, and so I 
saved the good host, and lessened the punishment of the servant 
in hell. Before our fourth host had a son he was charitable, but 
after the birth of his son he kept all things for him. I, therefore, 
by the command of the Lord, removed the cause of his avarice 
and placed the soul of the innocent child in paradise." After he 
had heard these things the hermit was delivered from all tempta 
tion, and began to glorify the judgments of God, which are un 
fathomable. 

The literature of this famous legend so well-known to English 
readers from its use by Parnell in his poem of the " Hermit" and 
by Voltaire s employment of it in his romance of " Zadig " may 
be found in the following works, some remarks upon the relative 
value of which I shall make later. 

Gesta Eomanorum, ed. Oesterley, cap. 80; The Literary History of 
ParneWs Hermit by W. E. A. Axon, London, 1881 (from the 
seventh volume of the third series of " Memoirs of the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society," Session 1879-80) ; L Ange et 
VErmite, etude sur une legende religieuse par M. Gaston Paris 
(Academie des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres, Comptes Eendus des 
Seances de VAnnee 1880, Paris, 1881, pp. 427-449, reprinted in 
LaPoesie du Moyen Age, Lemons et Lectures, par Gaston Paris, Paris, 
1885, p. 151) ; Islendzk Aeventyri : Isliindische Legenden, Novellen und 



I 

ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 181 

Mlirchen herausgegeben von Hugo Gering, Halle, 1884, ii. p. 247 ; 
Clouston s Popular Tales and Fictions, i. p. 28. The references 
in Dunlop, ed. Liebrecht, p. 309, and in Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, 
ed. Oesterley, 682, are now replaced by the works mentioned above. 

The source of Jacques de Vitry and, generally speaking, of all 
the occidental versions of this story is to be found in the Vitae 
Patrum ; not, as Oesterley incorrectly says, Vitae Patrum op. H. 
Rosweydi Ultraj, S. J. Antv. 1628, fol. 5, 93, for this story is 
wanting in all the editions of Rosweyd, and is found only in 
editions earlier (sixteenth century) and in some manuscripts, from 
one of which Gaston Paris gives a translation of the story. The 
oriental versions of the story are, however, independent, and 
appear in the earliest form in the Koran (xviii., 64-81). This 
legend, like many in this work, probably has a Jewish origin, and 
in fact the story is found in the Rabbinical texts. This is, how 
ever, not the place to discuss the source of the story. I shall first 
mention the mediaeval story-book versions, and then some not 
found in the notes of Oesterley, etc. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 396 (p. 346), cites as his authority a cer 
tain priest and preacher, " fratre Symone ;" Scala Celi, fo. 15, 
cites Jacques de Vitry ; Herolt (Discipulus) Sermones, cix. K ; 
Speculum Fxemplorum, Strasburg, 1487, Dist. ii. cap. ccx. (" ex 
Vitas Patrum ") ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, 
Indicium Dei, i. (" Albertus Patarinus homilia in Evangelium 
Dominica de Passione habet hanc narrationem ex Vitis Patrum, 
lib. 5, Vitae, SS. PP, nu. 93, secundum editionem Coloniensam anni 
1548 ") ; Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins ii., 
675 ; Libro de los Enxemplos, clxi. ; and Becull de Eximplis, ccclviii. 
(cites J. de V.). I have not been able to find Oesterley s reference 
to Pelbartus, Pomerium sermonum de Sanctis, 32, H. 

There is a version in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 8 (printed in 
Wright s Latin Stories, 7). 

To Oesterley s references (Gesta Rom., cap. 80) may be added, 
for old French versions from the Vitae Patrum, Tobler, Jahrbuch 
fur roman. und eng. Literatur, vii., 430 ; Weber, HandscJiriftliche 
Sludien, Frauenfeld, 1876, p. 19 ; an Italian version from the 
Vitae Patrum in Fiore di Virtu, Naples, 1870, p. 68; Etienne de 
Bourbon, Odo de Ceritona and Gering, Islendzk Aeventyri as above 
cited ; and the following popular versions : A. De Trueba, Narra- 



182 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

ciones populares, Brockhaus, Coleccion de Autores Espanoles, vol. 33, 
p. 65, " Dudas de San Pedro ; " L. Gronzenbach, Sicilianische 
Mdrchen, Leipzig, 1870, No. 92 (an analysis of this story may be 
found in T. F. Crane s Italian Popular Tales, London, Macmillan 
and Co., 1885, p. 210, see note, p. 365) ; and a Breton version in 
Luzel, Legendes Chretiennes de la Basse-Bretagne, Paris, 1881, i., 
282, ii., 1. I may mention in conclusion an oriental (Turkish) 
popular version which is based on the Koran and may be found in 
E. J. W. Gibb, The History of the Forty Vezirs, London, 1886, p. 
306. This story is lacking in W. F. A. Bernhauer s translation 
(from a MS. at Dresden) of the same romance, Die vierzig Veziere 
oder iveisen Meister, Leipzig, 1851. 

CX. [fo. 88 ro ] Fable of the horse asking the aid of the man 
against the stag in a quarrel about their common pasture, which 
was amply sufficient for both. The man said it would be necessary 
to saddle and bridle the horse in order to overcome the stag; but 
after the victory the man refused to remove the saddle and bridle. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii. 266 (La Fontaine, iv. 13) ; 
CEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 318; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 128. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, 383; Phaedrus, iv. 4; Romulus, 
iv. 9) I have not found except in Vitry. Oesterley cites Bernar- 
dinus de Bustis, Rosarium, 2, 203, A. 

CXI. [fo. 88 VO ] A monk rejoiced at the loss of one of his eyes 
and declared to his sorrowing followers that he ought rather to 
weep for the eye that was left, since the eyes may be compared to 
two enemies against whom one must daily fight. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 8 b. col. 2. 

CXII. [fo. 88 VO ] Two lazy beggars, one blind the other lame, 
try to avoid the relics of St. Martin, borne about in procession, so 
that they may not be healed and lose their alms. The blind man 
takes the lame man on his shoulders to guide him, but they are 
caught in the crowd and healed against their will. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 9. In Herolt (Discipulus) Promp- 
tuarium Exemplorum, U. vii., there is a story of a cripple who 
feared to be healed by St. Martin as he went about preaching and 
working miracles, and so fled before him from town to town. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 183 

CXIIL [fo. 89 VO ] A certain wise man commanded his servant 
to say to him whenever he ate: "Thou shalt die, thou shalt die!" 
Brit, Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 9, col. 2. 

CXIV. [fo. 90 VO ] A knight fighting against the Saracens in 
Spain with the Emperor Charles, left at his death his horse and 
other property to the poor, and appointed a certain knight, a 
relative of his in whom he had great confidence, as his executor. 
The executor, however, took a fancy to the horse and kept it for 
himself. The week after his death the testator appeared in a 
vision to the faithless executor, and said that by his sin he, the 
testator, had been delayed in purgatory, but that he had com 
plained to the supreme judge, and on the morrow the faithless 
executor would pay the penalty for his sin. The next day a flock 
of black crows seized the executor, raised him in the air and let 
him fall upon a stone, breaking his neck. 

Brit. Mus. MS. 26,770, fo. 78; 11,284, fo. 35 b. (Turpin s 
Chronicle) ; Harl. 463, fo. 9, col. 2. 

The story is also found in Odo de Ceritona (in Hervieux, Les 
Fabulistes Latins, ii. 673) in a condensed version. The dead soldier 
appears and tells the faithless executor that he shall die that very 
day, and there the story ends. A still briefer version is found in 
Scala Celi, fo. 85, where the faithless executor is thrown from his 
horse and killed. Thomas Cantipratanus, op. cit. ii. 53, 25, p. 506, 
recites at length the story which he changes only at the end. 
After the appearance of the dead man the executor falls ill, con 
fesses to the priest what he has done, dies and incurs the punish 
ment due to his sin. The Magnum Speculum, Exemplorum, ed. 
Major, Defuncti, xii., takes the story from Thomas Cantipratanus; 
but adds, "Elsewhere we read," etc., and gives the ending as in 
Jacques de Vitry. The version in the Libro de los Enxemplos, 
ccxxix., is very peculiar, after the apparition of the dead man the 
executor awoke and heard in the air a great sound and noise as of 
wolves and lions, and was carried away alive, and twelve days 
afterwards was found in the top of a willow four day s journey 
from the town. 

CXV. [fo. 90 VO ] When Jacques de Vitry was at Paris, he Jieard 
of a scholar who gave, at death, a mattress to a friend to bestow 
for the sake of his soul. The friend neglected to do this at 

o2 



184 THE BXBMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

although lie had no idea of keeping the mattress for himself. 
The dead scholar appeared in a dream to his friend lying upon 
the cords of a fiery bed. The next day the friend gave the 
mattress to a hospital, and the following night saw the scholar 
reposing upon a mattress in such a way that the cords could not 
touch or harm him. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 9 b. 

CXVI. [fo. 90 VO ] A noble youth, the only son of his parents, 
entered a monastery unknown to them. The father was deeply 
grieved, and threatened to burn the abbey and destroy its 
property if his son was not returned to him. The monks in great 
fear told the youth, who asked for a horse, and went to meet his 
father, who scarcely recognised him on account of his tonsure 
and mean dress. The father promised that if his son would 
return to his home he would subject all his lands to his will. 
The son replied that he had left his home and taken the habit on 
account of a dangerous custom which prevailed in that land. 
The father promised that all the customs of the land should be in 
his son s power to change or revoke. Then the son said, that the 
custom was that there the young died as quickly as the old, and 
sometimes more quickly, and refused to return unless the father 
abolished that custom. The father, deeply moved by this reply, 
himself forsook the world and entered the monastery with his son. 
Brit. Mus. MS. 11,284, fo. 55 b ; Harl. 463, fo. 9 b, col. 2. 
Etienne de Bourbon tells this story (50, p. 58) of the son of the 
Lord of Yagnori (Vignory, Haute-Marne) . Other versions are in 
Odo de Ceritona (in Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii. 686) ; 
Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Ex&nvplorum, M, liii ; and 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Mors, xxiii, the source 
cited is " collector hujus speculi," but it is taken from Etierme de 
Bourbon as is shown by the beginning: " cum quidamDominus de 
Naguory, etc." 

CXVII. [fo. 91 ro ] The brother of a monk begged something of 
him, and was told to go and ask another brother who had entered 
a cloister. The brother replied: "You know that ho is dead 
and no longer in this world." Then the monk answered, " I too am 
dead and shall give you nothing." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 10. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 185 

CXVIII. [fo. 91 ro ] A novice was sent by the abbot first to bless 
and then to curse the bones of the dead. He was asked what 
answer the bones made, and replied, that they had remained silent. 
Then the abbot said, " Thus it behoves thee to be dead if thou 
wishest to remain in this monastery, so that thou be admonished 
neither by blessing nor by cursing." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 10. 

The only other version I have found is in Odo de Ceritona in 
Hervieux, Les Fdbulistes Latins, ii., p. 654. The conclusion is, 
" Frater, talem te oportet esse ut, si verus monachus vis fieri, ita 
(quod) benedictionibus et maledictioiiibus nichil rospondeas." 

CXIX. [fo. 93 ro ] Saladin, sultan of Damascus and Egypt, being 
about to die, ordered a small piece of cloth to be carried about his 
kingdom after his death, and a herald to proclaim that he had 
been able to take with him nothing more of all his possessions. 

Brit. Mus., MS. Harl. 463, fo. 10, col. 2; 11,284, fo. 55 b. 

Versions of this story are found in ^tienne de Bourbon, 60 
(p. 63) ; Herolt (Disci pulus) Promptuarium Exemplorum, T. vii. ; 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Mors, xiii. (" Vincent 
Belvac, lib. 29, Specul. c. 54, Antoninus, parte 2, tit. 17, cap. 9, s. 
23) ; Martinus Polonus, Prompt, cap. v.E. ; Libro de los Enxemplos, L. 
(told of a king of the Moors). The editor of Etienne de Bourbon 
cites also the Eecits d un Menestral de Rheims, ed. de Wailly, Paris, 
1876, p. 104; and the MS. collection of exempla in the library of 
Tours, MS. 205, fo. 161. 

An Italian version is in Corona de Monad, Prato, 1862, p. 145. 

CXX. [f o. 93 ro ] The servant of a rich and powerful lord was con 
demned to death for giving up one of the lord s castles to the 
enemy. When he was taken to death he asked a friend whom he 
had greatly loved to help him in his strait. The friend told him 
to find his other friends quickly, that he could do nothing for him 
but give him a piece of linen for a shroud. He asked another 
friend whom he had loved still more to aid him. This one replied 
that he could do nothing but accompany him to the gallows, and 
then must return home. The third friend, whom, in comparison 
with the others, he had loved little and for whom he had done 
little and deemed half a friend, when he began to ask his aid, 



186 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

replied, " I am not unmindful of the slight favour you showed me 
and I shall return it with interest ; I shall offer my soul for your 
soul, my life for your delivery, and I shall be hanged for 
you." 

The literature of this widely-spread apologue may be found in 
Karl Goedeke s ^very-Man, Homulus und Hekastus, Hanover, 1865, 
p. 7 ; and in Oesterley s notes to the Gesta Bomanorum, cap. 238. 

The source of the story is Barlaam and JosapJiat (cd. Boissonade, 
cap. 13 ; trans. Billius, Vitae Patrum, Lib. I., cap. xiii., Migne, 
Patrol 73, p. 491, trans. Liebrecht, p. 94). 

There are versions in the following mediaeval sermon-books, etc. : 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, A. xxi., 5 ; Scala Celi. fo. 9 ; 
Bareleta, Sermones, Lyons, 1505, fol. 49 ; Martinus Polonus, 
Promptuarium, cap. xi., B. (cites Barlaam and Josaphat) ; Speculum 
Exemplorum, Strasburg, 1487, Dist. iv., 17 (" Ex secunda parte 
Speculi Historiali ") ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, 
Amicus, i. (" Yincentius, lib. 12, cap. 16, Spec. Hist.") ; Peregrinus, 
Sermones de Tempore et de Saudis, s. 1. et a. et. t., fo. 30 ; Libro de 
los Enxemplos, Romania, vol. vii., p. 491, ISTo. 16. 

There are versions in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 10 b. 
(printed in Wright s Latin Stories, 108), and MS. 11,284, fo. 6. 

CXXI. [fo. 94 VO ] When the Crusade was preached the Virgin 
was seen offering her son to whoever took the cross with contrite 
heart. 

This story is printed in full by Lecoy de la March in a note to 
fitienne de Bourbon, p. 90, where a similar exemplum is found. 
Other versions are found in Scala Geli,fo. 71 (Etienne de Bourbon), 
fo. 106 (Jacques de Yitry) ; Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium 
Exemplorum, C., xli. (Jacques de Yitry), J., 10 (Etierme de 
Bourbon) ; Eecull de Eximplis, cxcvi. ("J. de Y.") 

CXXII. [fo. 96 VO ] When Jacques de Yitry was preaching the 
crusade in a certain town, a man was persuaded by his wife to 
absent himself from the sermon. From curiosity, however, he 
stood by the window and heard the great rewards, in the way of 
indulgences, etc., promised to those who took the cross. Moved 
^ at length by what he heard, he lowered himself from the window 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 187 

because his wife was guarding the door, and took the cross. His 
example was followed by many. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 11 ; Recull de Eximplis, cxcv. 
("J. de V.") 

CXXIII. [fo. 97 ro ] The Emperor Charles, wishing to prove the 
obedience of his sons, took a piece of an apple, which he held in his 
hand, and said : " Goband, open your mouth and receive it." He 
replied, that he would not, nor would he endure such an insult 
from his father. Then the emperor called another son, named 
Louis, and said : " Open your mouth and receive what I give you." 
He answered : " Do your pleasure with me, as with your servant," 
and opening his mouth took the apple from his father s hand. 
The emperor straightway said : "I give thee the kingdom of 
France." The third son, named Lothaire, opened his mouth in 
the presence of all at his father s command, who said : " By the 
part of the apple which you took into your mouth I invest you 
with the duchy of Lorraine." Then Goband, who had tardily 
repented, said, " Behold, father, I open my mouth ; give me part 
of the apple ! " Then his father said : " Tardily have you opened 
your mouth, neither apple nor land shall I give you ; " and all 
began to deride him, saying: "A tart bea Gobant," that is, 
" Tardily gaped Goband." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 11, col. 2 (printed in Wright s 
Latin Stories, 48. I have not been able to examine the MS., but 
suspect it reads Gobandus, instead of Gobaudus, and that at the 
end the French is, as in the other version, " a tart bea Gobant," 
instead of " a tart, beau Gobart"). Bromyard, Summa Praedi- 
cantium, P. 7, 77, gives substantially the same version, except that 
the king, whose name is not mentioned, has but two. sons, Gobar- 
dus and Lotharius. The conclusion is, "Cui pater: trop tard venu 
Gobarb (sic), id est, nimis tarde aperuit os suum, vel, locutus est 
Gobardus." A brief version is in Becull de JEximplis, dxlvii (" J. 
deV."). 

Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 368, gives a version 
like Jacques de Yi try s, except that the sons are named Gobandus, 
Hononice, and Lotharius. The ending is: Der Idinig sprach, du 
bist ziispat kumen, ich gib clir weder opffelschnitz, noch land, 
noch Kit, und ist darnach ein sprichwort worden in Franckreich 



188 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

gobande, du hast ziispat Tiff gegienet." Oesterloy s citation of 
Selentroist, fo. 57 b, I have not been able to verify, nor have I 
found any source for Jacques de Vitry s version, which is the 
earliest of all yet cited. 

CXXIV. [fo. 99 ro ] A knight, about to embark on the Crusade, 
had his little children, whom he dearly loved, brought before him 
in order that his departure might be made more bitter and his 
merit increased. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 11, 6. Scala Celi, fo. 72 VO , gives 
as its source, "historia anthiochena." Jacques de Yitry is cited 
in Recull de Eximplis, cccxxix. 

CXXV. [fo. 99 ro ] An ass which was accustomed to remain in 
the mill would not leave it when it was on fire, and perished in 
the flames. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 11 b, col. 2. 

CXXVI. [fo. 99 VO ] The ass which was created slothful and 
hardy, permitted the wolves to devour its loins into its lungs 
without apparently feeling the wound. 

CXXVII. [fo. 99 VO ] The ape throws away the nut on account 
of the bitter rind. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 11 b, col. 2 ; 11,284, fo. 10. 

See Kirchhof , Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 1. 129 (7, 145), where 
Odo, Boner, Ysopo, 1644, p. 182 b . and Libro de los Gatos, 50, are 
cited. The first may now be consulted better in Hervieux, Les 
Fabulist es Latins, ii., p. 627 ; for Boner, see Zeitschrift fur deutsclie 
Philologie, xi. p. 239, where Vincent of Beauvais, Spec, morale, 3, 
4, 5, is cited. 

CXXVIII. [fo. 100 ro ] A hermit who purposed to move his cell 
nearer the water, saw an angel with tablet and style writing down 
the number of steps which the hermit was obliged to take in 
order to reach the water, so that he might be rewarded for his 
patience and fortitude in the next world. 

The source of Jacques de Vitry is the Vitae Patrum, v., 7, 31 
(Migne, Patrol. 73, p. 900). 

This story also occurs in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12, and 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 189 

Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Angelus, iv (" Vitae 
Pat.") 

CXXIX. [fo. 100 ro ] A man was caught in a crowd in a church 
and obliged to listen to the sermon against his will. Fearing lest 
he might be enchanted like the serpent, he said : " Would that, by 
the grace of God, I might escape from the sermon as I have 
already from a hundred." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12, col. 2. 

CXXX. [fo. 102 VO ] Saint Gregory tells of a nun who ate 
lettuce without making the sign of the cross and swallowed a 
devil. When a holy man tried to exorcise him the devil said : 
" What fault is it of mine ? I was sitting on the lettuce, and she did 
not cross herself, and so ate me too." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12, col. 2. 

Jacques de Vitry s source is, Gregory, Dialogues, i., 4 (Migne, 
Patrol. 77, p. 165). 

The story may be found in Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium 
Exemplorum, C. xl (Gregory) ; Speculum Exemplorum, Strasburg, 
1487, Dist. i., 8 (Gregory) ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. 
Major, Grucis Signum, i. (Gregory) ; Libro de los Enxemplos, xxii. 
(Gregory) ; an Italian version is in Zambrini, Dodici conti morali, 
Bologna, 1862, see Kohler in Zeitsclirift fur rom. Phil i., p. 368 ; 
and old French versions in Vie des Anciens Peres, see Weber op. 
cit. p. 12, and Tobler in JahrbucJi fur roman und eng. Lit. vii., 
407. Some additional references may be found in Oesterley s 
notes to Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, 253. 

CXXXI. [fo. 102 VO ] St. Gregory tells of a Jew who passed 
the night in a cemetery near the temple of Apollo. An evil spirit 
came there, and, although the Jew had no faith in the cross, still 
from fear he crossed himself. The demon could not injure him, 
and returned to his companions, saying : "I found an empty 
vessel, that is, crossed." The other demons, hearing this, fled, 
and the Jew, having experienced the virtue of the cross, became a 
Christian. 

Gregory, Dialogues, ui., 7 (Migne, Patrol. 77, p. 229). Jacques de 
Yitry omits a very interesting part of the story. The Jew over 
heard a demon reporting on the progress of the temptation to 



190 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

which, they were subjecting Andrew, bishop of Fundi (Fondi), by 
placing a demon in the form of a nun in his house. The bishop 
had gone so far as to give her an affectionate pat on the back. 
The Jew goes straightway to the bishop, and tells him what he has 
heard! The bishop falls to the ground in prayer, and at once 
dismisses from his house all the women who were dwelling in it. 

Versions are found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12, col. 2 ; 
Scala Celi, fo. 67 VO (the full story from Gregory, but condensed) ; 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major (full story from 
Gregory) ; Libra de los Enxemplos, xxxi. (full story from Gregory) ; 
Koberd of Brunne s Handlyng Synne, Roxburghe Club, 1862, p. 
241. There are some additions in the latter version not found in 
the original or elsewhere to my knowledge. Two other demons 
report to Satan, one that he had killed the bride and bridegroom 
at a wedding and caused murders ; the other that in seven years 
he had killed 20,000 men. The first demon is beaten, the second 
sent to trial. 

CXXXII. [fo. 102 VO ] We read of a pilgrim who was ill and 
friendless in foreign parts, and to whom God sent his angels to 
console him and bring back his soul by a painless death. The 
angels returned, and said: "His soul will not leave his body." 
Then the Lord sent David to sing before the pilgrim with his 
harp. Then the pilgrim s soul, hearing the sweet sound, left his 
body with joy and delight. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12 b ; Magnum Speculum Exem- 
plorum, ed. Major ; Angelus, x. (" Liber de exemplis et doctrina 
vita) spiritualis, nu. 17.") 

CXXXIII. [fo. 102 VO ] There were, we read in the Lives of 
the Fathers, two brothers, one devoted to pilgrimages, the other 
to rest. The pilgrim died, and was escorted to the gate of heaven 
by angels. There was some question about his admission, but 
the Lord said, " He was somewhat negligent, but because he was 
a pilgrim open to him." The other brother died and had no 
angelic escort. An old man who had seen both events asked the 
Lord why it was so, and was told that the pilgrim had no friends 
or relatives to console him in his last moments. 

The source of this story is the Vitae Patrum, vi. 1, 12 (Migne, 
Patrol, 73, p. 994. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 191 

Versions are in Brit: Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12 b; Magnum 
Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Angelus, viii. ("Vitae Patrum"); 
Scala Celi, fo. 153 ("refert Hier.," i.e. Jerome). 

CXXXIV. [fo. 104 ro ] Parable of the man who, fleeing from 
an unicorn, fell into a deep pit. He caught a shrub in his fall, 
and opening his eyes saw two mice gnawing the root of the shrub 
and four asps devouring the tree, and at the bottom of the pit a 
dragon eager to devour him. Above the man s head was a sword 
hanging by a slender thread. While in so great danger he raised 
his eyes, and saw some honey distilling from the branches of 
the shrub. Straightway he forgot his danger, and stretched out 
his hands with longing for the honey. At that moment the tree 
gave way and the sword fell upon his head, and he plunged into 
the pit full of fire, where the dragon devoured him. 

The source of Jacques de Vitry is Barlaam and Josaphat, cap. 
12 (ed. Boissonade, p. 113 ; trans. Billius, Vitae Patrum, Migne, 
Patrol. 73, p. 493 ; trans. Liebrecht, p. 92 ; Legenda Aurea, ed. 
Graesse, cap. clxxx., p. 816). 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 12 b, col. 2; Harl. 268, fo. 170 b; 
11,284, fo. 55. 

Versions of this widely-spread story are to be found in Liber 
de Abundantia Exemplorum, fo. 51 ("Barl.") ; Odo de Ceritona in 
Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, ii. 626 ; Scala Celi, fo. 76 (" refert 
Valerianus ") ; Bareleta, Sermones, Lyons, 1505, fo. 9 ; Speculum 
Exemplorum, Strasburg, 1487, Dist. iv., 16 (" Vincent of Beauvais, 
Spec. Hist. lib. 2 ") ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, 
Delitiae, iv. (" Vincentius, lib. 15, cap. 5, Hist. Spec.") ; Libra de 
los Gat os, 48. 

Other references will be found in Gesta Romanorum, ed. Oes- 
terley, cap. 168 (I have not found Oesterley s erroneous citation, 
Martin Polon. 617, E) ; Benfey, Pantschatantra, i. 80; Goedeke, 
Every Man., p. 12 ; Hist. Litteraire de la France, vol. xxiii., p. 257, 
cites the fabliau or dit De rUnicorne et du Serpent in Jubinal, 
Nouveau Recueil, ii., p. 113, and in vol. xviii., p. 832, names as its 
author the priest Herman. 

CXXXV. [fo. 104 ro ] Fable of the wolf, which accused the 
lamb of disturbing the water of the brook, and devoured it in 
spite of its innocence. 



192 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i., 57 (La*Fontainc, i. 10) ; 
(Ecuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i., 88 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 1, 57. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, ci. ; Phaedrus, i. 1 ; Romulus, 
i., 2), is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13; 11,284, fo. 12, 
and in the following printed versions : Bromyard, Summa Prae- 
dicantium, A. 12, 45 ; J. Gritsch, Q.uadrigesimale, s. 1. et a. Serm. 
41, Q. ; Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 51 ; Vincent of 
Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, iii., 2, in Hervieux, Les Fabulistes 
Latins, ii., 235 ; Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., 643. 

CXXXVI. [fo. 104 ro ] Fable of the crane, which extracted a 
bone from the wolf s throat, under promise of a large reward. 
The wolf thought the crane sufficiently rewarded by drawing its 
neck unharmed from the wolf s jaws. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i., 193 (La Fontaine, iii., 9) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i., 228 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 42. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, 94, 102 ; Phaedrus, i., 8 ; 
Romulus, i., 8) is found in Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, 
Dial. 117 ; Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., 602 ; Vincent 
of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, iii., 2, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., 
236 ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, G. iv., 16 ; Brit. Mus. 
MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13, col. 2; and Hollen, Serm. hyem. Ii., F. 

This fable is also the subject of study by Weber in his Indisclie 
Studien, iii., 350, who decides that the analogous Indian fable is 
of Western origin. 

CXXXVII. [fo. 104 ro ] Many knights receive from their vas 
sals services which the French call " corvees," and yet do not give 
them bread to eat, in violation of the Scriptural precept in Levi 
ticus, xix., 13 : " The wages of him that is hired shall not abide 
with thee all night until the morning." 

This, and the following exemplum, are cited by Lecoy de La 
Marche, Utienne de Bourbon, p. 371, n. 2. 

CXXXVIII. [fo. 104 ro ] Many, nowadays, when they are 
reproved for taking a poor man s cow from him say : " Let the 
calf suffice him, and the fact that he is allowed to live. I did 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 103 

not do him all the harm I could when 1 took his goose and left 
him the feathers." 

CXXXIX. [fo. 105 ro ] A knight was fond of hearing sermons, 
but led a worldly life. His companions derided him for his 
inconsistency, and he replied, " I trust some time to abandon this 
evil life, whence, although I do not the things I hear, I wish to 
learn what I ought to do in case God visits me, and I am con 
verted to his service." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13, col. 2. 

CXL. [fo. 105 ro ] Another knight neglected the service of God, 
and when asked why he did not hear mass which was so dignified 
and efficacious that Christ and the angels always attended it, 
replied in his simplicity, " I did not know that ; I thought that 
the priests said mass on account of the offerings." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13, col. 2. 

CXLI. [fo. 105 VO ] A long account of the wickedness of tourna 
ments, in which Jacques de Vitry shows that the seven mortal 
sins are committed. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13, col. 2. 

There is a similar tirade against tournaments in Eoberd of 
Brunne s Handlyng Synne, Roxburghe Club, 1862, p. 144. The 
beginning is the same as Jacques de Vitry s, but more details are 
introduced. I am inclined to think, however, that Jacques de 
Vitry is the source of Roberd of Brunne, or rather of William of 
Wadington, on whose work, Le Manuel des Pechiez, the Handlyng 
Synne rests. 

CXLII. [fo. 106 V ] Fable of the marriage of the sun. Many 
rejoiced when another sun was born, but the earth mourned and 
said, " One sun alone at times parched me so that I could not 
bring forth fruit. How much more will two suns parch me and 
make me barren." 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii. 27 (La Fontaine, vi. 12) ; 
CEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, ii. 38 ; Pauli, 
Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 498. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, 350 ; Phaedrus, i. 6 ; Romulus, 



194 THE EXEMPIA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

i. 7) is found in Bromyard, Snmma Praedicantium, I), xii , 21 ; 
Scala Celi, fo. 110 ; and Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13. b. 

CXLIII. [fo. 106 VO ] A bear seized and devoured the young of a 
ape. The ape pondered over a means of revenge, and finally at 
night piled wood around the sleeping bear and set fire to it, 
destroying the bear which had despised the strength of the ape. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13 b. 

The only other version of this fable I remember to have seen is 
in Novellette, Esempi morali e Apologlii di San Bernardino da Siena, 
Bologna, 1868 (Scelta di Curiosita letterarie, xcvii.,), p. 42. The 
author says he will tell a story that happened " at the Court of 
the King of France, or of the King of Spain." 

CXLIY. [fo. 106] Fable of the eagle which carried off the 
cubs of a fox. The eagle was deaf to the entreaties of the fox, 
which set fire to the tree and destroyed the eagle s young. 

Phaedrus, i., 28, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 15 ; Romulus, ed. 
Oesterley, ii., 8, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 193. In the Latin 
fable the fox threatens to burn the tree and the eagle gives her 
back her cubs unharmed. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13 b; Bromyard, Summa 
Prcedicantium, 1ST. iv., 4 (the latter version follows Jacques do 
Vitry : " Et quia in alto nidum suum habuit, in nullo vulpis 
pertimebat vindictam, quae tamen postmodurn arborem cum nido 
aquilae, et pullis ejus succendit.") ; Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. 
Graesse, Dial. 67 (which follows the Latin fable). 

This fable may be compared with the Aesopian fable (ed. 
Furia, 1) of the eagle and the fox, for which see Kirchhof, 
WendunmutJi, ed. Oesterley, 5, 145. 

CXLV. [fo. 106 V ] Fable of the lion which released a mouse, 
and afterwards was delivered from a net by the same mouse. 

Fables In6dites,pB,r A. C. M. Robert, i., 130 (La Fontaine, ii.,11) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i., 161 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 20, 

In regard to the fable in general, see Benfey, Pantschatantra, i., 
321, and Weber, Indische Stiidien, iii., 347. 

This Aesopian fable (ed. Furia, 98 ; Phaedrus in Hervieux, op. 
cit. ii., 127 ; Romulus, i., 17) is found in Vincent of Beauvais, 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 195 

Spec. Hist., Hi. ,3, in Hervieux, op. cit., ii., 238 ; Speculum Sapientiae, 
ed. Graesse, i., 18 (p. 24), in this version a lion and a fox fall into 
the snare, the mouse liberates the lion because he had politely 
greeted him when they met, the fox had treated him with 
contempt ; Dialogue Greaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 24 ; Scala 
Celi. fo. 40. 

CXLVI. [fo. 107 ro ] A wise man told a king that his enemies 
were anger, impatience, and concupiscence. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13 b, col. 2 (anger, arrogance, and 
avarice) . 

CXLVII. [fo. 108 VO ] A certain serpent carried in its mouth a 
beautiful rose, and some, regarding only its beauty, began to touch 
and smell it, and perished by the serpent s venom. So flatterers 
destroy. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13 b, col. 2 

CXLVIII. [fo. 108 VO When Xerxes had collected a great army, 
some said to him. the sea was not broad enough for his fleet, others 
that the air could not contain his weapons. One philosopher alone 
told him the truth: "Thou shalt be overcome by thyself; this 
bulk of thine shall destroy thee." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13 b. col. 2. 

CXLIX. [fo. 108 VO ] A wise man named Philip was invited to 
the banquet of a king, and spat in his face. He was arrested and 
about to be led to prison when the king asked an explanation of 
his conduct. Philip answered : " When I wished to spit 1 gazed 
about me and saw only gold and silver, and silk and precious 
stones, and could see no meaner place than thy beard, and so I 
spat in it." Thereupon the king set him free. 

This story is of Greek origin, being in Diogenes Laertius, ii. 75 
(Paley s Greek Wit, London, 1881, p. 48, No. 181). Just how it 
reached Jacques de Vitry it is hard to say. It early found its 
way into the Solomon and Marcolf cycle, and thus entered Italian 
literature, where it is found in Bcrtoldo (see Guerrini, La Vita e le 
Opere di G. G. Grace, Bologna, 1879, p. 235) ; L Avventuroso Giciliano 
(in Zambrini, Libra di Novelle Antiche, Bologna, 1868, Scelta di 



196 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITKY. 

Curiosita, etc. xciii. p. 58) ; Eosaio delta Vita, by Corsini, ed. Poli- 
dori, Florence, 1855, p. 78 (cited by D Ancona), and Bandello, 
Novelle, iii. 42 (Turin, 1853). Older than any of these versions 
just mentioned is the one in the collection known as the Cento 
Novelle Antiche, Libro di Novelle e di Bel Parlar Gentile, II Novcllino, 
and Le Novelle Anticlie. It is not found in the editions known as 
the Testo Gualteruzzi (Milano, 1825, "per cura di P. A. Tosi, secondo 
1 edizione del MDXXY ") and Testo Borghini (Florence [Napoli], 
1724) ; but was first edited in the additions to the Catalogo dei 
Novellieri Italiani in prosa, by C. Papanti, Leghorn, 1871, and 
afterwards in Le Novelle Antiche dei Codici Panciatichiano-Palatino 
138 e Laurenziano Gaddiano, 193, per Guido Biagi, Florence, 1880, 
p. 58, No. Ixviii. 

The literature of the subject may be found in Pauli, Schimpf und 
Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 475, and D Ancona, Le Fonti del Novellino in 
Romania, vol. iii., and in Studj di Critica e Storia lettcraria, Bologna, 
1880, p. 350. 

Versions are in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 13 b. col. 2 ; 
26,770, fo. 77 V , and in the following sermon-books, etc. : Peraldus, 
Sumina Virtutum ac Vitiorum, Cologne, 1629, ii., 207 ; Dialogus 
Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial., 54 ; Bromyard, Sumina Praedi- 
cantium, 0, vii., 5; Scala Cell, fo. 140 (" legitur in Summa de 
viciis," i.e., Peraldus cited above) Bernardinus de Bustis, 
Rosarium Sermonum, Venice, 1498, pars, ii., Scrm. viii., L, fo. 82 ; 
Libro de los Enxcmplos, cxvii. Some additional references may be 
found in Gualteri Burlaei, Liber de Vita et Moribus Philosophorum, 
ed. H. Knust, Stuttg. Lit. Ver. vol. 177, p. 205, d. 

CL. [fo. 108 VO ] The wicked bailiff of a certain count, wishing 
to please him with flattery and evil deeds, said that if the count 
would follow his advice he could gain a large sum of money. 
The count answered that he would be willing do so, and the bailiff 
asked permission to sell the sun on the count s estate. When the 
count asked how that was possible, the wicked bailiff replied that 
many dried and bleached their clothes in the sun on the count s 
property, and if he should charge for each piece of cloth a 
shilling he would gain a large sum, and thus the wicked bailiff 
persuaded his master to sell the rays of the sun, which are the 
common property of all. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 197 

CLI. [fo. 109 ro ] A demon who had entered a certain man 
preached the truth, and when a holy man asked why he did this, 
being the enemy of the truth, the demon replied, " I do this for 
the harm of my hearers, who, hearing the truth and not doing it, 
are made more wicked." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14. 

CLII. [fo. lll vo ] Fable of the lion which, wishing to devour 
the horse, told him he was a physician, and would like to remain 
with him and cure him in case he should fall ill. The horse, 
perceiving the deceit, began to groan and limp, and asked the 
lion to cure him of a thorn which he had run into his foot. When 
the lion, in order to extract the thorn, placed his head near the 
horse s hoof, the latter gave him a powerful kick and broke his 
head, thus rewarding deceit with deceit. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 319 (La Fontaine, v. 8) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 389 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 43. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 134, 140 ; Romulus, ed. Oester 
ley, iii. 2) occurs only in Jacques de Vitry and Brit. Mus. MS. 
Harl. 463, fo. 14. 

CLIII. [fo. Ill] Fable of the bat, which, when the birds and 
quadrupeds were at war, pretended to be a bird or a quadruped, 
according to which side was victorious. The birds, perceiving 
this, flew at the bat, plucked off its feathers, and forbade it to 
fly about except at night. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 108 (La Fontaine, ii. 5) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier. i. 141. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 125 ; Romulus, ed. Oesterley, 
iii. 4) is found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Hist., iii. 5, in 
Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 241 ; Scala Celi, fo. 73 VO ; Bromyard, Summa 
Praedicantium, A. xv. 31. 

CLIV. [fo. lll vo ] Parable of three men, one of whom, on a 
lofty mountain, drew in the wind with open mouth (the vain and 
proud) ; the second sat over the forge of a smith and drew the 
sparks into his mouth (the misers) ; and the third sat by the 



198 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE V 

"River Jordan and attempted to drink the whole river (the carna 
sinners). 

Brit. Mns. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14 b. 

CLV. [fo. 113 ro ] A certain man, from excessive simplicity, 
refused to receive the sacraments from unworthy priests. The 
Lord, to remove his error, caused him to dream that he had great 
thirst, and saw a well where a leper was drawing very clear water 
in a beautiful vessel with a golden rope. When the dreamer 
approached with many others to drink, the leper drew back his 
hand and said, " Are you willing to receive water from the hand 
of a leper, who scorn to accept the sacraments from unworthy 
priests ? " 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14 b, col. 2. 

I cannot give any parallel to this story, but a similar tale 
illustrating the same point is found in the Gesta Romanorum, 
cap. 12. The parishioner of an unworthy priest, instead of 
attending mass, took a walk out into the fields and began to 
experience great thirst. He came to a stream of pure water and 
drank of it, but the more he drank the more thirsty he became. 
He then determined to seek the source of the stream and drink 
from that. On his way he met a handsome old man who asked 
him why he was not at church. After he had told him the old 
man said, " Here is the source of that stream from which you 
drank." The man looked, and saw that the stream proceeded 
from the open mouth of a foul dog, and the stench was so great 
that the man dare not drink, and yet suffered terrible thirst. 
Finally, at the old man s exhortation, he drank and slaked his 
thirst, saying, " 0, Sir, man never drank such sweet water." The 

old man replied, " See, now, how this sweet water preserves its 

colour and taste unchanged and unpolluted by the dog s mouth. 

So it is with the mass celebrated by an unworthy priest." 

Oesterley cites, in his note to the Gesta Rom., Pelbartus, 

Quadr. i. 27, L. (Chron. Minorum) ; and Grringoire, 11 m, 1 b. 

Jacques de Vitry is cited in Becull de Eximplis, dcvii. 

CLVI. [fo. 113 VO ] Fable of the sheep, goat, and mare in part 
nership with the lion. They caught a stag, and were each about 
to take a share, when the lion said : " The first share is due to me 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 199 

by my regal dignity ; the second because I exerted myself more in 
the chase than you ; if any one accepts the third share, let him 
know that he is no friend of mine." Thus the lion took all, since 
the others were afraid to offend him. 

Comp. No. CLVIII. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 31 (La Fontaine, i. 6) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 74; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 23. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Corai, Paris, 1810, pp. 24,147,298; 
Phaedrus, i. 5 ; Romulus, i. 6) is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 
463, fo. 15 ; and in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, M. ix. 2 ; 
Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Hist., iii. 2, in Hervieux, op; cit. 
ii., p. 236 ; Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Glraesse, Dial. 20. 

CLVII. [fo. 113 VO ] The fable of the town mouse which invited 
the country mouse to dinner. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 47 (La Fontaine, i. 9) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 85 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 1, 62. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 121 ; Romulus, ed. Oesterley, 
i. 12) is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14 b., col. 2 ; and 
in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, M., viii. 31 ; Dialogus Creatu- 
rarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 112; Odo de Ceritona, in Hervieux, op. 
cit. ii. 608 ; Libro de los Gatos, xi. 

CLVIII. [fo. 113 VO ] The fable of the wolf and fox in partnership 
with the lion. When they had caught a bull, a cow, and a sheep, 
the lion told the wolf to make a division. The wolf said : " Sir, 
you take the bull, I the cow, and the fox the sheep." The angry 
lion raised his paw and struck the wolf, peeling his head, Then 
the lion told the fox to divide. The fox said : " It is right that 
you, who are our king, should have the bull, your wife, our queen, 
shall have the cow, and your children, the little lions, shall have 
the sheep. 5 The lion answered : " You have made an excellent 
division. Who taught you to divide so well ? " The fox, looking 
at the wolf, said : " Sir, the one to whom you gave a red cap 
taught me thus to divide." 

Comp. No. CLVI. 

The source of this fable is the CIX. of .zEsop (ed. Furia), in 

p 2 



200 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

which the lion, ass, and fox hunt in partnership. The ass, at the 
lion s command, divides the prey, and makes three equal parts. 
The angry lion devours the ass, and orders the fox to divide. The 
fox gave all but a small part to the lion, which said : " Friend, 
who taught thee to divide so excellently ? " " The ass s misfor 
tune," replied the fox. 

The peculiar feature of the Jacques de Vitry fable, the "red 
cap " or cowl, is found only in the mediaeval fables of the Reynard 
cycle, see Grimm, Eeinhart Fuchs, Berlin, 1834, pp. cclxii., 
388 ; Robert, Fables Inedites, i. 32, cites "La Compagnie Renart." 

This version is found in ^tienne de Bourbon, 376 (p. 332) ; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, E. viii. 25 ; Odo de Ceritona in 
Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 642 ; Libro de los Gatos, xv. (" the face of 
my companion, which is all skinned "). 

There are versions in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 (printed 
in Wright s Latin Stories, 58.), and MS. 11, 284, fo. 83 (printed in 
Altdeutsche Blatter, Leipzig, 1840, vol. ii., p. 82). 

Other references may be found in Kirchhof s Wendunmuth, ed. 
Oesterley, 7, 24. 

CLIX. [fo. 115 VO ] Belshazzar, king of Babylon, fearing lest his 
dead father might revive, had him cut up into three hundred 
pices and given to as many foxes to devour. 

The only parallel to this curious story I have been able to find 
is in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, Filiatio, v. 15 : "Bt potius 
[filii] corpora illorum [parentum] membratim partirent si scient 
eos ad vitam redituros, et bona illorum vindicaturos, sicut fecit 
ille Euilmoradac (de quo recitat magister in historiis scolasticiis 
super Dan. in tertia visione), quod cum regnare cepisset post 
mortem patris sui Nabuchodonosor, timens, ne resurgeret pater 
suus, qui de bestia redierat in hominem, cadaver patris effossum, 
divisit in trecentas partes, et dedit eas trecentis vulturibus. Et 
ait ad euro. loachim socius suus, Non resurget pater tuus, nisi 
redeant vultures in unum." 

The source of this story, as indicated above, is Petrus Comestor, 
Historia Scliolastica (in Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. 198, col. 1453), 
Historia Libri Danielis. 

CLX. [fo. 115 VO ] The fable of the man who nourished the viper 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 201 

stiffened with the cold. When it had regained its strength it 
stung its benefactor. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii. 32 (La Fontaine, vi. 13) ; 
CEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, ii. 40 ; Kirchhof , Wendunmuth, ed. 
Oesterley, 7, 73 ; Gesta Homanorum, ed. Oesterley, cap. 174 ; 
Benfey, Pantschatantra, i. 113. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 130 ; Phaedrus, iv. 19 ; Romu 
lus, ed. Oesterley, i. 10) is found in HJtienne de Bourbon, 225 
(p. 195) ; Dialogus Creaturarum, Dial. 24 ; Gritsch, Quadrigesimale, 
s. 1. et a. serm. xiii. R ; Scala Cell, fo. 86 VO (" Petrus Alfonsi ") ; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, G. iv. 17 ; Odo de Ceritona in 
Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 636 ; Disciplina Olericalis, ed. Schmidt, p. 45 ; 
ed. Societe des Bibliophiles Frangais, pp. 46, 47, ii., p. 36 ; ed. 
Barbazon et Meon (Le Castoiement), ii. p. 73. In the version in 
Petrus Alfonsi, and those derived from it, the story is continued 
by the man turning the tables on the serpent, and restoring him 
to the condition from which he originally relieved him. This is 
the version in the Gesta Eomanorum cited above, and in Kirchhof s 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 5, 121. 

The version in the text is also found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 
463, fo. 15. 

CLXI. [fo. 115 VO ] The fable of the bitch which asked the dog 
to lend her his kennel until she had brought forth her puppies. 
When the dog afterwards asked for his kennel, the bitch not only 
refused to give it up, but attacked the dog with her puppies and 
drove him away. 

Phaedrus, i. 19 ; Romulus, ed. Oesterley, i. 9. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15. 

CLXII. [fo. 116 VO ] A butcher who sold cooked meat was asked 
one day by a customer to lower His price, on the ground that he 
had bought meat of no one else for seven years. The butcher 
answered in great wonder, " Have you done that for so long a time 
and yet live ? " 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 434 (p. 377). 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15, col. 2. 

CLXIII. [fo. 116 VO ] A similar story is told of a Christian who 



202 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITKY. 

sold bad food to the pilgrims at Aero. He was captured by the 
Saracens and taken before the Sultan, whom he asked to release 
him, on the ground that every year he killed more than a hundred 
pilgrims, enemies of the Sultan, by selling them bad food. The 
Sultan laughed and let him go. 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 435 (p. 377), and given in full 
by Lecoy de La Marche, in note 4, p. 377. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15, col. 2. 

CLXIV. [fo. 116 VO ] A man stored up much grain for many 
years, in order to sell it at a higher price in time of scarcity. 
The Lord, however, always sent good harvests, and at length the 
wretched man, disappointed of his hope, hanged himself above 
his grain. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15, col. 2. 

CLXV. [fo. 117 VO ] The fable of the fox which invited the 
stork to dine, and set before her liquid food which the stork could 
not take with her beak, and so the fox ate all. The stork, wishing 
to be revenged, invited the fox, and offered it food in a slender 
jar with a narrow opening in the top. The stork could easily 
reach it with her long beak ; but the fox could not reach it from 
the outside, and got no dinner. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 75 (La Fontaine, i. 18) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 112 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 29. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 397 ; Phaedrus, i. 26 ; Romulus, 
ed. Oesterley, ii. 14) I have found only in Jacques de Vitry and 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 b. 

CLXVI. [fo. 117 VO J The fable of the wolf promising the preg 
nant sow to tend her little pigs. The sow declined the wolf s 
offer, saying : " I lately brought forth a litter, and my offspring 
have reason to refuse your services." 

Phaedrus, append, xix. in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 69 ; Romulus, 
ed. Oesterley, ii. 4; Kirchhof, Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 
174. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15, col. 2. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 203 

CLXYII. [fo. 119 V ] A man, in order to increase his income, 
lent his money on usury, but did not dare to employ the interest, 
and laid it aside with the intention of making restitution at death, 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 b, col. 2. 

Jacques de Vitry is cited in Recull de Eximplis, dcxcvii. 

CLXVIII. [fo. 120 ro ] A usurer on his death bed made his wife 
and children swear to fulfil the following command : to divide 
his property into three parts, one for his wife on which she could 
remarry, one for his sons and daughters, and one to be buried 
with him in a bag hung about his neck. This was done, but the 
family wanted to obtain again the money buried with the usurer, 
and opened his grave at night. They fled in terror at seeing 
demons filling the dead man s mouth with red hot coins. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 b, col. 2. 

Cited from Jacques de Yitry by Speculum Exemplorum, Stras- 
burg, 1487, Dist. ix., cap. 216, and Magnum Speculum Exem 
plar urn, ed. Major, Eleemosyna, xxii. The version in Libro de los 
Enxemplos, Hi., is also from Jacques de Vitry, although no source 
is given. 

A very similar story is told by Caesar of Heisterbach, Dial. 
Miraculorum, ed. Strange, xi. 39, of a usurer of Metz, who directed 
that a bag of money should be buried with him. When the tomb 
was opened two toads were seen, one sitting at the mouth of the 
bag, the other on the usurer s breast. The former drew from the 
purse a piece of money, which the latter thrust into the usurer s 
heart. This version is followed by the Magnum Speculum Exem- 
plorum, ed. Major, Avaritia, v., and M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, 
p. 220. There is a brief English version in Shakespeare Jest- 
Books, vol. iii., Certayne Conceyts and Jeasts, p. 10, No. 21. 
" A certaine vsurer of Mentz, drawing near unto his Death, bound 
his Friendes by oath, that in his grave they should put a purse 
full of Money, vnder his head ; which [was] done accordingly. His 
sepulcher [being] afterwards opened, that it might bee taken out, 
there was seene a Diuell powring melting golde downe his throat 
with a ladle." 

CLXIX. [fo. 120 ro ] Another usurer was unwilling to make 
restitution at death, but still desired to bestow large alms for the 



204 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

sake of worldly honor. Therefore he left in his will a sum of 
money, and commanded his children and friends to put it out at 
interest for three years, and then bestow the whole amount for 
the benefit of his soul. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 b. col. 2. 

CLXX. [fo. 120 ro ] A usurer in his last hoars entreats his soul 
to remain with him, promising it gold and worldly pleasures, 
although he would bestow but small alms upon the poor for it. 
When he saw that he could not detain it, he exclaimed angrily : 
" I have prepared for thee a comfortable home and much wealth ; 
since thou art so foolish and wretched that thou will not abide in 
it, depart from me, I commend thee to all the demons in hell," and 
shortly after he delivered up his spirit into the hands of the 
demons, and was buried in hell. 

^tienne de Bourbon, 411 (p. 359) ; a similar story, but briefer, 
is 59 (p. 63); Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, A. xxvii. 49; 
Scala Celi, fo. 80 ; Martinus Polonus, Sermones, 190 F. ; Liber de 
Abundantia Exemplorvm, fo. 44 b. ; Herolt (Discipulus) Sermones, 
118, L (" Humbertus in Tractatu de septuplici timore," probably 
Etienne de Bourbon, or the Liber de Abundantia, which is based 
on it) ; Recull de Eximplis, dcxcviii. (" J. de V."). 

Versions are also found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 b. 
col. 2 ; MS. 11,284, fo. 91. 

Some additional references may be found in Pauli s Schimpf und 
Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 281. 

CLXXI. [fo. 120 ro ] The fable of the ape which asked the fox 
for a part of her large tail. The fox answered, that she would 
rather sustain the weight of her tail than give any part of it to 
cover the ape s nakedness. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 15 b. col. 2. 

Phaedrus, app. 1, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 59; Romulus, ed. 
Oesterley, iii. 17 ; Vincent of Beauvais, /Speculum Historiale, iii. 
7, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 243. In the version in the Scala Celt, 
fo. 19, the fox is caught by the tail and captured, and then laments 
that she did not give the ape her tail. 

An old Grerman version (xiii. century) may be found in Zeits- 
chriftfur deutsches Alterthwn, vii., p. 352, No. xxii. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 



205 



CLXXII. [fo. 120 ro ] The relatives of an insane man dragged 
him before an image of the Virgin, and while they were praying 
God to restore him to health, the man himself cried out: " Mary, 
do not believe them, for they are lying to thee. I am sane and 
wiser than they." His relatives upbraided him, and urged him 
to adore the image, but he said : " I may adore thee, but I shall 
never love thee ! " This story Jacques de Yitry applies to 
usurers. 

CLXXIII. [fo. 120 VO ] A knight whose property had been 
absorbed by a usurer was reduced to the greatest straits and 
thrown into prison. The usurer died, and the knight contracted 
a marriage with his widow, and not only recovered his own 
property, but all that the usurer had possessed. 

CLXXIV. [fo. 121 ro ] The fable of the fox which persuaded the 
lean wolf to follow her through a narrow opening into a store 
room. There the wolf ate so much that he could not get out 
until he had fasted and lost his skin by a sound cudgelling. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 214 (La Fontaine, iii. 17) ; 
GEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 250 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmutli, ed. Oesterley, 7, 44 ; Edelestand du Meril, Poesies 
Ine dites du Moyen Age, Paris, 1854, p. 134, n. 4, cites a version 
from the mediaeval sermons. This, with Jacques de Vitry s, is 
the only mediaeval sermon-book version which I have been able to 
find of this ^Bsopian fable (ed. Furia, 12). 

CLXXV. [fo. 121 ro ] A knight once met a band of monks 
bearing the body of a usurer to the grave. He exclaimed : "I 
grant you the body of my spider, and may the devil have his 
soul. 1, however, have the spider s web, that is, all his money." 

CLXXYI. [fo. 122 ro ] A usurer paid some monks a large sum 
to bury him in their church. One night, while they were at 
matins he rose from his tomb, seized a candelabrum and attacked 
the monks, wounding some on the head, breaking the arms and 
legs of others, and crying out : " These enemies of God and traitors 
took my money, and promised me salvation, and lo ! deceived by 
them, I have found eternal death." 

Referred to by Lecoy de La Marche, Etienne de Bourbon, p. 365, 



206 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITBY. 

n. 2. There is a version in Herolt (Disciplus), Promptuarium, 
S. iii., in which, after the above incident has taken place, the 
body of the usurer is found in a field outside of the town. The 
body is restored to the former spot, and the same thing takes 
place again ; finally, the dead man declares that he cannot rest 
quietly after having tormented the poor by his usury, and if the 
monks want peace they must cast his body out of the cloister. 
This they do, and are not again molested. 

CLXXVII. [fo. 122 ro ] A priest refused to bury the body of a 
usurer, one of his parishioners, who had died without making 
restitution. The friends of the dead man insisted upon his 
burial, and the priest, to get rid of their further importunities, 
said to them after prayer : " Let us put his body upon an ass, 
and see the will of God. Wherever the ass shall carry it to the 
church, or cemetery, or elsewhere, there will I bury it." They 
did so, and the ass, turning neither to the right nor to the left, 
bore the body without the town to the place where robbers were 
hanged, and shook it off on a dunghill under the gibbet, and there 
the priest left it with the thieves. 

See No. CVI. 

There are versions in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, V. 12, 
24 ; Scala Celt, fo. 168 V (" Speculum Exemp lot-urn ") ; Herolt 
(Discipulus) Sermones, cxiv., B; Becull de Eximplis, dcxxiv. ("J. 
de V.") Other versions are cited by Oesterley in his notes to 
Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, 197, to which may be added M. Scotus, 
Mensa Philosophica, p. 221. 

There is an inedited version in Brit. Mus. MS. 11,284, fo. 91. 

CLXXYIII. [fo. 122 r ] The neighbours of a dead usurer 
cannot lift his body to carry it to the grave. A wise old man 
said it was the custom in that city for persons of the profession 
of the deceased to bear him to the grave. Four usurers were 
called, who easily raised the body and carried it to the grave. 

Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, V. xii., 23 ; Scala Geli, fo. 
168 VO (cites Jacques de Vitry) ; ~Recull de Eximplis, dec. (" J. de 
V.") For other versions, see Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. 
Oesterley, 190, 405. 

CLXXIX. [fo. 122 ro ] A certain preacher wished to show to 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 207 

all liow ignominious was the profession of usurer, which no one 
dare publicly confess. So he said in his sermon: " I wish to 
absolve you according to the trades and professions of each. Let 
the smiths arise." They arose and were absolved. " Let the 
tanners arise," and they arose, and so as they were named the 
various trades arose. At length he cried : " Let the usurers arise 
that they may be absolved " ; and although there were more 
present of this profession than of the others, no one arose, but all 
hid themselves for shame, and were derided and put to confusion 
by the others for not daring to confess their profession. 

Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, V. xii. 11 ; Scala Celi, fo. 168 VO 
(Jacques de Vitry) ; Recull de EximpUs, dcxcix (" J. de V."). M. 
Scotus, Mensa PJiilosopfiica, p. 219. Other versions may be found 
in Pauli, Scliimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 193. There is an 
English version in Shakespeare Jest-Boohs, edited by W. C. Hazlitt, 
London, 1864, vol. iii., Certayne Conceyts and Jeasts, p. 10, No. 20. 

CLXXX. [fo. 123 VO ] A certain rich miser kept a pie so long 
that when it was set before his guests the mice ran out of it. 
Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 410 (p. 358). 

CLXXXI. [fol. 123 VO ] An avaricious knight, after a banquet at 
the house of a nobleman, asked for his cloak, which his servant 
had put away with the other garments. Because the servant 
could not find it at once his master upbraided him, saying: 
" Bring me my cloak quickly ; don t you know it ? " The servant 
answered in the hearing of all : "I have known it well for seven 
years, but I could not find it." The other knights who heard this 
began to laugh and mock the avaricious knight. 

fitienne de Bourbon, 410 (p. 358) ; Scala Celi, fo. 19 (" twenty 
years "). 

CLXXXII [fo. 124 ro ] The husband of an avaricious woman 
entrusted the keys and keeping of all his goods to her. She kept 
everything locked up and gave nothing to the poor, promising 
herself a long life. She died, however, and her husband was 
asked to give something for her soul. He, thinking more of a 
second marriage than of his deceased wife s soul, answered in 
the words of the French proverb : " Bertha had all my goods in 
her power; let her have all that she did for her own soul." 



208 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITKY. 

Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, E. viii. 16 ; Scala Celi, fo. 
18 VO (Jacques de Vitry), Becull de Eximplis, Ixx. (" J. de V."). 
Compare Wright s Latin Stories, 96 (MS. Harl. 2316, fo. 56 VO ). 

CLXXXIII. [fo. 124 VO ] In a certain town there was an old 
rustic named Grocelinus, who from long habit had learned the 
festivals, and always put on his red shoes on the days which were 
wont to be celebrated in that place. When his neighbours saw 
this they used to say to their servants : " To-day we must rest 
from work, for Grocelinus has on his red shoes." 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 325 (p. 273). 

CLXXXIY. [fo. 124 VO ] The fable of the lion, which, when he 
became old and feeble, was attacked by those whom he had 
injured. The boar wounded him with his teeth, the bull with his 
horns, the ass with his hoofs, etc. Many also who had not been 
harmed by him vexed him on account of his maliciousness. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i., 207 (La Fontaine, iii., 
14) ; Oeuvres de J. de la Fontaine, par H. Begnier, i., 242 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 27. 

This fable of Phaedrus (inHervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 12; Romulus, 
i., 15) is found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, iii., 3 
(in Hervieux, op. cit., ii., p. 237) ; Dialogue Creaturarum, ed. 
Graesse, Dial. 110; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, H. iv., 8; 
S. v., 3. 

CLXXXY. [fo. 124 V ] A shepherd drew a thorn from the foot 
of a lion, which was afterwards captured and presented to the 
emperor. The shepherd for some offence was arrested and ordered 
to be thrown to the beasts to be devoured. Among them was the 
lion which the shepherd had cured, which, recognising him, not 
only spared him, but defended him against the other beasts. 
When the emperor heard this he sent for the shepherd, and when 
he had heard his story, released both the shepherd and the lion. 

Very copious references to this story (Androclus) will be found 
in Oesterley s notes to his editions of the Gesta Romanorum, cap. 
104 (comp. 278), and Kirchhof s Wendunmuth, 1, 203. 

This fable, or rather anecdote, was well known during the 
middle ages from the version in Romulus (ed. Oesterley, iii. 1), 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 209 

and is found in the following sermon-books, etc., Bromyard, Summa 
Praedicantium, P. ii., 32 ; Dialogue Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 
Ill , tJScala Celi, fo. 148 V (Etienne de Bourbon; not in La 
Marche s edition) ; Libro de los Enxemplos, cxv. 

CLXXXYI. [fo. 125 VO ] A she-wolf stole and suckled some 
children; when, however, one of the children attempted to stand 
upright and walk, the wolf struck him on the head with her paw, 
and would not allow him to walk otherwise than like the beasts, 
on his hands and feet. 

CLXXXVII. [fo. 126 VO ] The fable of the man who killed the 
goose which laid an egg every day, in the hope of finding at one 
time many eggs within her. 

This is a variant of the " Goose with the golden eggs " (La 
Fontaine, v., 13). In the ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 47) of the 
" Woman and the hen," the hen lays an egg every day, and the wo 
man, thinking to obtain two, increases the hen s food, with the result 
that the hen becomes so fat that it does not lay any longer, even 
one egg. Whether this was Jacques de Vitry s source I cannot tell. 
I have found but three parallels, one in Dialogue Creaturarum, ed. 
Graesse, Dial. 99, is so brief that it may be cited here, " Quidam 
rusticus habebat gallinam unam, quae quotidie ei faciebat ovum 
et multa lucrabatur ova congregando et vendendo. Hie cogitans, 
quod multa ova possent inveniri in ea, et volens totum lucrum 
simul habere, scindit earn et non inveniens ova perdidit totum, ut 
vulgariter dicitur, ova et gallinam." The second version is in 
Recull de Eximplis, cclxxix., and is taken with acknowledgment 
from Jacques de Vitry. The third version is in Pauli s Scliimpf 
und Ernst, ed. Qesterley, 53, and is very like that just given. 

CLXXXVI1I. [fo. 126 VO ] One evening St. Martin met some men 
hastening to Paris, who inquired of the saint whether they could 
reach the city before night. The saint replied : " You can easily 
reach it if you go slowly, and do not hasten, as you are now doing." 
They scoffed at the saint, who was humbly clad and riding an ass, 
and continued their headlong course, but soon their cart was over 
turned and a wheel broken. The saint overtook them as he was 
riding slowly along, and said, " If you had taken my word and 



2lO THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

gone slowly you could have reached the city before night, as I 
shall do, God willing." 

There is a version of this story in Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. 
Oesterley, 255, and a peculiar one in Martinus Polonus, Sermones, 
clxiii., P., in which the saint s place is taken by an old woman, 
who answers, "If you go as I am going." Jacques de Vitry s 
version is copied with acknowledgment in Eecull de Eximplis, 
cclxxx. 



CLXXXIX. (fo. 126] The fable of the fly which scoffed at 
the ant and deemed her miserly, boasting that he lived in the 
dwellings of the great, drank from golden cups, and ate from silver 
dishes. The ant replied that her life was safe, at least, whereas 
the fly was exposed to the danger of drowning if he fell into the 
silver dishes, and, even if he prospered during the present season, 
he would perish in the winter, because he had laid up no food for 
himself. 

Fables Inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 224 (La Fontaine, iv. 3) ; 
(Euvres de J. de la Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 270 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 6, 275, 276. 

This fable of Phaedrus (iv. 24, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 49; 
Romulus, ii. 18, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 198) is found in Vincent 
of Beauvais, Speculum Historiale, iii. 4, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 
240 ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, M. viii. 30 (attributed to 



CXC. [fo. 126 VO ] The fable of the fly which annoyed the bald 
man and derided him because he often struck his own head in his 
vain attempts to kill the fly. The man said : Why do you 
laugh, wretched and foolish creature, since you can harm little 
and be greatly harmed." When the fly continued to return, the 
man dealt a heavy blow, which struck and killed the fly before it 
could escape. 

Phaedrus, iv. 31 (in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 54) ; Romulus, ii. 13 
(Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 195). 

CXCI. [fo. 127 ro ] A rustic who had been brought up in the 
barnyard, in passing an apothecary s shop fainted away at the 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 21 1 

odour of the spices kept there, and could be restored to health 
only by the smell of his native dunghill. 

I have found three versions of this story : Scala Oeli, fo. 167 
(Libro de septem donis spiritus sancti, i.e. Etienne de Bourbon, 
not in La Marche s edition) ; Wright s Latin Stories, 99. (MS. 
Arundel, No. 506, fo. 43 VO ) ; Libro de los Enxemplos, cclvii. 

Goedeke, in Orient und Occident, ii. p. 260, cites an Oriental 
version from Dschelaleddin Rumi s Mesnewi (written 1263, 
printed at Cairo, 1835, vol. iv,. p. 31, et seq. n. 10, 11), in which a 
tanner faints at the smell of musk, and his brother restores him 
to consciousness by the smell of dog manure employed in tanning. 

Wright, op. cit., cites the fabliau Du vilain asnier, Legrand 
d Aussy, iii. 219, and a collection of stories printed in the six 
teenth century, entitled Histoires facetieuses et morales, p. 189. 

There is an inedited version in Brit. Mus. MS. 11,284, f. 89. 

The fabliau mentioned above may be better found in Montaiglon 
and Raynaud, Recueil general et complet des Fabliaux, Paris, 1872 
1883, vol. v., p. 40. 

CXCII. [fo. 127 VO ] Certain persons take a fixed quantity of 
gold, and substitute for a part of it quicksilver, which increases 
the weight beyond that of the original amount. Others take pure 
gold and silver, and, alloying them, return them impure. 

CXCII [. [fo. 127 VO ] A wicked smith was wont to drive secretly 
a nail or needle into the feet of the horses he was shoeing for 
pilgrims and crusaders. After the pilgrim had gone a mile or 
two, and his horse had become very lame, he was met by an agent 
of the smith, who said : " Friend, your horse is useless ; will you 
sell him, so that you may get something for his hide and shoes, 
and not lose all ? " The pilgrim would sell the horse for a small 
sum to the man, who would take him back to the smith. After 
the nail or needle had been extracted, the foot would get well in a 
few days, and the smith would sell the horse for ten times what 
he had paid for it. 

fitienne de Bourbon, 433 (p. 376). 

CXCIV. [fo. 128 ro ] A hermit who lived too far from market to 
sell his wares, still made baskets out of palm leaves and after- 



212 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

wards destroyed them, so that he should not be idle and fall into 
vain and wicked thoughts. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16. 

CXCV. [fo. 128 ro ] A clerk had a servant whom he made carry 
a heap of stones from one place to another, and then bring them 
-> back again, so that he might not be idle. 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16. 

CXCVI. [fo. 128 ro ] An avaricious and an envious man were 
allowed to ask whatever they desired, on condition that the one 
who asked last should receive twice as much. Each was unwilling 
that the other should receive more, and hesitated to prefer his 
request. At length the envious man said, " I wish one of my 
eyes to be torn out," and it was done, and the avaricious man lost 
both of his eyes according to the agreement. 

The oriental stories cited by Oesterley in his notes to Pauli, 
Schimpfund Ernst, 647, and by Benfey, Pantschatantra, i., 304, 498, 
are not parallels. The story reached Jacques de Yitry through 
the Latin fabulists. There is a version as early as Avianus 
(Aviani Fabulae, XLII. ad Theodosium ex recensione G. Froehner. 
Leipzig, Teubner, 1862, No. xxii., p. 27). 

The story was a favourite, as is shown by the large number of 
versions in mediaeval and modern literature ; among the former 
are : Holkot, In Librum Sapientiae Regis Salomonis, Basel, 1586, 
Lectio xxix., p. 104; Peraldus, Summa Virtutum ac Vitiorum, 
Cologne, 1629, vol. ii.,p. 281 ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, I., 
vi., 19; Herolt (Discipulus), Promptuarium exemplorum, J. 33; 
Scala Cell, fo. 106 VO (Jacques de Vitry) ; Gritsch, Sermones Quadra- 
gesimales, xix. Z. ; Paratus, Sermones de tempore et de sanctis, s. 1. et 
a, Sermo de tempore, Ixiv. ; Hollen, Serm. liyem. xxxv, G ; Magnum 
Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Invidia, xi. (" Scala celi ex 
Jacobo Vitriaco ") ; Libra de Los Enxemplos, cxlvi. ; Fiore di Virtu, 
Naples, 1870, p. 28 (attributed to Horace). There are inedited 
versions in Brit, Mus. MS. 11,284, f. 45, and MS. Harl. 463, f. 16. 
Copious references to modern versions may be found in Oesterley s 
notes to Pauli, cited above. See also Goedeke in Orient und 
Occident, vol. i., p. 543, No. 11 ; and Hist. Litt. xxiii., p. 237. 

An Italian version is in Tre Novelline Antiche, Florence, 1887 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 213 

[Nozze Lami-Del Valle], Nov. 1. These three novels were taken 
from a collection of sermons in Italian, the MS. of which is in the 
Bib. naz. of Florence, MSS. palatim, No. 102. 

CXCYIT. [Fo. 128 V ] An avaricious priest refused to bury the 
mother of a young man without pay for the service. The youth 
was poor and did not know what to do ; after much anxiety and 
deliberation he tied his mother firmly up in a bag and carried it 
at nightfall to the priest s house, saying : " Sir, I have no ready 
money, but I bring you a good pledge, namely, some balls of 
thread which my mother spun for weaving." Thereupon he threw 
down the bag and departed. The priest called his clerk and joy 
fully approached the bag, and when he felt the woman s head, he 
cried: " One good pledge we have, whatever the others may be ; 
this ball which I touched is very large, and worth much." When, 
however, he untied the mouth of the bag, the old woman s legs, 
which her son had bent when he put her in the bag, flew out and 
gave the priest a heavy blow in the breast. The priest was 
greatly terrified and amazed, and after he learned the truth buried 
the body. 

The only other version of this story which I have found is in 
Pauli, S chimp f und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 598. The editor cites 
Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum Morale, 3, 7, 17, p. 1333 (edition of 
Douay, 1624 fol.). 

CXCVIII. [Fo. 128 V .] A good priest had a bad and avaricious 
parishioner, a rustic, who never paid his tithes or gave any offer 
ings except on great festivals, when shame compelled him to do so, 
and then he always selected a bad penny and gave it to the priest. 
After he had done this many times, the priest, who kept finding 
the piece of bad money among the rest, watched and found that 
the rustic was the one who always offered the bad money. The 
priest said nothing until Easter, when, as usual, the rustic offered 
his bad money, and came with others to receive the Eucharist. 
The priest had a piece of bad money ready, and slipped it into 
the rustic s mouth instead of the host. When the man shut his 
mouth he found the bad money which he had offered, and was 
amazed. After mass he approached the priest in tears and told 
him what had happened. The priest told him it could not have 

Q 



214 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

been without a reason, and urged him to confess the truth. With 
great fear and shame he made a clean breast of it, and on his 
promise to offer in the future good money and pay tithes on his 
profession like others, the priest absolved him and gave him the 
Eucharist. 

Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, D. iii. 9; Recull de Eximplis, 
dviii. (" J. de V.") ; Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 73. 

CXCIX. [fo. 128 VO ] A man who was converted from a worldly 
v) life told Jacques de Vitry that a brief discourse had turned him 
^S to God. One day he reflected whether the souls of the damned 
could be freed from torment after a thousand years. He answered 
in his mind: no. If after a hundred thousand: no. If after a 
thousand thousand : no. If after as many thousands of years as 
there are drops in the ocean : no. Pondering these things, he saw 
how transitory this life was, and so the brief discourse, no, con 
verted him to God. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16. This story is told by Brom 
yard, Summa Praedicantium, C. x., 14, of Subo, afterwards Bishop 
of Toulouse, when he was a very wicked man. The only other 
versions I have found are in Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium, 
p. 71 ; Passavanti, Lo Specchio delta Vera Penitenza, Milan, 1808, 
vol. i., p. 142 ; Distinzione iv., cap. 3 ("we read that in the king 
dom of France there was a nobleman, etc." The version is some 
what different from those above cited. One of the thoughts is, 
whether after as many thousands of years as there are drops in 
the ocean) ; and Recull de Eximplis, cxxviii. (" J. de V.") 

CO. [fo. 130 VO ] A courtezan on taking leave of her lover, who 
had spent on her all that he had save a cloak, wept, and after he 
had gone, laughed heartily. She explained to a harlot who was 
with her that she wept not for the dissolute fellow, but because 
she had not succeeded in despoiling him of his cloak, the only 
thing she had left him. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16, col. 2. 

Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, L. vii., 35 ; Scala Geli, fo. 
87 VO ; Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 10, where other 
versions may be found. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 215 

CGI. [fo. 130 VO ] The fable of the old man with two mistresses, 
one young, the other old. The former pulled out her lover s grey 
hairs, while he was asleep, to make him appear young ; the latter 
plucked out his black hairs to make him appear old. 

Fables inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 73 (La Fontaine, i. 17) ; 
CEuvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 109 ; Kirchhof , Wend- 
unmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 67 ; Benfey, Pantscliatantra, i. 602 ; 
Loiseleur-Deslcngchamps, Essai sur les Fables indiennes, Paris, 
1838, p. 71. 

This well-known ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 199 ; Phaedrus, ii., 
2, in Hervieux op. cit. ii., 18) is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 
463, fo. 16, col. 2 ; j@tienne de Bourbon, 451, p. 390 (Etienne says 
he heard this fable in the sermon of a certain Minorite Friar, 
William de Cordellis) ; Vie des Anciens Peres (Tobler in Jalirbuch 
fur roman. und eng. Literatur, vii. 433) ; M. Scotus, Mensa Philoso- 
phica, p. 256. 

CCII. [fo. 130 VO ] A woman told her lover that she would 
rather die than have him die, and be hurt rather than have him 
hurt. One night, to test her sincerity, while they were sitting 
barefooted near the fire, he put some tow on her foot and on his 
own and set fire to it with a candle. As soon as the woman felt 
the burning tow she shook it off, and was too much engrossed in 
saving herself to pay any attention to her lover, who thus dis 
covered her falseness. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16, col. 2. 

CCIII. [fo. 130 VO ] A minstrel at sea in a great tempest began 
to eat largely of salt meat. His fellow travellers wondered and 
said : " You see all are weeping and in fear; why do you continue 
to eat, instead of mourning and calling upon God, as you ought ? " 
The minstrel replied : " Never have I had to drink so much as T 
shall have to drink to-day, and so it behoves me to eat salt 
meat." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16 b ; Bromyard, Summa Praedi- 
cantium, T. iv., 17 (Wright has copied the story in his Latin 
Stories, 142) ; M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 229 ; Pauli, 
Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 235, where numerous modern 
versions will be found. 

Q2 



216 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITKY. 

There is a modern English version so brief that it may be cited 
here ; it is contained in Hazlitt s Shakespeare Jest-Books, London, 
1864, vol. iii., Certayne Gonceyts and Jeasts, p. 4 : "A certaine 
Player, being vpon the Sea in a Tempest, beganne very greedily 
to eate salte Meates, saying, that he feared hee should haue too 
much drinke to digest them." 

CCIV. [fo. 131 ro ] A lazy servant was unwilling to leave his 
bed at night, and when his master told him to rise and see 
whether it rained, he called the dog which guarded the house 
without, and if he felt that he was wet, he said : " Master, it 
rains," pretending that he had risen. When his master told him 
to rise and see whether the fire was burning, he called the cat, 
and if he felt that he was warm, he answered : " Master, we have 
fire enough." His master on arising found that the door had been 
opened all night, and asked his servant why he had not shut it. 
He replied : " Why should I close it at night when I must open it 
myself in the morning ? " 

The source of the story is the Discipline Clericalis, ed. Schmidt, 
cap. xxix., p. 75 ; ed. Soc. des Bib. Fr. i., p. 170, Fabula xxv. ii., 
p. 163, Gonte xxiii. ; Castoie?nent, Conte xxv., in Barbazan et 
Meon, Fabliaux et Contes, Paris, 1808, p. 166. 

Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, A., xxi., 18, simply refers to 
Maymundus : " Talium ergo amicitia est sicut servitium May- 
mundi, qui in mensa et in prosperitate domino suo diligenter 
serviebat, sed in bello et adversitate fugiebat." The version of 
this story in Wright, Latin Stories, 24, is taken from MS. Harl., 
No. 2851 (not foliated). There is another in MS. Harl. 463, fo. 
16 b. The story is also found in Libro de los Exemplos, cxxiv. 
Wright, op. cit. cites Lydgate s ballad of Jack Hare (Minor Poems, 
ed. Halliwell, p. 52). 

CCV. [fo. 131 VO ] The master of a garrulous servant commanded 
him not to tell him anything that had happened at home when he 
returned from a pilgrimage to St. James, and wanted to rejoice 
with his friends and neighbours. When his master returned, 
however, the garrulous servant went to meet him with a lame 
dog, and when his master asked why the dog limped, the servant 
answered : " While the dog was running near the mule, the mule 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 217 

kicked him and broke his own halter and ran through the house 
scattering the fire with his hoofs, and burning down your house 
with your wife." 

Disciplina Clericalis, ed. Schmidt, cap. xxx., p. 76 ; ed. Societe 
des Bib. Fr., i., Fab. xxv., p. 172 ; ii., p. 163, Conte xxiii. ; Castoie- 
ment, Conte xxv., in Barbazan et Meon, Fabliaux et Contes, Paris, 
1808, ii., p. 166. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16 b. There is a version in Libro 
de los Exemplos, cxxiv., and a modern one in Hebel s ErzciJilungen 
des rheinlandischen Hausfreundes ( J. P. Hebel s Sammtliche Werke, 
Karlsruhe, 1832, iii. vol.), p. 71, entitled " Ein Wort giebt das 
andere." A translation, with a few changes, of this story was 
once a favourite dialogue for school speakers. I have before me a 
version in The Common School Speaker, by Noble Butler, Louis 
ville, Ky., 1856, p. 57, "Bad News," which is as follows: "Mr. 
G. : Ha ! steward, how are you, my old boy ? how do things go on 
at home ? Steward : Bad enough, your honour ; the magpie s 
dead. Mr. G. : Poor Mag ! so he s gone. How came he to die ? 
Steward : Over-ate himself, sir. Mr. G. : Did he, indeed ? a 
greedy dog ! Why, what did he get that he liked so well ? 
Steward : Horse-flesh, sir ; he died of eating horse-flesh. Mr. 
G. : How came he to get so much horse-flesh ? Steward : All 
your father s horses, sir. Mr. G. : What, are they dead, too ? 
Steward : Ay, sir ; they died of over- work. Mr. G. : And why 
were they overworked, pray ? Steward : To carry water, sir. 
Mr. G. : To carry water ! and what were they carrying water for ? 
Steward : Sure, sir, to put out the fire. Mr. G. : Fire ! what fire ? 
Steward : Oh ! sir, your father s house is burned down to the 
ground. Mr. G. : My father s house burnt down ! and how came 
it on fire ? Steward : I think, sir, it must have been the torches. 
Mr. G. : Torches ! what torches ? Steward : At your mother s 
funeral. Mr. G. : My mother dead ! Steward : Ah ! poor lady, 
she never looked up after it. Mr. G : After what ? Steward : 
The loss of your father. Mr. G. : My father gone too ? Steward : 
Yes, poor gentleman, he took to his bed as soon as he heard of it. 
Mr. G. : Heard of what ? Steward : The bad news, sir, an please 
your honor. Mr. G. : What ? more miseries ! more bad news ? 
Steward : Yes, sir ; your bank has failed, and your credit is lost ; 
and you are not worth a shilling in the world. I made bold, sir, 



218 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VTTEY. 

to come to wait on yon about it ; for I thought you would like to 
hear the news ! " 

In Hebel s version, a rich gentleman in Schwabia sends his son 
to Paris to learn French and manners. After the son had been 
there a year, a servant of his father s house comes also to Paris, 
and when the son sees him he exclaims in surprise and delight : 
" Why, Hans, where did you come from ? How are they at home, 
and what is the news ? " The servant answers : " Not much, Mr. 
William, except that, ten days ago, your handsome raven died, 
etc." The conclusion is : " Mein Vater todt ? Und wie gehts 
meiner Schwester ? Drum eben hat sich Ihr Herr Vater seliger 
zu todt gegramt, als Ihre Jungfer Schwester ein Kindlein gebar, 
und hatte Keinen Vater dazu. Es ist ein Biiblein. Sonst gibts 
just nicht viel Neues, setzte er hinzu." 

CCVI. [fo. 131 VO ] A certain good man never answered a woman 
who frequently quarrelled with him. He told his neighbours, 
who wondered at his silence, that he did not know how to quarrel. 
One of them advised him to go in search of a quarrelsome woman 
whom he knew, and engage her to quarrel for him. He did so, 
and told the woman his errand, when she began to scold and 
upbraid him. At this the man rejoiced, and said : " Thank Grod, 
I have found the one I was seeking." When she heard this she 
began to revile him the more, and told him to seek elsewhere, 
for he would not find there the woman he was in search of. He 
smiled and said: "You are good enough forme: I could never 
find a better." 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 239 (p. 203). 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16 b, col. 2. 

CCVII. [fo. 131 VO ] A bishop who had a lying nephew lamented 
it, and said that he might better have other vices which would 
cease with age ; but a liar is worse in old age than in youth. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 16 b, col. 2. 

A similar story is found in El Libro de Exemplos in the Romania, 
viii. p. 526, No. ccxvi a . 

CCVIII. [fo. 131 VO ] When Jacques de Vitry was at Paris he 
heard about the servants of the students, who were almost all of 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 219 

them thieves. They had a master who, wishing one day while 
they were all assembled to know who were the craftiest and best 
thieves, began to ask each one about his skill in the art. The 
first said he could steal a farthing from a penny ; the master said 
that was little. The second said he could steal an obol from a 
penny. The third, three farthings. After various persons had 
said various things, one arose and said that he could steal a penny 
from a farthing. The master made him sit in honour at his side, 
and said: "You have excelled all; show us how you did it." 
" I have," he answered, " a friend from whom I always buy 
vegetables and mustard and other things needed by my master s 
cook, who for a farthing gives me four measures of mustard, and 
I reckon a farthing for each measure ; and, besides, he gives me 
a fifth measure gratis because I always buy of him, and thus, 
giving him a single farthing, I keep four for myself." 

This story is cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 428 (p. 372), and 
is in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 (Wright s Latin Stories, 125). 

CCIX. [fo. 132 ro ] A man had a handsome cat which would not 
stay at home, but roamed the neighbour s houses in search of 
other cats. Her master disfigured her by burning her tail and 
pulling out her hair, and henceforth she was glad to remain home 
by the fire. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17; 11,284, fo. 49 b (" Odo de 
Ceritona"). 

Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 648. Bromyard, 
Summa Praedicantium, 0. vii., 18, tells a story of a man who had 
a handsome foal which a rich neighbour coveted, and to prevent 
its loss the owner cut off its tail and mane. Just before telling 
this story Bromyard says if young people will not abstain from 
ornaments and vain words a third remedy is in the hands of their 
parents, who if they wish to keep them at home should not 
adorn them, but rather deprive them of useless ornaments, know 
ing that the singed cat ("cattus adustus "), as they say, does not 
like to roam. The story is in Boner s Fables (ed. Pfeiffer, Leipzig, 
1844), No. 96. See Gottschick in Zeitschrifl fur deutscke Philo- 

ie, xi. 333. 



OCX. [fo. 132 ro ] A man found his wife with a priest and cut 



220 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

her hair in a circle above her ears, and with a razor made a broad 
tonsure, saying: "So ought priestesses to be." Jacques de Vitry 
adds: "Blessed be that man!" 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, f. 17, col. 2. 

CCXI. [fo. 132 VO ] A woman with a black mark on her face gave 
a physician money to remove it. He promised her that not the 
least spot of blackness should remain on her face, and gave her 
the juice of a certain herb with which to wash it. The black spot 
came off with the skin, and the disfigured woman brought the 
physician before a judge, who commended him and dismissed the 
suit. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17, col. 2. 

CCXII. [fo. 132 VO ] St. Bernard when a youth protected himself 
against an attempt upon his virtue by crying: "Thieves, thieves! " 
and arousing the house. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17, col. 2. Magnum Speculum 
Exemplorum, ed. Major, Virgo, viii. ("Ex vita S. Bernardi, lib. 1, 
cap. 3") ; Libro de los Enxemplos, cvi. 

The story occurs in one of St. Bernard s biographies, see Sancti 
Bernardi Vita et res gestae auctore Guillelmo olim Sancti Theodevici 
prope Eemos dbbate, tune monaclw Signiacense, in Migne, Patrol, lat. 
vol. 185, p. 230, lib. i., cap. iii., 7. 

CCXIII. [fo. 132 VO ] The fable of the weasel, which begged the 
man who had caught her to let her go, alleging that she kept his 
house free from mice. The man answered : " I shall not let you 
go, for you did not intend to free my house from mice, but to be 
the only one to devour my bread." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b. 

CCXIY. [fo. 133 VO ] There is a certain place in Normandy called 
Walter s Leap, because a foolish man named Walter leaped from 
the spot to show his mistress that he loved her so much that he 
would shun no danger for her sake. She likewise promised to 
follow him wherever he went. When, however, she saw Walter 
drowned, she was unwilling to follow him, and shortly after took 
up with another lover. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 221 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 49). There are versions in Etienne de Bourbon, 474 (p. 
408), and in Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 596. 

CCXV. [fo. 133 VO ] A wolf carried off a sheep but did not tear 
its throat at once for fear it would attempt to escape and impede 
the wolf s flight. So the wolf bore the sheep gently upon its back 
until it reached a place of safety in the forest, and there de 
voured it. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b. 

CCXVI. [fo. 133 VO ] A priest, whom Jacques de Vitry knew, 
was accustomed on Sundays, when he admonished his people to 
pray for the dead, to say : "Do not pray for the soul of my 
father, who was a usurer, and refused to restore his ill-gotten 
gains." This he said to frighten other sinners, and especially 
usurers. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b. 

CCXVIL. [fo. 134 VO ] The fable of the lean wolf and the sleek 
do^. The wolf prefers his liberty and hunger to the dog s 
servitude and plenty. 

Fables inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i. 24 (La Fontaine, i. 5) ; 
(Euvres de J. de La Fontaine, par H. Regnier, i. 70 ; Pauli, 
Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 433. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 361, comp. 136 ; Phaedrus, iii. 
7 ; Romulus, iii. 15) is found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum 
Hisioriale, iii. 6, in Hervieux, op. cit. ii. 242 ; Scala Celi, fo. 76 VO ; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, M. viii. 32 ; Bareleta, Sermones 
de Sanctis. Lyons, 1505, In festo St. Martini, fo. 38 ; Libro de los 
Enxemplos, 176. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b. 

CCXYIII. [fo. 134 VO ] A Jew, playing dice with a Christian, 
was shocked to hear the latter curse God because he lost. The 
Jew stopped his ears, and fled, leaving his money behind. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b, col. 2. 

CCXIX. [fo. 134 VO ] A knight, at Paris, while crossing a bridge, 



222 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

heard a wealthy burgher blaspheming God. The knight dealt 
him a terrible blow on the mouth, and broke his teeth. The 
knight was brought before the king, and excused himself on the 
ground that he would be unable to hear his earthly king reviled 
without avenging him, much less his heavenly king. The king 
commended him highly, and set him at liberty. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 385 (p. 340), tells the story as occurring 
in the reign of Philippe- Auguste (Lecoy de La Marche cites the 
story of J. de Y. in full in the note). The story is found in 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b, col. 2. 

That the story is merely legendary, and does not rest upon any 
historical basis, is shown by the fact that there is an Italian ver 
sion in Novellette, Esempi morali e ApologM di San Bernardino da 
Siena, Bologna, 1868 (Scelta di Curiosita letterarie, Disp. xcvii.), 
Racconto viii. p. 18, where the story is told as happening at 
Florence, at the house of the Podesta, whose servant opened the 
door with blasphemies when a man wished to enter. The man 
beat the servant, and was taken before the Podesta to answer for 
his conduct. The remainder of the story is like the above ver 
sions. 

The Spanish version in El Libro de Exemplos, 53, in the Romania, 
vol. vii. p. 514, is probably from Jacques de Yitry, the king is 
Louis (St. Louis, at the beginning of whose reign Jacques de 
Yitry wrote). 

CCXX. [fo. 134 VO ] A woman, accustomed to swearing, was 
exhorted by her priest at confession to renounce the habit. She 
replied : " Sir, God help me, I ll not swear again." The priest 
said: "You have just sworn." "By God, I ll refrain from it 
again." The priest told her her speech should be " yea, yea," 
and " nay, nay," as the Lord had commanded, for more than this 
was wrong. She replied : " Sir, you are right, and I tell you by 
the blessed Yirgin, and all the saints, that I will do as you com 
mand me, and you shall never hear me swear." 

fitienne de Bourbon, 377 (p. 333). This story is found, as 
usual, in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 17 b, col. 2 (printed in 
Wright s Latin Stmes, 68). 

CCXXI. [fo. 134 VO ] A quarrelsome woman accused her hus- 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 223 

band, in the presence of many others, of being lousy. He asked 
her, many times, to refrain from insulting him so. She con- 
tinned, however, and her husband, in his anger, threw her into 
the water. When she was nearly drowned, and could not speak, 
she still held up her hands, and made with her fingers the gesture 
of killing a louse. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 8) ; Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Grraesse, Dial. 30. 

Copious references to modern versions will be found in Pauli, 
ScJiimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 595, to which may be added 
Contes populaires recueillis en Agenais, par M. J. F. Blade, p. 113? 
and Kohler s note, p. 155. 

CCXXII. [fo. 134 VO ] A woman was crossing a field with her 
husband, who said, " This field is mowed." She replied, " No ; 
it is shorn." Her husband said, "It is mowed with a scythe." 
She answered, "It is shorn with shears," and begin to quarrel 
for a long time. Finally, her husband in a rage cut out her 
tongue. Notwithstanding which, she made the sign of the shears 
with her fingers to show that the field was shorn, and when she 
could not quarrel with her tongue she did so with her fingers. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 9) ; Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Grraesse, Dial. 30 ; Magnum 
Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, Pertinacia, i. (" Grotschalcus 
[Hollen], ser. 82, lit. B, partis aestivalis "). Medieval French 
versions may be found in Recueil general et complet des Fabliaux 
des XIIP. et XIV e . Siecles, ed. A. de Montaiglon et Gr. Reynaud, 
vol. iv., p. 154, " Le Pre tondu." See also Le Grand d Aussy, 
Fabliaux, Paris, 1829, iii., p. 185, and Dunlop-Liebrecht, 
p. 516. 

For a similar story in modern Italian folk-tales, see Crane s 
Italian Popular Tales, pp. 285, 378. 

CCXXIII. [fo. 135 ro ] A knight in the diocese of Artois 
neglected his wife for a mistress. The wife complained of this 
frequently to the image of the Virgin, who said to her one night 
in a vision, " I cannot avenge you on that woman, for although 
she is a sinner she bows before me a hundred times a day, and 
says, Ave Maria. The wife awoke, and went sadly away. 



224 THE EXBMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

One day, however, when she met her husband s mistress, she 
upbraided her for taking her husband from her, and said she had 
complained to the Virgin of her, but she had so enchanted the 
Virgin by saluting her daily a hundred times that she would 
take no vengeance upon her. The wife declared that she would 
appeal to the Virgin s son, who would do her justice. The woman, 
touched by the Virgin s forbearance, fell at the wife s feet, and 
promised that henceforth she would have nothing to do with her 
husband. 

This story is taken from Guibert de Nogent (died 1124), Liber 
de Laude S. Mariae (Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. 156, p. 572), cap. 
xii., " Ex relatione Atrebatensis episcopi mulier quaedam fuerat." 
The story is also found in Gautier de Cluny or de Compiegne, De 
Miraculis beatae Virginia Mariae, 2 (in Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. 173, 
p. 1379). Gautier lived in the first half of the twelfth century, 
and his version agrees in the main with Guibert s. There is also 
a version in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18 ; and many other 
inedited versions are cited by Mr. G. F. Warner in his notes to 
Miracles de Nostre Dame, collected by Jean Mielot, secretary to 
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Roxburghe Club, 1885, 
No. xv., p. xiv. Mr. Warner also cites Vincent of Beauvais, 
Speculum Historiale, vii. 100, and two French versions in verse, 
one by Gautier de Coincy and the other by Adgar. For the 
latter version, see C. Neuhaus, Altfranzosisclte Bibliothek, vol. ix. 
Heilbronn, 1886, Adgar 8 Marienlegenden. p. 209. See also A. 
Mussafia, Studien zu den Mittelalterlichen Marienlegenden, Vienna, 
1887, pp. 13, 15. 

CCXXIV. [fo. 135 ro ] A good woman who of ten went to preach 
ing sometimes remained home to guard her house and give her 
maid a chance to go to church, even lending her own cloak to 
her. 



CCXXV. [fo. 135 VO ] A drunken man put a ploughshare in a 
bag and beat his wife with it. When the neighbours flocked in at 
her outcries, the husband said he was beating her with a bag only. 
He was brought before the judge and swore that he had touched 
her with nothing but a bag, and his neighbours were obliged to 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 225 

confirm his statement, and so he got off without any punish 
ment. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18, col. 2. 

CCXXVI. [fo. 135 V ] The embraces of a drunken man cause 
the miscarriage of his wife. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18, col. 2. 

CCXXVII. [fo. 136 ro ] A man had a wife so contrary that she 
always did the reverse of what he commanded, and received in a 
surly manner the guests whom he often asked to dinner. One 
day he invited several to dine with him, and had the table set in 
the garden near a stream. His wife sat with her back to the 
water, at some distance from the table, and regarded the guests 
with an unfriendly face. Her husband said : "Be cheerful to our 
guests, and draw nearer the table." She, on the contrary pushed 
her chair farther from the table and nearer the edge of the stream 
at her back. Her husband, noticing this, said angrily : " Draw 
near the table." She pushed her chair violently back and fell 
into the river and was drowned. Her husband, feigning great 
grief, entered a boat and began to seek his wife up the stream 
with a long pole. When his neighbours asked him why he looked 
for his wife up the stream instead of below as he should do, he 
answered : " Do you not know that my wife always did what was 
contrary and never walked in the straight way ? I verily believe 
that she has gone up against the current and not down with it 
like other people." 

This appears to be the oldest version of this well-known story, 
copious parallels of which may be found in the notes of Oesterley 
to Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, 142 ; FaUes inedites, par A. C. M. 
Robert i., 212 (La Fontaine, iii. 16), and (Euvres de J. de La 
Fontaine, par. H. Regnier, i. 247. 

Etienne de Bourbon twice cites this story, 244 (p. 205), 299 
(p. 252), with due acknowledgment of his source. 

The story is found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18 b. 
(printed in Wright s Latin Stories, 10) and in Holkot, In Librum 
Sapientiae Regis Salomonis, ed. cit. Lectio xxx., viii., p. 136 (a 
brief reference: " Nota de illo qui uxorem stibmersam quaesivit 
contra cursum aquae et cum a quodam quaereretur, quare earn sic 



226 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

quaereret ; respondit, quia sibi semper contraria fuisset ") ; Scala 
Cell, fol. 87 VO ; Speculum Exemplomim, ed. Major, Pertinacia, ii. 
(Gotschalus [Hollen], ser. 82, lit. E., partis aestivalis "). 

The modern versions are cited by Oesterley, among* them are 
two from old English jest-books, viz., Mery Tales, Wittie Questions, 
and Quiche Answers, lv., p. 72 (in Shakespeare Jest-Books, ed. 
Hazlitt, vol. i) ; and PasquiVs Jests, p. 27 {Shakespeare Jest-Books, 
vol. iii.,) Oesterley s reference to Jacke of Dover s Quest of Inquirie, 
p. 327 (Shakespeare Jest-Books, vol. iii) is incorrect. 

CCXXVIII. [Fo. 136 ro ] A man who had a disobedient wife 
pretended he was going to market and said to her : " Whatever 
you do, do not put your finger into this hole." Then he departed 
as if he were going to market, and hid himself in a house near by. 
His wife began to wonder why he had forbidden her to do this 
thing and determined to find out, so she thrust her finger violently 
in the hole where it was pierced by a sharp nail which her husband 
had put there. At her outcries neighbours and husband rushed 
in. Another time she obeyed her husband s commands. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 18 b (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 12, p. 14) ; Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 90 ; 
Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 318. 

CCXXIX. [fo. 136 VO ] Certain men will not refrain from em 
bracing their pregnant wives, and thus cause the death of their 
offspring and deprive them of the benefits of baptism. 

CCXXX, [fo. 137 ro ] A certain husband guarded his wife so 
closely that he never allowed her to leave the house without him. 
She considered often how she could deceive her keeper, and finally 
sent word to her lover to await her in a certain house. While she 
was passing in front of this house, she let herself fall into the 
mud, pretending that her feet had slipped, and dirtied her whole 
dress. She said to her husband : " Wait for me here at the door 
for I must remove my dress and clean it." So saying, she entered 
the house, spent some time with her lover, came out with clean 
garments, and thus deceived her husband. 

This story should have an Oriental source, but I have been 
unable to discover it. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 227 

The story is quoted from Jacques de Vitry by ^tienne de Bour 
bon, 457 (p. 394); the editor cites in his note versions in Les Gent 
Nouvelles Nouvelles, xxxviii., from which La Fontaine took his 
Conte (ii. 10) : " On ne s avise jamais de tout," and in Bonaven- 
ture des Periers, xvi. There is also a version in Brit. Mus. MS. 
Harl., 463, fo. 18 b (printed in Wright s Latin Stories, xi., should 
be xii., p. 15; Wright cites Contes d Eutrapel, chap, xii.), and in 
M. Scotus, Mensa PhilosopJiica, p. 232. 

This story has also furnished an episode in the romance of 
Eracles, written in the twelfth century by Gautier d Arras, and 
which served as the base of a German poem, Eraclius, by one 
Otte, probably Otto of Freysingen. Both poems were published 
by H. F. Massmann in the Bibliothek der gesammten deutschen 
National-Liter atur, vol. vi., Quedlinburg und Leipzig, 1842. The 
episode in question is found in Eracles, 1. 4442, 4498 et seq., and 
in Eraclius, 1. 3645 et seq. 



CCXXXI. [fo. 137 ro ] A woman who hated her husband made 
him drunk, and sending for some monks said to them : " My hus 
band is dying, and asked me to allow him to take the habit." 
The monks rejoiced, because the man was rich, and his wife pro 
mised them much on his behalf. When he was tonsured and 
clothed in the habit, his wife began to lament so loudly that the 
neighbours all flocked to the house. The monks put the man on 
a cart and took him to their monastery. The next day he had 
slept off his wine, and awoke to find himself a monk in a cloister. 
Although deeply grieved, he did not dare to return home from 
shame and fear of being called an apostate. 

This story belongs to a very popular story-cycle, in which three 
women find some object of value, and agree that it shall belong to 
the one who plays the greatest joke on her husband. This cycle 
has been examined very carefully by F. Liebrecht in the Germania, 
xxi., 385, reprinted in Zur Volkskunde, Alte und neue Aufsatze, von 
Felix Liebrecht, Heilbronn, 1879, p. 124. Liebrecht does not cite 
any versions from the mediaeval sermon-books, in which, I believe, 
the story does not occur as a whole. The one story in the text, 
however, may be found in Etienne de Bourbon, 458 (p. 395), cited 
from Jacques de Vitry; Scala Cell, fo. 87; Herolt (Discipulus), 



228 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

Promptuarium Exemplorum, Ebrietas, vi. ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 
ccxxxvi. See also Clouston s A Group of Eastern Romances and 
Stories, 1889, pp. 355, 549. 

There is also a version as usual in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, 
fo. 18 b, col. 2 (printed in Wright s Latin Stories, 65). 

CCXXXII. [fo. 137 ro ] There was once a woman who loved her 
husband greatly during his life, and after his death would not 
leave his grave day or night. It happened at that time that a 
certain knight, who had deeply offended the king, was hung on a 
gallows set up near the cemetery. The king commanded one of 
his knights to guard the man who had been hanged, so that his 
relatives should not carry his body away, saying : " If you do not 
guard him well, I shall do unto you as I did to him/ After the 
knight had guarded the hanged man for some time, he grew very 
1 thirsty one night, and seeing a light in the cemetery went there 
and found the woman mourning over her husband. While the 
knight was drawing and drinking some water, the relatives of the 
hanged man came secretly and took his body away. When the 
knight went back to his post and did not find the hanged man, he 
returned in consternation to the woman and began to lament and 
weep. She, casting her eyes on the knight, said : " What will you 
do for me if I can deliver you and all your goods from the king s 
hand ? " He answered : "Whatever I can do, I will do willingly ; 
but I do not see how you can help me." The woman replied : 
" Swear that you will marry me, and I will free you from the 
danger of the king s anger." After he had sworn to marry her, 
she said : "Let us take my husband s body and hang it secretly 
upon the gallows." They did so, and the king believed that it 
was the body of that malefactor, and so the knight escaped. 

This is the famous story technically known as " The Matron of 
Ephesus. The extensive literature of this tale may best be found 
in Fables incites, par A. C. M. Robert, ii., 430 ; Loiseleur-Deslong- 
champs, Essai sur les Fables indiennes, Paris, 1838, p. 161 ; Dunlop- 
Liebrecht, pp. 41, 464 ; Keller, Li Romans des Sept Sages, Tubingen, 
1836, p. clix ; Keller, Dyocletianus Leben, Quedlinburg und Leipzig, 
1841, p. 49 ; Benfey, Pantschatantra, i., 460 ; D Ancona, II Libro 
dei Sette Savj di Roma, Pisa, 1864, p. 118; D Ancona, Studj di 
Critica, etc., p. 322 (also in Romania, vol. iii., p. 175) ; Clouston, 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 229 

The Book of Sindibad, 1884, p. 338 ; Grisebach, Die Treulose Wittwe, 
Vienna, 1873 (there is a later edition, Berlin, 1883-1886, which I 
have not seen) ; Clouston s Popular Tales and Fictions, i., p. 29. 

The following articles in periodicals may also be consulted with 
profit : Dacier, Examen de Vhistoire de la matrone d^phese in Me 
moir es de r Academic des Inscriptions, xli., p. 235 ; Histoire Utter aire 
de la France, xxiii., 71 ; and Kohler in Jahrbuch f iir roman. und eng. 
Liter atur, xii., 407. 

The enormous vogue of this story is due to the fact, that it is 
found in some of the collections of fables derived from Phaedrus, 
ed. Jannelli, i., 14 (cited by D Ancona) ; ed. Perotti, app. xv., in 
Hervieux, op. cit. ii., 66; and Romulus, ed. Oesterley, iii., 9; and 
also in the Occidental versions of the Seven Wise Masters. 

The most important of the sporadic versions is that in John of 
Salisbury s Policraticus (viii., 11 ; Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. 199, p. 
753). As the author died in 1180, his version might (as well as 
that in Romulus) be the source of Jacques de Yitry s story. 

Etienne de Bourbon, 460 (p. 395), cites the story from Jacques 
de Vitry, and there is a version as usual in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 
463, fo. 18 b, col. 2. I do not know of any other versions in 
mediaeval sermon-books, except one in Scala Celi, which, as was 
first shown by Karl Godeke, in Orient und Occident, iii., p. 385, 
contains, fo. 125-137, a version of the Seven Wise Masters, con 
densed from an unknown Latin original, cited by the author as 
" Liber de Septem Sapientibus." The story in question occurs on 
fo. 134. 

CCXXXIII. [fo. 138 ro ] A demon in France named Guinehochet 
revealed many secret things speaking through the mouth of one 
possessed. A man to try him asked him: "Tell me how many 
children I have ?" Guinehochet answered: "You have only one 
son." Then the man called the neighbours and said that Guine 
hochet had lied in telling him that he had only one son, since they 
all knew that he had two. Guinehochet mocking him answered: 
"I told the truth, you have only one, for the other is the priest s." 
The man in shame and anger asked the demon to tell him which 
was the priest s son so that he could turn him out of doors. The 
demon refused, saying: "You must either drive both away or feed 
both." 



230 THE EXBMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. * 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 15 ; another version is given on p. 43, No. 44, from MS. 
Arundel, No. 52, fo. 114) ; M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 241. 

CCXXXIY. [fo. 138 ro ] A stork which had to do with another 
than her mate washed herself in water so that he would not 
perceive it. One day she could not do this because the water was 
frozen and thus her faithlessness was detected. Her mate refused 
to enter the nest and brought a great number of storks, which, 
with their beaks, rent to pieces the adultress. It is also said 
that the lion instinctively recognizes an adulterer and attacks 
him, which he does not do to one who has been guilty of fornica 
tion only. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19 ; fitienne de Bourbon, 181 (p. 
159) ; Gesta Romanorum, 82 ; Caesar of Heisterbach, Dialogus 
Miraculorum, x, 60 ; Alexander Neckam, De Naturis Rerum (Bolls 
Series) p. 112; Bartholomew Glanville, De Proprietatibus Rerum, 
Strasburg, 1505, Lib., xii., 8; Scala Celi, fo. 7. Many other 
references may be found in Oesterley s notes to the Gesta Roman- 
orum cited above. 

CCXXXV. [fo. 138 VO ] A wife importuned her husband to tell 
her what went on in the city council. At length, worn out by her 
entreaties, he told her that it had been decided to allow each man 
to have several wives, but the council did not wish the decree to 
be promulgated at once. As soon as the wife heard this she 
proceeded immediately to the council and protested against the 
injustice of the decree, saying that one wife would be enough for 
several husbands, but not one husband for several wives. When 
the members of the council understood the husband s precaution 
they praised him highly. 

For the literature of this story see Oesterley s notes to Pauli s 
ScJiimpf und Ernst, 392, and Gesta Romanorum, 126, andD Ancoiia, 
Studj di Critica e Storia letteraria, p. 329. Versions are found in 
Scala Celi, fo. 49 VO (" Macrobius ") ; Gritsch, Quadragesimale, s.l. 
et a, Serm. xxxiv, K (" Macrobius ") ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 
cccxxxviii. 

There is an inedited version in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19, 
and an old English one in Shakespeare Jest-Books, ed. W. C. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES, 231 

Hazlitt, vol. i., Mery Tales and Quiche Answer es, p. 31, xxi. (" Aulus 
Gellius"). 

CCXXXVI. [fo. 138 VO ] A man had a curious and light-minded 
wife who asked him as he was setting out on a pilgrimage to St. 
James to command her to do something in his memory until he 
returned. Her husband said he had nothing new to command 
her, that if she guarded the house and the servants it would be 
enough. She answered that she wished him to enjoin her to do 
something in token of her obedience and love. As she insisted 
upon it her husband said : " I command you not to enter that 
oven until I return." After his departure she began to wonder 
why he had forbidden her to do this, thinking that, perhaps, he 
had hidden something there which he wished to conceal from her. 
Straightway she entered the oven and began to search every crack 
and pull out the stones. At last the oven fell in upon her and 
broke her back. Her confusion can be imagined when her 
husband returned and learned the truth. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19, col. 2. 

Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium Exemplar um, 0, xii; Libro 
de los Enxemplos, ccxl ; Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 
318. 

CCXXXV1I. [fo. 138 VO ] As a man and his wife, who always 
contradicted him, were returning from market a hare ran across 
their path and escaped. The husband said: "How pretty and fat 
that hare is, if we had caught it we would have eaten it fried with 
onions and gravy." The wife answered: "I would rather eat it 
with pepper." The husband declared it was better when cooked 
with broth and gravy. The wife denied it and would not agree 
with her husband, who ended by giving her a sound beating. She 
began to ponder upon the way to avenge herself, and hearing that 
a certain king was very ill she went to his servants and said : " I have 
a husband who is an excellent physician, but conceals his learning 
and will never help any one unless compelled to do so by fear and 
blows." The husband was taken into the king s presence and 
asked to cure his illness. He refused and declared he was not a 
physician. At last the king s servants told what the man s wife 
had said, and the king ordered him to be beaten. When he could 

E2 



232 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

not be persuaded in this way he was beaten again and again and 
thrust from the king s presence. 

This story, which has been immortalised by the use made of it 
by Moliere in his Le Medecin malgre lui, is the subject of an old 
French fabliau, Du Vilain mire, [or, as it is called in one of tho 
collections, Le Medecin de Brai. Moliere probably took his play 
from the fabliau, and fabliau and exemplum probably had their 
source in the oral popular literature of the Middle Ages. 

For the fabliau, see Barbazon et Meon, Fabliaux et Contes, Paris, 
1808, vol. iii., p. 1; Le Grand d Aussy, Fabliaux ou Contes, Paris, 
1829, vol. iii., p. 1 ; Montaiglon et Raynaud, Recueil complet des 
Fabliaux, Paris, 1878, vol. iii., p. 156. 

For Moliere s use of the story see (Euvres de Moliere, par MM. 
E. Despois et P. Mesnard (Les Grands HJcrivains de la France, 
Paris, Hachette, 1881), vol. vi., p. 9. For the story in general, 
consult Dunlop-Liebrecht, pp. 207, 274. 

There is a version in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo, 19, col. 2, 
and one in M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 233. Lecoy de la 
Marche prints J. de Vitry s version in a note to p. 206 of fitienne 
de Bourbon. 

The fabliau discussed above contains three episodes, of which the 
exemplum in the text is the first and principal one. The second, 
the cure of the king s daughter by making her laugh, is not found 
in Jacques de Vitry. The third, the cure of the sick people of the 
country, is found as an independent story later in No. CCLIY. 

CCXXXVIII. [fo. 138 VO ] The husband of a good woman was 
thrown into prison by his lord, who commanded that no food or 
drink should be given him, so that he should die of hunger. His 
wife, however, visited him every day, and nourished him with her 
own milk. After a fortnight the lord asked if he was dead, and 
when he learned that he still lived he believed that some of his 
servants had given him food. So he sent for the prisoner and 
extorted the truth from him. When the lord learned what the 
true wife had done, he sent for her and gave her back her hus 
band. & (h*4-*?je4_ 4/jf 

Compare the two stories in Valerius Maximus, Factorum et 
dictorum memorabilium libri novem, ed. C. Kempf, Berlin, 1854, 
Lib. v. 4, 7, 1 (p. 425), of the daughter who nourished her mother, 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 233 

and of Perus, who saved her father s life in the same way. The 
former version is told by Festus, s. v. Pietati, ed. Miiller, p. 209 ; 
Pliny, vii. 36, is like Valerius Maximus. The first of Valerius s 
stories is found in the Gesta Romanorum, 215. The story occurs 
also in the following mediaeval sermon-books, which I have 
examined : Scala Geli, fo. 39 (" Valerius," daughter and mother) ; 
Dialogus Creaturarum, ed. Graesse, Dial. 94 ("Valerius," daughter 
and mother) ; Herolt (Discipulus) Sermones, xxiv. U. (" Va 
lerius," daughter and mother) ; Bernard, de Bustis, Rosaritim, ed 
cit. i., p. 142 b (daughter and father) ; both stories are in Libro de 
los Enxemplos, c. cii. ; M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophical, p. 116, cites 
Valerius for story of daughter and mother ; and there is a version, 
as usual, in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19 b. Other references 
may be found in Oesterley s notes to the Gesta Romanorum cited 
above, and Kohler s notes to Girart von Rossilho in Jahrbuch fur 
rom. und eng., Lit. xiv., p. 26. 

Mr. H. L. D. Ward says of this story: "A mediaeval version of 
the story, connected with the Temple of Piety at Rome, where 
there was said to have been formerly a prison, and where (accord 
ing to modern ciceroni) the church of St. Nicholas in Carcere 
now stands. See the account given by John Cam. Hobhouse in 
his Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold, 
London, 1818, pp. 295-300." 

CCXXXIX. [fo. 138 VO ] A holy priest once saw, during a great 
festival, the devil trying to stretch a piece of parchment with his 
teeth. He asked him what he was doing, and the devil answered 
that he was writing down the idle words spoken in the church, 
and because more than usual were uttered that day, on account of 
the great festival, the piece of parchment was not long enough, 
and he was trying to stretch it with his teeth. The priest told 
the people this, and they began to grieve and repent; and, as 
they did so, the devil destroyed what he had written, until the 
sheet of parchment remained blank. 

Compare Jacques de Vitry, No. XIX., and Etienne de- Bourbon, 
212 (p. 184). 

Inedited versions are found in Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 268, fo. 
163 (ascribed to Jacques de Vitry) ; Harl. 463, fo. 19 b ; MS. 
26,770, fo. 78. 



234 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Versions arc also found in Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium 
Exemplorum, E. xvi. ; Scala Celi, fo. 44 ; Magnum Speculum Ex- 
emplorum, ed. Major, Ecclesia, v. (" Joannes Junior," i.e., Scala 
Celi) Eecull de Eximplis, dxii. (" J. de V.") ; Roberd of Emmie s 
Handlyng Synne, Roxburghe Club, 1862, p. 287. 

The story is also found (with a curious woodcut) in Buck des 
Hitters vom Thurn von den Exempeln der Gottesfercht und Ehrbarkeit, 
Basel, 1493. I have not seen the book, but take my reference 
from Die Deutsche Bucherillustration der Gothik und Frilhrenaissance 
(1460, bis 1530), von R. Muther, 2 vols., Miinchen und Leipzig, 
1884, fol. The story in question occurs on p. 125, of vol. ii., at 
least the amusing illustration is there given with the title : " Wie 
der tufel bynder der mess die klapperig etlicher frowen uffschreib 
und im das berment zu kiirz wart vnnd ers mit den zenen uss 
eynander zoch." 

There is an Italian version in Corona de Monad, Prato, 1862, 
p. 61. 

CCXL. [fo. 139 V0 .] A priest took his concubine with him to the 
house of an honest woman, and at night asked where a bed had 
been prepared for them. The hostess showed them the privy, and 
declared they could sleep nowhere else. They withdrew in great 
confusion. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19 b. 

COXLI. [fo. 139 VO ] Another priest was given his option by the 
bishop to abandon his concubine or give up his parish. He pre 
ferred to quit his parish ; but when the woman saw that he had 
resigned a rich parish, and become poor, she forsook him. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19 b. ; M. Scotus, Mensa PMlo- 
sophica, p. 256 ; Shakespeare Jest-Books, vol. iii., Certaine Con- 
ceyts and Jeasts, p. 6, No. 11 (from Scotus). 

CCXLII. [fo. 139 VO ] In some places the concubines of priests 
are so hated that no one will give them or take from them the 
kiss of peace. It is the common opinion that to do so deprives 
one of his share in the mass. Hence, for their derision, people 
are wont to use a certain charm by which the mice are kept away 
from the grain. It is as follows : 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 235 

" I conjure you, rats and mice, 
To have no part in these heaps of grain, 
Any more than he has part in the mass, 
Who receives the kiss of peace from the priestess." 

Lecoy de la Marclie cites this story in his edition of Etienne de 
Bourbon, p. 391, n. 1. 

The story in the text is found, as usual, in Brit. Mus. MS. 
Harl. 463, fo. 19 b, col. 2 (printed in Wright s Latin Stories, 74). 

CCXLIII. [fo. 140 VO ] A woman wore so long a train to her 
dress that it raised the dust to the altar, and even the crucifix. 
As she was leaving the church, and holding up her train on 
account of the mud, a holy man saw a devil laughing, and con 
jured him to tell the reason. The devil replied : " A companion 
of mine was sitting just now upon that woman s train, and using 
it as his carriage. When the woman raised her train my com 
panion fell off into the mud, and that was the cause of my 
laughter." 

Brit. Mus. MS. 11,284, fo. 63 b (referred to Jacques de Vitry) . 
Harl. MS. 463, fo. 19 b, col. 2 (printed in Wright s Latin Stories 
16). The story is cited from Jacques de Vitry by Etienne de 
Bourbon, 282. 

Other versions may be found in Ceesar Heisterb, Dial. Mirac. 
v. 7 (ed. cit., vol. i. p. 287), where it is told as occurring at 
Mainz ; Roberd of Brunne s Handlyng Synne, p. 109 (found only 
in the original of Wadington) ; Herolt (Disci pulus), Sermones, 
83, H., and Promptuarium Exemplorum, S. xiii. (where Caesar 
Heisterb. is cited) ; Vie des Anciens Peres, ed. Tobler in Jahrbuch 
fur roman und eng. Lit. vii., p. 424 (told of St. Jerome) ; Libro de 
los Enxemplos, cccliv. 

CCXLIV. [fo. 140 VO ] The devil begat nine daughters by his 
wife, and married eight of them to as many different classes of 
men : Simony to prelates and clergy ; Hypocrisy to monks and 
" falsis religiosis " ; Rapine to soldiers ; Usury to burghers ; 
Knavery to merchants ; Sacrilege to farmers who do not pay 
their tithes ; Dishonest Service to workmen ; Rich and Unneces 
sary Clothing to women. The ninth daughter, Lust, would not 



236 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

be married to any one class, but gave herself to all like a vile 
harlot. 

The only version of this story which I have been able to find is 
in Fiore di Virtu, Napoli, 1870, p. 74, where a very brief version 
is given, attributed to the Vite del Santi Padri. In the Eevista 
Critica della Letteratura Italiana, Florence, 1887, Anno IV., Num. 
4, p. 120, the story is mentioned as contained in Cod. 619, parch 
ment, xii.-xiii. cent. fo. 77b, of the Vatican Library. 

There is a dit in Jubinal, Nouveau Eecueil, Paris, 1836, I. p. 283, 
" C est li Mariages des Filles au Diable," which seems incomplete, 
and has a very slight connection with the story in our text. It is 
a long tirade against the prevailing vices of the day. The mar 
riage of these vices as daughters of the Devil is very slightly 
dwelt upon, as in the second strophe : 

En chevaliers maint roberie, 
Et en marcheans tricherie, 
Faintise en vivans de lor bras, 
Usure est as bourjois aniie, 
Orguex es dames se marie 
Et luxure au commun, helas ! 

CCXLV. [fo. 140 VO ] A hermit was sorely tempted by love of a 
woman whom he had seen while he was yet in the world, nor did 
his temptation cease at her death. At last he went to her grave 
and obtained some of her remains, the stench of which soon cured 
him of his love. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 19 b, col. 2. 

The original story is found in Vitae Patrum, ed. cit., p. 495 
(Lib. iii. 11). Other versions may be found in Scala Celi, fo. 112 
(Vitae Patrum) ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Luxuria, vii. 
(Vitae Patrum), Oculi,v. (Thomas Cantipratanus, Bonum universale 
deApibus, 2, 30, 31, ed. cit. p. 339). 

CCXLVI. [fo. 140 VO ] A lewd woman wagered that she could 
induce a holy hermit to sin with her. She went at nightfall to 
his cell, and asked for shelter against the cold and wild beasts, 
saying she had lost her way. The hermit took her in, built a fire 
to warm her, and gave her food. She began to tempt him, and 
the hermit, feeling his danger in spite of his prayers, thrust his 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 237 

fingers into the flame of the candle, and said to himself : " If you 
cannot endure this slight fire, how can you bear the flames of 
hell ? " Thus in turn he burned all his fingers, and the tempta 
tion ceased. The woman was so horrified at this that she died of 
fright. The next morning the two companions of the woman with 
whom she had made the wager came to the hermit s cell and 
upbraided him with passing the night with a Avoman. When they 
entered the cell they found the woman dead, and the hermit told 
them what had happened, and showed them his fingers. When 
they learned the truth they were grieved, and confessed their sin, 
asking the hermit to pray for the woman s restoration to life. 
The prayer was granted, arid the woman afterwards led a virtuous 
life. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 20 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 17). The original is in the Vitae Patrum, ed. cit., p. 885 
(Lib. v., 5, 37). 

Other versions may be found in Odo de Ceritona (in Hervieux, 
op. cit. ii., p. 666) : Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Foemina, ii. 
(cites Vitae Patrum) ; Libro do los Enxemplos, civ., clxxxiv. (Vitae 
Patrum) . 

This story is also to be found in the Vie des Anciens Peres (Tobler 
in Jahrbuch fur roman und eng. Lit., vii., p. 405 ; Weber, Hand- 
scliriftliclie Studien, Frauenfeld, 1876, p. 11; Gr. Paris, Vie de St. 
Alexis, p. 218). It also occurs in the form of a French fabliau 
(Hist. litt. de la France, xiv., 859; xxiii., 132), which has been 
published by A. Keller : Zwei Fabliaux einer Neuenburger Hand- 
schrift, Stuttgart, 1840. Finally, an Italian version is in Zam- 
brini, Dodici Gonti Morali d Anonimo Senese, Bologna, 1862, Scelta 
di Curiosita, ix. (see R. Kohler, in Zeitschrift fur rom., Phil, i., p. 
367), p. 10, Conto. iii. The editor cites versions in Cavalca, 
Trattato della Pazienza, and in Tre Pie Narrazioni per cura deW 
Avv. L. Del Prete, Bologna, Tip. delle Scienze, 1858. 

CCXLVII. [fo. 140 VO ] A monk who had been brought up from 
childhood in a monastery and had never seen a woman, once 
accompanied the abbot on a journey. While the abbot s horse 
was being shod the monk picked up the hot horseshoe in his hand, 
and was not burned, much to the abbot s surprise. They spent 
that night in the house of a secular family, and the monk, through 



238 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

ignorance, sinned with the wife of the host. On their return the 
horse had to be shod again, and the abbot told the monk to pick 
up the horseshoe. When he did his hand was burned. The abbot 
asked him what he had done, and, on learning the truth, shut him 
up in the cloister, and did not let him travel again. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 20, col. 2. 

The earliest version of this story which I have been able to find 
is in Thomas Cantipratanus, Bonum universale de apibus, ed. cit., 
p. 384 (2, 36, 2), the scene of the story being "in confinio Bur- 
gundiae," and the youth having been brought up " in monasterio 
ordinis sancti Benedicti apnd Cluniacum." This story is taken 
from Thomas, with acknowledgment, by Herolt (Discipulus), 
Promptuarium Exemplorum, I., xxx. : and Magnum Speculum Exem- 
plorum, Castitas, xi. 

CCXLYIIL [fo. 140 VO ] A wicked woman, when she wished to 
see her lover, used to tell her husband that he was ill, and must not 
leave his bed until she returned. The husband believed every 
thing she said, and obeyed her. One day she told her lover that 
she was more fond of him than of her husband. The lover 
demanded as a proof of this that she should bring him her hus 
band s best tooth. Upon her return to her home she began to 
weep and feign sadness. When her husband asked her what the 
matter was she said she did not dare to tell him. Finally she 
yielded to his entreaties, and told him that she could not endure 
his foul breath. He was surprised and grieved, and said, "Why 
did you not tell me ; is there any remedy for it ? " She replied 
that the only remedy was to have drawn the tooth from which 
the odour proceeded. He followed her advice, and had drawn the 
good and sound tooth which she pointed out, and which she took 
at once and carried to her lover. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 20, col. 2 (printed in Wright s 
Latin Stories, 18). 

This story constitutes one of the three tests to which the lover 
subjects his mistress in Boccaccio s Decameron, vii. 9 (Landau, 
Die Quellen des Dekameron, 1884, p. 79). It is also found in an 
Italian popular tale : Pitre, Fiabe Novelle e Racconti, Palermo, 
1875, vol. iii., p. 255, Li Tri Gumpari ("The Three Gossips"), 
see Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 133. Another episode in the 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 239 

same story (where wife intoxicates husband and makes him assume 
the monastic habit) occurs above in No. COXXXI. 



CCXLTX. [fo. ]42 ro ] The fable of the crow which arrayed 
itself in borrrowed plumage, and at the command of the king of 
the birds was despoiled of them and left in its ugly nakedness. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 20 b. (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 53). 

Fables inedites, par A. C. M. Robert, i., 247 (La Fontaine, iv. 
9) ; (Euvres de J. de la Fontaine, par H. E/egnier, i., 298 ; Kirchhof, 
Wendunmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 52. 

This ^Esopian fable (ed. Furia, 78 ; Phaedrus, i., 3 ; Romulus, 
ed. Oesterley, ii., 16), is found in Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Hist. 
in Hervieux, op. cit., ii., 239 ; Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, 
op. cit. ii., p. 600; 8cala Celi, fo. 80 VO ; Dialogus Creaturarum, 
ed. Graesse, Dial., 54 ; Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, A., 
xii., 35. 

CCL. [fo. 142 ro ] An old woman failed to persuade a certain 
matron to accept the love of a young man. Then she said to the 
youth : " Pretend to be ill and let that woman know that you 
are ill from love of her." Now the old woman had a little bitch 
which she kept without food for three days, and then gave bread 
and mustard and took to the house of the woman. There the dog 
began to weep on account of the mustard, and when the matron 
asked why it was, the old woman said with a sigh : " This bitch 
was once a woman who allowed a youth to die from love of her. 
When he was very ill he changed the woman into a bitch by 
means of certain spells. This God permitted for her sin in letting 
a man die whom she could have saved, and now too late she 
laments that she did not consent to his love while she lived." 
The matron feared lest the same thing should happen to her and 
accepted the youth as her lover. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 20 b. (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 13). 

This famous story is first found in the Oriental versions of the 
Seven Wise Masters, but does not occur in any of the western 
versions, although it appears sporadically in mediaeval European 



240 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

literature. The literature of the story may most conveniently be 
found in Gesta Romanorum, ed. Oesterley, 28, and Loiseleur Des- 
longchamps, Essai sur les fables indiennes, Paris, 1838, p. 107- 
The earliest appearance of the story in Europe was in Petrus 
Alfonsi s Diseiplina Clericalis (ed. Schmidt, p. 51; ed. Labouderie, 
p. 74), and somewhat later in the old Spanish translation of the 
Seven Wise Masters ( Libra de los Engaiios, ed. Comparetti, 11). 

There are mediaeval versions of this story in Scala Celi, f o. 87 ; 
and Herolt (Discipulus), Promptuarium Exemplorum, V. 12, and 
some others mentioned in Oesterley s notes to Gesta Romanorum, 
to which may be added Tawney s translation of the Katha Sarit 
Sdgara, i., p. 93, and Clouston s Popular Tales and Fictions, ii., 
p. 298. 

CCLI. [fo. 142 VO ] A husband discovered his wife with her 
lover, and laid in wait to kill him at a spot where he must pass in 
leaving the house. The wife sent for a crafty old woman to help 
her in this strait. The old woman told her to conceal her lover, 
and then went herself to where the husband was, and said: 
u The Lord be with you, and with your companions." The man 
answerd: "What are you saying? I am alone." She replied: 
" Sir, forgive me, for there is a certain hour in the day when eyes 
are so changed that they see two persons where there is only one." 
Then he began to think that possibly this had happened to him 
when he saw his wife, and he went to see if it were so. When he 
found his wife alone, he asked her pardon for believing ill of 
her. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 20 b, col. 2 (printed in Wright s 
Latin Stories, 14). 

A somewhat similar incident is found in the story-cycle to 
which Nos. CCXXI. and CCXLVIII. belong, and which is fully 
discussed in Liebrecht s Zur Volkskunde, p. 124 et seq. The closest 
parallel is that cited by Liebrecht, p. 135, from Arnason, Islenzkar 
Pj6>s, i., 532. The following peculiar version is found in M. 
Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 234 : " Cum quaedam mulier a marito 
suo cum amasio inventa fuisset, ilia habito consilio cum quadam 
vetula, invenit quod vir herbam Keruele vulgariter nominatam 
comedisset, et cum viro in platea occurrisset, ait : Deus salve vos 
ambos. Cui vir, Quomodo sic dicis, cum sim solus ? Ipsa exter- 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 241 

gens oculos, ait : Ista maledicta herba Keruele, quam comedi, 
semper facit unum videri pro duobus. Recordatus quod in scro 
illam comederat, credens vcrum dictum vetulae, habuit nxorem 
excusatam." 

CCLII. [fo. 142 VO ] A noble lady, whom Jacques de Vitry knew, 
liad a maidservant beaten and thrown out of the window into the 
river for acting as go-between. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 20 b, col. 2. 

CCLIII. [fo. 142 VO ] The wild cat has a handsome skin, but 
when it is tamed and lies by the fire, it burns its tail and fur. 
Like this animal are women who permit liberties to be taken with 
them. 

Compare No. CCIX. 

CCLIY. [fo. 142 VO ] Many lame and deformed came to the 
shrine of a certain saint to be healed. When they had remained 
there some time, and did not receive a cure, they took their de 
parture during the service and made a great disturbance. The 
priest said to them : " Do you wish to be cured, so that you can walk 
and run ? " They answered : " We do, sir." Then the priest said : 
" Throw away your sticks," which they did, and he continued : 
" Wait a moment, until some fire is brought ; for the one of you 
who is the greatest cripple must be burned and his ashes sprinkled 
upon the rest of you, who will thus be healed." Each feared he 
might be deemed the greatest cripple and be burned, and so made 
a desperate effort and ran away ; nor was there a single one left 
who did not leave the place without his stick. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 20 b, col. 2. 

The above story is one of three episodes of a French fabliau 
which is the ultimate source of Moliere s Medecin malgre lui. The 
first and principal episode is found above, in No. CCXXXVII., 
where the entire fabliau is discussed. 

The present episode is found in the above mentioned fabliau, 
and in Poggio Bracciolini, Facetiae, cxc. (Les Faceties de Pogge, 
Paris, Liseux, 1878, ii., p. 110), in this version the Cardinal of 
Bari, who has a hospital at Vercelli which brings him in little on 
account of the poor patients, sends one of his servants, Petrillo by 



242 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

name, to draw liis revenue. Petrillo dresses himself as a physi 
cian, and tells the patients that the only medicine that can cure 
their ulcers is an ointment of human fat, and asks them to select 
one of their number to be boiled alive in water. The patients fled 
in terror, each one fearing the choice would fall on him. 

Poggio s source may have been the fabliau, or more likely a 
popular Italian tale, a version of which still exists in Tuscany, 
under the title " Doctor Cricket " (// Medico Grillo) , see Pitre, 
Novelle popolari toscane, Florence, 1885, lx., p. 283. The- version 
in M. Scotus, Mensa PhilosopJiica, p. 256, is probably from Jacques 
de Vitry ; it is, like all others in this collection, singularly con 
densed : " Cum multi claudi venissent ad Ecclesiam cujusdam 
saiicti ut ibi sanarentur, nee possent expelli a sacerdote, tune dixit 
sacerdos, date mihi omnes baculos, ego vos omnes curabo, quo facto 
misit pro igne. Qui requisierunt ad quid ? Dixit, magis claudus 
comburetur, et depulvere ejus omnes curabimini; quo audito omnes 
fugerunt." 

A popular German version is in Till Eulenspiegel (Simrock s 
Die deutchen VolksUiclier, Frankfurt a. M., 1864, vol. x., p. 353), 
" Die siebenzehnte Historic sagt, wie Eulenspiegel alle Kranken 
in einem Spital auf einmal ohne Arznei gesund machte." The 
story resembles Poggio s, except that the sickest patient was to be 
burned to powder, and that was to be given the others to drink. 
The version in Cert ay ne Conceyts and Jeasts (Shakespeare Jest-Books, 
ed. W. C. Hazlitt, London, 1864, vol. iii.), No. 29, is merely a 
translation of Scotus. Some additional references maybe found in 
Moliere (ed. Les Grands ficrivains de la France), vol. vi., p. 11, and 
Le Grand d Aussy, iii., p. 11. 

CCLY. [fo. 142 VO ] A woman complained to a judge that a 
young man had done her violence. The young man denied the 
charge, but the judge ordered him to pay the woman ten silver 
marks. After she had gone away rejoicing, the judge told the 
young man to follow her and take the money from her. She, 
however, withstood him o strongly, and raised such a clamour, 
that it was impossible. Then the judge called her back, and 
ordered her to give the young man back his money, for if she had 
defended her virtue as well as she had her money, he could not 
have violated her. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 243 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 21 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 20); MS. Arundel, 506, fo. 44 V0 . A slightly different ver 
sion is found in Etienne de Bourbon, 502 (p. 432). Wright cites 
the Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, xxv., Force de gre, which is also found 
in Malespini, Ducento Novelle, part ii., nov. 56, and is repeated in 
the Moyen de Parvenir. There is a German version in Pauli s 
Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 15. The editor cites Scherz- 
mit der Warheyt, Frankfort, 1563, 34, and ZeitverJcurzer, s. 1., 
1702, 127. 

The story is best known from its employment by Cervantes in 
his Don Quixote, ii., 45, where it affords the Governor of Barataria 
an opportunity to display the acuteness of his judgment. Pellicer, 
in his edition of Don Quixote, says that Cervantes took his version 
from the Norte de los Estados, by Fray Francisco de Osuna, an edi 
tion of which is cited by Don Nicolas Antonio, of the year 1541, 
Burgos. The full title of the work is : " Norte de los Estados, en que 
se da regla de vivir a los mancebos y casados, y viudas, y a todos 
los continentes, y se tratan muy por estenso los remedies del desas- 
trado casamiento, ensenando que tal a de ser la vida del Christiano 
casado," Burgos, J. Junti, 1541; another edition, 1550. 

CCLVI. [fo. 143 ro ] A woman solicited a hermit to sin with 
her. He led her into the market-place, and when she was ashamed 
to sin with him there on account of the crowd of people, he said : 
" If you are ashamed to sin in the presence of men, I am more 
ashamed to sin in the desert in the presence of God and his 
angels." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 21 ; MS. 26,770, fo. 77 V0 . 

The source of De Vitry is the Vitae Patrum, ed. cit. i., p. 323 
(Vita St. Ephraem, cap. vii., comp. cap. v.), which is cited in 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Erubescere. A similar story is 
told in the Scala Celi, fo. 36 (" Legitur in libro de septem donis 
spiritus sancti"), of a clerk who had an unlawful love for a 
woman, and left her and went to study at Paris. On his return, 
the woman importuned him to sin with her, and he led her to the 
market-place (ad plateam communem), and addressed her as did 
St. Ephraem in the story in the Vitae Patrum. 

CCLVII. [fo. 143 ro ] A similar story of a holy man who told a 



244 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITKY. 

sinful woman that no room in her house was secret enough. At 
last she said, that in the room in which they were no one could 
see them except God. Then the holy man said : " God forbid that 
we should do in his sight what we are ashamed to do in the sight 
of men." She was so moved by these words that she was con 
verted. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 21, MS. 26,770, fo. 77. 

The source of De Yitry is the Vitae Patrum, ed. cit. i., p. 661, 
where the story is told of the Abbot Paphnutius and the harlot, 
who afterwards became St. Thais. 

The story occurs in the French, Vie des Anciens Peres (Tobler, 
Jahrb. fur rom. und eng. Lit. vii., 409, Weber, op. cit. p. 8 ; Paris, 
Vie de St. Alexis, p. 219; and Hist. litt. de la France, xix., 860), 
and in the Italian, Passavanti, Specchio della vera penitenza, ed. 
cit. i., 125 (attributed to Vita de SantiPadri). 

CCLYI1I. [fo. 143 VO ] A jester taught his horse to fall down 
when he said : " Let us bow our knees," and to get up when he 
said, " Rise." He made much merriment by offering his horse for 
sale to a monk, or clerk, or other man, and when the would-be 
purchaser mounted the horse to try it, the owner waited until it 
reached a muddy spot, and then said : " Let us bow our knees," 
and down went horse and rider, and the horse would not get up 
again until the jester said : " Rise." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 21, col. 2. 

A similar story is found in M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 
228, in which the jester uses his trick to punish a robber (raptor) 
who had taken his horse. 

CCLIX. [fo. 143 VO ] A man s wife left him for a dissolute fellow 
with whom the husband fought a duel, and after obtaining the 
victory took back his guilty wife. She ungratefully forsook him 
again, and he abandoned her in anger "to the lepers, i.e., the 
demons," and would not seek for her again. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 21, col. 2. 

CCLX. [fo. 143 VO ] The stork grows thin and weak by nourish 
ing her young ; but when she is old and feeble her young nourish 
her as long a time as they were nourished by her. 

Brit. Mus. MS Harl., 463, fo. 21, col. 2. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 245 

This peculiarity of the stork is mentioned in the mediaeval 
treatises on natural history, see A. Neckam, De Naturis Rerum, cap. 
Ixvi. : " Eximia ilKs inest pietas. Etenim quantum temporis im- 
penderint foetibus educandis, tantum et ipsae a pullis suis invicem 
aluntur." So in Earth, de Glanvilla, De Proprietatilus Berum, 
Strassburg, 1505, Lib. xii., 8, where St. Ambrose is given as 
authority for the statement. 

CCLXI. [fo. 144 VO ] There was a demoniac who publicly 
denounced the sins of those who came before him. A certain 
knight suspected a soldier of his of adultery with his wife, and 
asked the soldier to go with him to the demoniac. The guilty 
soldier first w^ent to confession and then to the demoniac, who 
proclaimed the guilt of the wife, but could not discover the name 
of the man with whom she had sinned, saying : " A short time ago 
I knew, but now I do not," and inspecting his papers he found that 
the soldier s sin was blotted out. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 21, col. 2 (printed in Wright s 
Latin Stories, 30). 

Two similar stories are found in Ca3sar of Heisterb., Dial. 
Miraculorum, ed. cit. i., 112, 113 (Dist. iii., cap. ii., iii) ; in the first, 
a priest sins with the knight s wife and confesses to a servant of 
the knight in a stable. The demoniac said first in German: 
"I know nothing of him," and added in Latin: "In stabulo 
justificatus est," there being no scholar present to understand him. 
In the second story a servant of the knight is the culprit, and he 
confesses on his way to the demoniac to a woodcutter in the forest. 
The demoniac answers as in the text : " Multa de eo novi, quae 
modo ignore." 

A somewhat similar story is told by Bromyard, Summa Prae- 
dicantium, Confessio, vi., 42 ; the servant confesses to a priest, who 
whips him until his back bleeds. The demoniac answers : " Nihil 
scio de homine cum rubeo dorso." The brief version in Scala Celi, 
fo. 42, resembles the first of Caesar s stories, which is also the 
source of Passavanti s version in SpeccMo della vera penitenza, ed. 
cit. i., p. 188. The Spanish version in El Libra de los Enxemplos, 
ccxciii., is like Cassar s second story. 

CCLXII. [fo. 144 VO ] A man thought his wife had been changed 



246 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

into a mare, and weeping and grieving led her by t "he halter to St. 
Acharius. The saint could not be deceived by the phantasm of 
the demons and asked the man why he wept. He answered that 
she who had once been his wife was turned into a mare. The 
saint said : "I do not see any mare, but I see that you have led a 
woman to me." After his prayer the illusion ceased, and the man 
took his wife home again in her own form. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 21 b. 

De Yitry s source is the curious story in the Vitae Patrum, ed. 
cit. i., p. 1110, (Lib. viii., cap. xix., see also Lib. ii., cap. xxviii) of 
the lewd Egyptian who falls in love with the wife of another, and 
when she will not accept his advances, has recourse to a magician 
in order that she may either return his love or be given up by her 
husband. The magician causes her to seem a mare to her husband, 
who after three days leads her to St. Macharius in the desert. 
The saint pours holy water on her head and restores her to her 
proper form, telling her to be regular in her attendance at church 
and the communion, and declaring that this happened to her 
because for five weeks she had neglected the sacrament. 

There is a version of this story in Scala Celi, fo. 13 VO , and in 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Communio, ii., with acknowledg 
ment of source. 

CCLXIII. [fo. 144 VO ] A certain pious widow at Rome was 
guilty of incest with her own son. The devil, fearing lest she 
would repent because she gave large alms and often saluted the 
Blessed Virgin, changed himself into the form of a scholar and 
came to the Emperor, saying : " I am a very skilful astrologer in 
predicting the future, revealing thefts, and in many other things, 
as you can prove if you will accept me as one of your household." 
The emperor did so gladly, and the devil began to predict many 
things and reveal thefts, so that the emperor believed all that he 
said, and honored him above all his other servants. One day the 
astrologer told the emperor that it was a wonder the city was not 
destroyed, for a certain woman in it had committed incest with her 
own son and given birth to a child. The emperor was astonished 
when he heard the woman s name, for she had always been con 
sidered the most pious of the Roman matrons. On the other hand 
the emperor had never detected his astrologer in a falsehood. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 247 

The woman was summoned to appear at court, and with difficulty 
obtained a delay of the process. Meanwhile, she went in tears to 
confession, and night and day begged the Blessed Virgin to deliver 
her from shame and death. On the appointed day she could find 
no one of her friends who dared go with her, or withstand the 
emperor s astrologer, because all believed in him as in a prophet. 
When she entered the emperor s palace, however, the demon began 
to fear and tremble, but would not tell the emperor why. When 
the woman drew near he howled and cried : " Behold Mary is 
coming with that woman, and leading her by the hand." With 
these words he disappeared in a whirlwind with a stench. The 
widow, delivered by confession and the Blessed Virgin, served 
God more carefully the rest of her life. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 21 b (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 110). 

A version of this story occurs in Miracles de Nostre Dame collected 
by Jean Mielot, etc., Roxburghe Club, 1885, Xo. liii. (p. 49, fo. 
71). As this work is very rare, I take the liberty of giving here 
in full Mr. G , F. Warner s note. 

" Apparently a rendering into prose of a French poem printed 
by Meon, vol. ii., p. 394, Du senateur de Home, ou de la borjoise 
qui fu grosse de son fil, the exact words of the original being 
frequently reproduced.* In a Latin dress the miracle is found in 
V. de Beauvais, Spec. Hist. lib. vii., capp. 93-95 (p. 255). De 
muliere quae conceptum ex filio puerum interfecit," etc. The 
same version as Vincent s, in both cases said to be taken from 
the Mariale Magnum, is in Add. MS. 15,723, fo. 73 b. It agrees 
generally with our French version ; but, among other differences, 
there is no mention, as in the latter, of the two murders which the 
devil himself appears to have committed in order to excite the 
emperor s indignation and make him the more eager to hear the 
still worse crime he professes to be able to reveal. As the Pope s 
name is given as Lucius vel Lucianus, the miracle must be 
supposed to have happened in the time of Lucius I., who was 
Pope in A.D. 252 3. Other Latin versions, more or less similar, 
but not so circumstantial, are in Egert. MS. 1117, fo. 176; Harl. 
MS. 268, fo. 156 ; Harl. MS. 463, fo. 21 b (printed by T. Wright, 

* A very similar story is in the Gesta Romanorum, ed. H. Oesterley, 1872, p. 
291, cap. 13, "De amore inordinate." 

s 2 



248 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITJBY. 

Latin Stories, p. 98) ; Harl.MS. 2316, fo. 4b, and Arund. MS. 506, 
fo. 8. In Harl. MS. 2385, fo. 54b, the Emperor does not appear, 
and the disclosure of the crime is made in a different way. The 
Pope falls ill, ad quern venit diabolus in speciem medici, pixidas 
cum medicamentis ferens et se in arte sua peritum asserens. 
The Pope, however, says that he trusts less in drugs than in tlie 
prayers of holy widows, naming especially the woman whom the 
devil has come to denounce. On the devil then revealing her true 
character, she is sent for, but denies the charge and asks three 
days to prepare her defence. Meanwhile, she goes to a chapel of 
the Virgin and obtains the promise of her aid; and, when she 
appears again before the Pope, the devil fails to recognise her and 
vanishes, carrying off the roof in his flight. She is then dismissed 
with honor ; and the Virgin restores her murdered child to life. 
As the story is told by E. de Bourbon, p. 156, the devil comes to 
the bishop and offers on a certain day to prove the woman, who is 
the bishop s friend, to be pessimam meretricem. He writes the 
story down ; but meanwhile the woman confesses, and, when he 
opens his scroll to convict her, he finds it blank,* nor can he even 
recognise the woman herself. The variation in Add. MS. 11,579, 
fo. 8 b, is still wider. In this case, the woman has had seven 
children and killed them all ; and she is denounced from the 
pulpit by the devil in the form of a preacher. The priest, how 
ever, at once calls her and receives her confession, and after giving 
her absolution, challenges the devil to say how he learned the 
facts. The devil replies, that he knows nothing about the woman, 
and has not said a word against her ; whereupon the priest makes 
the sign of the cross and the devil disappears. Besides the 
metrical French version in Meon mentioned above, another has 
been printed by A. Jubinal, Nouveau Recueil, vol. i., p. 79, Le 
dit de la bourjosse de Romme ; and a third is in G. de Coincy s 
collection (Harl. MS. 4401, fo. 37 b), but is not included in the 
printed edition." 

To Mr. Warner s references may be added the following me 
diaeval printed versions : Scala Celi, f o. 45 VO (Vincent of Beauvais) ; 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Confessio, vii (Vincent of Beau 
vais) ; Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, op. cit. ii., p. 697, xxxvii ; 

* This connects the story with the family of legends of which the best known 
is that of Theophilus. 



ANALYSTS AND NOTES. 249 

this version is, like that in MS. Harl. 2385, fo. 54 b, analysed 
above by Mr. Warner. Odo cites as his source " ISTarrat Gregorius 
libro Dialogorum," where, however, the story does not occur. 
Finally, there is a Spanish version in El Libro de los Enxemplos, 
ccv., which follows closely our text. 

CCLXIY. [fo. 145 VO ] An old woman who plied the trade of 
fortune-teller was wont to send spies ahead to a town in order to 
learn about the various people there. She once told a woman, 
whom Jacques de Vitry knew, that she had at Paris a son who 
was a student, and who would become great and be a bishop. 
The overjoyed mother, having no money with her, took off her 
shift, and gave it to the fortune-teller ; " Thus," as Jacques de 
Vitry remarks, " buying the bishopric which the lying old woman 
had promised her son by divination." 

Brit.Mus. MS., Harl. 463, fo. 21b (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 120). 

CCLXV. [fo. 145 ro ] It was the custom in some places, as 
Jacques de Vitry saw, when the bride left the church to return 
home, for people to throw grain over her, at the entrance to the 
house, crying : " Plenty, plenty ! " Jacques de Vitry adds, " and 
before many years have elapsed they are needy and poor and lack 
plenty of all good things." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 21b (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 121). 

The custom of throwing rice (grain, etc.) over the bride as a 
sign of fruitfulness or abundance is very widely spread. Mr. 
Denny s in his interesting book, The Folk-Lore of China, London 
and Hong Kong, 1876, p. 15, says: " Not less interesting is it to 
find that, while our north-country good- wives throw a plateful of 
shortcakes over a newly-made bride as she returns to her future 
home, the Chinese go through the same ceremony with rice, which 
is a sign of abundance." Mr. Dennys cites Henderson s Notes on 
the Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, p. 22, and refers to the 
custom of throwing wheat on the head of the bride in some parts 
of England. He says the same practice obtains in Sicily (see 
Lippincottfs Magazine, vol. 22, p. 91), and was a Hebrew custom. 
In Russia hops are in like manner employed. Other references 



250 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

to this custom may be found in Notes and Queries, Fourth Series, 
vol. xii. p. 396. 

CCLXVI. [fo. 145 ro ] A fortune-teller was wont to say to 
women : "Do as I tell you and you cannot fail to have quickly 
a good and wealthy husband." After she had deceived many, a 
wise woman said to her : " Your husband is poor and needy ; how 
can you make me have a rich husband when you could not help 
yourself in this matter ?" 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 67). 

CCLXVII. [fo. 145 ro ] A frog set up for a physician and in 
vited the other animals to come and be cured. One answered : 
" Do you who are pale and swollen promise to cure others when 
you cannot cure yourself ? " 

CCLXYIII. [fo. 145 10 ] Jacques de Vitry saw that in some 
places it was considered a bad omen to meet a priest ; and he 
heard that during a plague in a certain city of France, the igno 
rant people thought the only way to ave? t it was to throw their 
priest into the ditch with the dead. 

Brit, Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 89 ). 

The superstition that it was unlucky to meet a priest or monk 
is very old. It occurs in the Homilia de Sacrilegiis, falsely attri 
buted to St. Augustine, and composed probably in the early part 
of the eighth century. See Eine Augustin falscMich leilegte 
Homilia de Sacrilegiis, von Dr. C. P. Caspari, Christiania, 1886, 
p. 8 : " Et qui clericum vel monachum de mane aut quacumque 
hora videns aut ovians, abominosum sibi esse credet, iste non 
solum paganus, sed demoniacus est, qui christi militem abomi- 
natus." Consult Caspari s note, p. 26, where Grimm and other 
Northern examples are cited. An amusing story of this super 
stition is found in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, Sortilegium, 
3, 5, and reprinted in Wright s Latin Stories, 118. A woman 
crossed herself at meeting a priest in the morning, and said she 
did this so that no misfortune should happen to her that day. 
The priest asked if she believed that anything worse would happen 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 251 

to her because she had met him. She answered : " I fear so." 
He said: "It shall be as you believed, for a misfortune shall 
happen to you for meeting me." And with that he seized her by 
the shoulders, and threw her into a muddy ditch. 

CCLXIX. [fo. 145 ro ] A woman was deluded by the demons into 
the belief that she rode about at night on beasts and saw much of 
the world in a short time. One day in the church she told her 
priest that she had saved him from harm when a band of these 
nocturnal travellers entered his room, assuring him that no locks 
or bolts could keep them out. To show her the folly of her belief 
he locked the church door, and seizing a crucifix gave her a sound 
beating with it, saying when she begged for mercy : "Get out of 
the church and flee if you can, since bolt or door cannot detain 
you !" Thus he corrected her and cured her of her false belief. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 (printed in Wright s Latin 

Stories, 19). 

This story is told by Etienne de Bourbon, 368 (p. 324), without 
acknowledgment of J. de V., and beginning: " Audivi quod." 
Versions are found in Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, Sortile- 
gium, xi. 9, and Scdla CeU, fo. 164 (" Legitur in Speculo Exem- 
plorum"). Wright in his notes says the story is taken from 
Vincent of Beauvais. Lecoy de La Marche in his note to Etienne 
de Bourbon says Vincent took it from Etienne, who evidently took 
it from Jacques de Vitry. 

CCLXX. [fo. 145 VO ] Jacques de Vitry heard of a wicked woman 
who kept the Host in her mouth to use for the purpose of incanta 
tion, for some are wont to give men vile and unclean things to eat 
in order to win their hearts. The Host was miraculously turned 
into flesh and adhered to her palate so that she could not speak. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22, col. 2. 

Dr. A. Wuttke in his Der deutsche Volksaberglau be der Gegenwart, 
Berlin, 1869, p. 132, says that the superstitions use of the Host 
occurs in the fourth century, and was continued throughout the 
middle ages. Wuttke gives several examples of this superstition 
in Germany (pp. 245, 287, 300), and cites Toppeii, Alerglaulen 
aus Masuren, 2 ed. 1867, p. 38, 12 ; and Hintz, Die gute alte Sittc in 
Altpreussen, 1862, p. 31. 



252 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

CCLXXI. [fo. 145 ro ] A certain maid moved by a spirit of pre 
sumption, said that she would not like to resemble Mary Mag- 
dalene. Within a month after this presumptuous speech, she 
openly joined a dissolute fellow, who ruined her. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22, col. 2. 

This story is quoted in the Speculum Exemplorum, Strassburg, 
1487, Dist. ix., cap. xxviii., as follows : "Refert magister lacobus 
de quadam religiosa que curn diu servasset virginitatem suam, 
presumptuose dixit iactando, quod nollet similis esse Magdelene. 
Que ex hac presumptione infra breve tempus a quodam gartione 
deflorata incidit in mala pessima et inaudita." The story is 
transferred in these very words (with one addition by way of 
explanation, a quodam garcione, sive nebulone) in the Magnum 
Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, ed. cit. Virgo, xxiii., which cites 
as a second authority, " lacobus de Paradiso Carthusianus.." The 
text of Jacques de Yitry says clearly ait vellet, but it is evidently 
a clerical error for nollet. 



CCLXXII. [fo. 145 VO ] A chaste but proud and talkative nun 
died and was buried. The custodian of the convent saw at night 
demons dragging from the tomb her body burned from the waist 
up, but the lower part intact. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22, col. 2. 

Jacques de Vitry s source is St. Gregory s Dialogues, iv., 51 
(Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. Ixxvii., p. 412). Versions are also 
found in Roberd of Brunne s Handlyng Synne, ed. cit., p. 50, attri 
buted to St. Gregory, and in Herolt (Discipulus) Promptuarium 
Exemplorum, L. xix. 

CCLXXIII. [fo. 146 rc ] The sister of St. Bernard went with 
great magnificence of dress to visit her brothers, who were in a 
monastery. They, hearing of her splendid apparel, scorned her, 
and refused to see her. She exclaimed, sorrowfully : " If my 
brothers despise my flesh, may the servants of God not despise 
my soul " ; and, laying aside her vain ornaments, she became a 
nun. Such are women who spend a great part of the day in 
dressing to appear in public, as in the ballad : 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 253 

When Aelie arose, 
And when she had washed, 
And the mass was sung, 
Devils have carried her away." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b. 

Versions are found in Herolt (Discipulus), Promptuarium 
Exemplorum, S. xiv. ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, 
Conversio^ xxx. ("In vita S. Bernardi, lib. i., cap. 6") ; and El 
Libro de los Enxemplos, ccxxx. 

The French lines, cited in the text, refer to the heroine of a 
number of anonymous pastourelles of the twelfth century, which may 
be found in Bartsch s Altfranzosische Eomanzen und Pastourellen, 
Leipzig, 1870, pp. 208, 209, 210. In these the fair Aelis is repre 
sented as adorning herself to meet her lover, and the preacher 
changed one of the versions to point his moral. The French 
poems begin generally: "Main se leva bele Aeliz." One of the 
shorter versions (Bartsch, p. 208), runs as follows : 

" Main se leva la bien faite Aelis ; 
Bel se para et plus bel se vesti : 
Si prist de 1 aigue en un dore bacin, 
Lave sa bouche et ses oex et son vis ; 
Si s en entra la bele en un gardin." 

The Hist. Hit. de la France, vols. xviii. p. 63, and xxiii. p. 254, 
says that Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury in 1207, in 
one of his Latin sermons commented upon a song then in fashion, 
and applied it to the Virgin. The song was the same as that 
mentioned above. Jacques de Vitry may have heard of this, and 
followed Langton s example. 

The anecdote of St. Bernard s sister is found in the life by 
Abbot William, Migne, Patrol, Lat., vol. 185, col. 244. 

CCLXXIII bis [fo. 146 V0 ]. Dancing women are compared to the 
instrument for catching quails, called in French quailliers. 

CCLXXIII ter [fo. 146 V0 ]. Vain women are compared to the 
peacock. 

CCLXXIV. [fo. 146 ro ]. The fable of the stag, which admired 
the reflection of his horns in the water, and scorned his slender 



THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

legs. When pursued by tho hunters his legs carried him away 
well enough until his horns caught in the branches, and he was 
captured. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b. 

Fables Inedites par A. C. M. Robert, ii., p. 18 (La Fontaine, 
vi., 9) ; (Euvres de J. de la Fontaine, par H. Regnier, ii., p. 28 ; 
Kirchhof, Wendiinmuth, ed. Oesterley, 7, 47. 

This ^sopian fable (ed- Furia, 66 ; Phaedrus, i., 12 ; Romulus, 
ed. Oesterley, iii., 7), is found in Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum 
historiale, iii., 4 (in Hervieux, op. cit., ii. 240) ; Scala Celi, fo. 76 ; 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, D. ix., 20. 

CCLXXY. [fo. 146 ro ] Gregory tells of a girl who saw the 
Blessed Virgin with a band of virgins, and longed to be with 
them. The Virgin said to her : " If you will not laugh for thirty 
days you shall be with us." The girl refrained from laughter for 
thirty days, and then died, receiving without doubt the promised 
glory. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b. Jacques de Vitry s source 
is St. Gregory s Dialogues, ed. cit. iv., 17. 

This story occurs in Miracles de Nostre Dame, collected by Jean 
Millot, ed. cit., No. xxi., and I again cite Mr. Warner s notes. 
" The same Latin text (as in St. Gregory s Dialogues) occurs in 
Arund. MS. 346, fo. 67 b (Neuhaus, p. 42) ; and slightly different 
forms of it are found in Harl. MSS., 268, fo. 25, and 463, fo. 22 b, 
and in Add. MS., 18,364, fo. 85 b. In Harl. MS., 463, the Virgin s 
command is expressed in the simpler and somewhat more un 
reasonable phrase : Ne riseris per xxx dies et eris nobiscum. 
Adgar s French version (Neuhaus, p. 42) closely follows St. 
Gregory." 

The Arundel text mentioned by Mr. Warner has since been 
printed by Neuhaus in his Die Lateinischen Vorlagen zu den Alt- 
Franzosischen A.dgarschen Marien-Legenden, p. 54 (23). To Mr. 
Warner s note may be added the following mediaeval versions of 
this legend: Herolt (Discipulus), Promptuarium Exemplorum, 
C. xi. ; Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. Major, B. Maria Virgo 
i. ("Gregory"); El Libro de los Enxemplos, xiv. ("Gregory"). 
For an Old- French version see Douhet, Dictionnaire des Legendes 
(Migne, Troisieme Encyclopedie Theologique, vol. xl.), p. 919. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 255 

OCLXXVI. [fo. 146 ro ] A thief, in England, tried to rob a 
church of a statue of the Virgin holding her son in her arms, 
made of silver and precious stones. The thief shouldered the 
image, but found it too heavy to carry, and attempted to tear the 
figure of the Child from the Virgin s arms. The mother, who 
before had allowed herself to be borne away with the child, now 
refused to be parted from her son, and gave the thief such a blow 
that it felled him to the ground. The terrified thief abandoned 
his impious design, and was converted. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b. 

Cited by Etienne de Bourbon, 429 (p. 373), with acknowledg 
ment from Jacques de Vitry. 

CCLXXVII. [fo. 146 ro ] A man and his wife vowed that they 
would drink no wine except upon great festivals, or when they 
had made a bargain. After they had drunk water a few days, 
the man said to his wife: "We cannot abstain to-day; let us 
make a bargain, so that we may drink wine." Then he sold his 
ass to his wife, and they drank. The next day the wife said : 
" Buy your ass back, and let us drink." And so every day they 
made a bargain in order to drink wine. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b. 

The version in the Scala Celi, fo. 81, is somewhat more detailed. 
A man, who had consumed all his wealth by drinking is reproved 
by his confessor, who fixes the amount he shall drink, except in 
case of a sale. When the man sits down at table with his wife, 
and drinks the amount assigned him by his confessor, he is still 
thirsty, and then his wife suggests the expedient mentioned in 
the text. 

There is a version in Pauli, Scliimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 
306, and in M. Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, p. 218 ; Pauli s is like 
Jacques de Vitry s ; Scotus s version like Scala Celi. 

CCLXXVIII. [fo. 146 ro ] Another man vowed that he would eat 
meat only when he had guests, and then invited some on all the 
days when he was wont to eat meat. So certain monks who were 
forbidden to eat meat unless it were game, hunted their hogs with 
dogs after the fashion of a chase. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b, col. 2. 



256 THE EXEMPLA OF JiCQUES DE VITEY. 

CCLXXIX. [fo. 148 ro ]. A Cistercian monk heard many great 
men speak ill of the nuns of the order of secular Beguines. The 
monk prayed to God to tell him the true state of these women 
He was informed tha.t they were firm in the faith and powerful in 
good works. After this the monk always defended them against 
their slanderers. 

Brit, Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b, col. 2, 

CCLXXX. [fo. 14S ro ] A monk was asked "by his shoemaker if 
the shoes he had made for him had a good tongue. He answered 
that they had, for they disparaged and reviled no one. The spider 
is said to take from his prey only what is poisonous, and if he 
does not find any, what he does take is turned to venom in his 
belly. So wil.h the slanderer. 

CCLXXXI. [fo. 148 ro ] Jacques de Vitry heard of a woman who 
went in tears to her priest and told him that her daughter had 
refused to yield to the solicitations of a neighbour, who went away 
in anger and began to defame her. After this hardly would the 
poorest and meanest man ask for her hand, although before she 
had been sought in marriage by many. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 22 b, col. 2. 

CCLXXXII. [fo. 148 ro ] A pious matron and a monk, the guar 
dian and treasurer of his monastery, frequently met in the church 
and talked over religious matters. The devil, envying their virtue 
and fame, tempted them and changed their spiritual into carnal 
love, so that they eloped taking with them the treasures of the 
church and the property of the husband. When the monks and 
the husband discovered their loss they pursued the fugitives, 
captured them with their plunder and threw them into prison. 
The scandal and harm caused by this sin were far greater than 
the sin itself. The monk and matron in prison soon came to them 
selves and began to invoke the aid of^the Blessed Virgin, whose 
devoted worshippers they had always hitherto been. At last she 
appeared to them in great anger saying that she might obtain 
pardon for their sin from her Son, but what reparation could be 
made for so great a scandal, which was an almost irremediable 
injury. The pious Virgin overcome at last by their prayers sum- 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 257 

moned the demons who had caused the harm, and ordered them 
to remove the infamy which they had made. The demons could 
uot resist her power and anxiously pondered upon the means of 
remedying the scandal. Finally they conveyed at night the monk 
to the church and restored the broken treasure-chest intact to the 
monastery; and likewise the matron to her own home, repairing 
and fastening the box from which she had taken her husband s 
money. When the monks found their treasure and the monk 
praying as usual, and the husband discovered his wife and pro 
perty, they were amazed, and hastening to the prison found the 
monk and matron in chains as they had left them, at least it 
seemed so to them, for one of the demons had transformed himself 
into the figure of the monk, and another into the shape of the 
matron. When the whole city flocked to see this wonder, the 
demons cried in the hearing of all: "Let us depart, long enough 
have we deceived these people, and caused ill to be thought of 
religious persons." With these words they vanished and every 
one hastened to fall at the feet of the monk and matron and beg 
their pardon. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23 (printed in Wright s Latin 
Stories, 47); MS. 11,284, fo. 53 b. This story is cited from 
Jacques de Vitry by Etienne de Bourbon, 519 (p. 448). The 
editor mentions poetical versions in Rutebeuf, ed. Jubinal, i. 302; 
Meon, Nouveau Eecueil, ii. 254 ; Gudin, Hist, des Contes, i. 65, comp. 
Hist, litteraire de la France, xxiii. 124, and prose versions in Cassar 
of Heist., Dial. Mirac. vii. 34, and Wright as above cited. To 
these references may be added the following: Herolt (Discipulus) 
Promptuarium de Miraculis B. M. V., after Prompt. Exemp., ed. cit. 
xxi. ; Mussafia, Marienlegenden, Vienna, 1887, p. 70 (Paris, MS. 
Lat. 18,134, xiii cent.) ; Roberd of Brunne s Handlyng Synne, p. 
402 ; other old French versions are cited by Weber, Vie des Anciens 
Peres, p. 31 (Barbazon-Meon, Fabliaux, 1808, i. 242; Legrand 
d Aussy, Fabliaux et Contes, Paris, 1827, t. iv., p. 1 of Appendix); 
Douhet, Dictionnaire des Legendes, ed. cit. p. 932. 

CCLXXXIII. [fo. 149 ro ] The fable of the wolf and kid, which 
the mother warned not to leave the fold until her return from 
pasture. The wolf at evening approached the entrance of the fold 
and began to make a sound like a goat, and said to the kid: "I 



258 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

am your mother, come and meet me and I will suckle you." The 
incautious kid went out and was devoured by the wolf. 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23, col. 2. 

CCLXXXIY. [fo. 149 ro ] A sinful woman would accept no 
penance from her confessor because she could not fast or endure 
any bodily pain. The priest finally taking pity upon her asked if 
there >was anything in the world from which she could abstain. 
She answered that she loathed onions so that she could scarcely 
endure the sight of them. Thereupon the priest commanded her 
not to eat onions while she lived. She went home joyfully, but 
in passing through the square where onions were sold she was 
seized with such a longing for them that she bought some, took 
them home and ate them with great gusto. Then coming to her 
self she went back to the priest and said she knew that the devil 
was striving to destroy her soul since he had so tempted her to 
eat onions that she could not abstain. Then she asked the priest 
to prescribe for her any penance he wished, for she knew that 
unless she made a desperate fight she could not escape from the 
hands of the devil. She performed the penance prescribed her 
and henceforth persevered in well-doing. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23, col. 2. 

There is a version of this story in Pauli s ScTiimpf und Ernst, ed. 
Oesterley, 317, the editor cites: Scherz mit der Warheyt, Frankfort, 
1563, fo. 32; Herolt, Sermoncs de tempore (should be Promptua/rium 
Exemplorum), 0, 14; Scala Celi, fo. 153 (should be 155). In 
Pauli s version the woman takes such a liking to the forbidden 
vegetable that she continues to eat them in the future: "und 
darnach asz sie alwegen ziblen, das was rechte biisz gehalten, ia 
hindersich wie die Krebs gon." In the Scala Celi the story is 
told of a wicked knight and ends as in Jacques de Vitry. Herolt s 
version begins very circumstantially with a procurator who betrays 
his lord s castle to the enemy and is spared as the reward of his 
treason; this was in the diocese of Cologne. The traitor goes to 
confession and the rest of the story is as to ending like Pauli : 
" Ille egressus allea tulit in horto, et temptatus concupivit, et ilia 
cruda commedit, et non poterat prius bene preparata commedere." 

CCLXXXV. [fo. 149 VO ] An unimportant variant of LXIL 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23 b. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 259 

CCLXXXYI. [fo. 150 ro ] St. Bernard was wont, as lie rode along 
in the morning- and saw children in the fields keeping sheep, to 
say : " Let us greet these children, so that they may answer 
and bless us, and we may ride on in safety, defended by the prayers 
of these innocents." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23 b. 

CCLXXXVII. [fo. 150 ro ] A man on his way to the gallows 
asked his father to kiss him, and bit his lips until they bled. This 
he did because his father had not chastised him in his youth for 
his faults, and so had been the cause of his bad end. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23 b, col. 2 ; MS. 11,284, fo. 39 
("refert Boethius, De disciplina scliolarium ") ; MS. 27,336, fo. 2. 
See Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 19, where a large 
number of versions are cited, among them the following, which I 
have verified : Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, A. 3, 19 ; Mar- 
tinus Polonus, ed. cit. Prompt., cap. iv., H; Herolt (Discipulus) , 
Sermones, ed. cit. xvi., F; Bareleta, Sermones, 1505, fo. 108 
(" Boethius in doctrina scholarium ") ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 
cclxxiii. ; Shakespeare Jest-Books, iii., Gertaine Conceyts and Jeasts, 
p. 12, No. 26 (this work is a translation of M. Scotus, Mensa 
Philosophica, where this story is found, ed. cifc. p. 235). 

To Oesterley s references may be added : Stienne de Bourbon, 
43 (p. 51), who cites Nicholas de Mavigny, archbishop of Besan9on, 
and others ; and Liber de Abundantia Exemplorum, ed. cit. fo. 34 V0 . 

The story is first found in Boethius, De Disciplina Scholarium, 
chap. ii. (in Migne, Patrol. Lat., vol. 64, col. 1227), where it is 
told of the son of Lucretius, the pupil of Zeno : " Aleis autem et 
meretricum cellulis semper inhiabat. Propio autem adhuc non 
destitutus pruritu, postea a parentibus ejectus, tandem ab amicis 
et consortibus destitutus, a, creditoribus undique fatigatus, notis et 
ignotis furtim studuit assistere, crucis ab angustiis a patre cre- 
berrime redemptus, ultimo tamen parentis pecunia redimi non 
potuit. Cruci ergo adductus eundem ad se venire lacrymis com- 
pellebat osculumque voce querula petebat. Pietatis autem motio 
ad filii petitionem patrem erexit, erectique filius nasum morsu 
secuit acutissimo dicens : Quare a meis primis erroribus incasti- 
gatus evasi? Ut quid magistri mei documentis non obedivi, 
sociosque meos contempsi ? " 



260 THE BXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

CCLXXXVIII. [fo. 150 VO ] A wicked man made his old father 
lie in a stable, and gave him a shabby cloak to wear. Now this 
wicked man had a son of his own who felt very sorry for the ill- 
treatment his grandfather received, and going one day to his 
father, he said : " Father, buy me a cloak." His father answered : 
" Have you not good clothes ; what do you wish with it ? " "I 
shall keep it," he replied, "until you are old, and then I will give 
it to you, and do to you as you do to your father, who begot you 
and nourished you, and gave you all he had." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl., 463, fo. 23 b, col. 2 ; MS. 11,254, fo. 65 b. 

A variant of the famous story known as the " Housse partie," 
the extensive literature of which can best be consulted in Pauli, 
Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 463 ; Hagen, Gesammtabentuer, 
No. 48, vol. ii., pp. lv., 391, iii. 729; and Clouston, Popular Tales 
and Fictions, vol. ii., p. 372, " The Ungrateful Son." 

The story was a favourite one, and is found in a large number 
of the mediaeval sermon-books ; those that I have seen are the fol 
lowing : Scala Celi, fo. 99 ; Herolt (Discipulus) Prompttiarium 
Exemplorum, F. 15 (" Guil. Lugd." i.e., Guilielmus Peraldus, 
Summa Virtytum ac Vitiorum, Cologne, 1629, vol. ii., p. 259) ; 
Martinus Polonus, ed. cit. Prompt., cap. xvi. C ; Etienne de Bour 
bon, 161 (p. 138), who cites Nicolas de Flavigny, Archbishop of 
Besancon ; Peregrinus, Sermones, ed. cit., fo. 61 VO (JDom v. post 
octavam pent.) the story in Odo de Ceritona (in Hervieux, op. cit. 
ii. 653) is not an exact parallel ; the father gives his parent an old 
sheepskin to protect him against the cold, the grandson preserves 
the skin for his own father ; a Spanish version is in El Libro de 
los Enxemplos, cclxxii. 

French and English versions will be found in Roberd of 
Brunne s Handlyng Sgnne, ed. cit., p. 37 ; Recueil general et complct 
des Fabliaux, ed. Montaiglon et Raynaud, i., p. 82, ii. 1 (see Hist, 
litt. de la France, vol. xxiii., p. 192) ; Shakespeare Jest-Boohs, ed. 
Hazlitt, i. Mery Tales and Quicke Answeres, p. 121, ciii. ; iii. Pas- 
guiVs Jests, p. 60. There is a popular German version in Grimm s 
Household Tales, No. 78 (see Mrs. Hunt s translation in the Bohn 
Library, vol. i., p. 438). 

CCLXXXIX. [fo. 150 VO ] A hard working God-fearing man, 
who made a scanty living, had a wife who remained idly at home 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 261 

and spent her husband s gains with dissolute companions. They 
both died, leaving an only daughter, who began to consider whether 
she should imitate the life of her father, or of her mother. The 
devil placed before her eyes the hard life of her father, who had 
always been in sorrow and poverty, and the joyful and happy life 
her mother had led. The girl was almost induced to despise the 
former and imitate the latter. The following night the angel of 
the Lord appeared to her in a dream, and led her to the place of 
torment, where she saw her mother in the midst of flames and 
serpents. The wretched mother warned her daughter against 
imitating her vile life; if she did, she could in no wise escape 
eternal torments. Then the angel led her to paradise, where she 
beheld her father shining brighter than the sun and crowned with 
glory and honour. Then the angel asked her which life she wished 
to imitate. The next day the girl gave all she had to the poor and 
withdrew to a cave, where she led a life of austerity. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 23 b, col. 2; MS. 11,254, fo. 14 b 
("Vitae Patrum"). 

Jaques de Vitry s source is the Vitae Patrum, vi. 1, 15 (Migne, 
Patrol. Latina, vol. Ixxiii., col. 995 998), where the story is told 
in great detail. The conclusion is somewhat different from J. de 
Y. s, the girl simply determines to follow her father s example. 
Condensed versions are found in Scala Celi, fo. 150, ending as in 
Vitae Patrum, and in Libro de los Enxemplos, ccclxxx. The story 
is told at length from the Vitae Patrum in Magnum Speculum Ex- 
cmplorum, Conversio, v. 

French versions are in the Vie des Anciens Peres (Weber, p. 11 ; 
Tobler in Jahrbuck filr rom. und eng. Lit. vii., 417; Paris, Vie de 
St. Alexis, p. 220 ; see Hist. Litt. de la France, xxiii., p. 119). There 
is an Italian version in Zambrini s Dodici Conti morali d Anonimo, 
Bologna, 1862 (Scelta di Cur. lett. ix.), xi. (see Kohler, Zeitschrift 
fur rom. Phil, i., p. 371). Some additional references are given by 
H. Gering in his note to an Icelandic version in Islendzk Aeventyri, 
ii., p. 129. 



CCXC. [fo. 151 ro ] The mother of the wild goat, when she goes 
out in search of food, strikes the ground with her hoof and makes 
a sign to her kid not to go roaming about or to leave the spot. So 

T 



262 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

obedient is the kid that, when men come, it will allow itself to be 
captured, rather than disobey its mother s command. 
Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 24. 

CCXCI. [fo. 151 ro ] A hardhearted son, who has had all his 
father s property, refuses to give him, when old, wine to drink, 
although he has five casks of it in his cellar, alleging various 
frivolous excuses in regard to each cask. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. fo. 24, col. 2. 

CCXCII. [fo. 151 ro ] The badger is a very cleanly animal 
which constructs with its teeth and claws an abode in the rock, 
and cannot endure any foul odour. The crafty fox befouls the 
dwelling of the badger, which straightway abandons it and the fox 
takes possession of an abode which he did not build, and for which 
he did not labor. So is it with Grod and the devil in the human 
heart. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 24, col. 2. 

The usual form of the name of the animal is melota, see Du 
Cange under this word, where an example of melos is given. The 
peculiarity of the animal mentioned in the text is referred to in A. 
Neckam, De Naturis Rerum, ed. cit., p. 207, cap. cxxvii; Barthol. 
Glanville, De Proprietatibus rerum, ed. cit., lib. xviii., cap. 101. 

CCXCIII. [fo. 151 VO ] Saint Bernard and all his brothers, save 
one, became monks. This one visited his brothers one day and St. 
Bernard said to him : " Thou shalt remain in the world and possess 
our father s estate, for we cannot own anything in this world." 
The youth deeply moved, said : " My brothers possess heaven, and 
I alone shall possess the earth ; God willing, it shall not be so." 
Then he abandoned the world and became a monk with the rest of 
his brothers. The old father was left to bewail his children as 
though they were lost. One day St. Bernard visited him, and 
according to the custom of Burgundy, the father ordered a great 
log to be put on the fire together with some dry wood. The dry 
wood blazed up brightly, but the log only smoked. Then St. 
Bernard said : " Father, your sons are the dry wood burning 
brightly and you are the old log full of earth whom your sons can- 
i:ot inflame, although they have set you an example. You do 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 263 

nothing but give off smoke." The father was moved at these 
words, and he, too, became a monk. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 24, col. 2. 

The first part of the story, the conversion of the brother, is found 
in the life of St. Bernard by Abbot William in Migne, Patrol. Lot. 
vol. 185, col. 236. The second part I cannot discover ; in the life 
above cited it simply says : " pater quoque, qui solus domi reman - 
serat, veniens ad filios suos, appositus est ad eos ; qui cum 
aliquantulum tempus ibi fecisset, obiit in senectute bona." 

CCXCIV. [fo. 152] Gregory tells of a blasphemous child who 
died in its father s arms and its soul was carried off by demons. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 24 b ; MS. 11,254, fo. 12 b. 

The source of the story is St. Gregory s Dialogues, iv., 18 (ed. 
cit. 7, p. 349). There are versions in Scala Celi, fo. 25 ; Herolt 
(Discipulus), Sermones, ed. cit. cxxiii, H; Magnum Speculum Ex- 
cmplorum, Jurare, i., and Roberd of Brunne s Handlyng Synne, p. 
153, all of which cite Gregory as their authority. 

CCXCV. [fo. 152 ro ] Gregory also tells of a certain man who 
foolishly speaking to his servant said : " Come devil, off with my 
shoes." Immediately he perceived that the devil, with great speed, 
loosened the thongs of his shoes ; and because he named the devil 
he found him ready, who is always on the watch. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 24 b. 

The source is St. Gregory s Dialogues, iii., 20 (ed. cit. p. 269). 
There are versions in Herolt (Discipulus), Sermones, xxxiii., G ; 
Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, Daemon, i ; Libro de los Enxemplos, 
xlii., all of which cite Gregory. 

CCXCVI. [fo. 152 ro ] A man lost all his property at dice, and 
began to blaspheme God and invoke the devil. He applied to a 
wealthy Jew, who said to him : " Deny Christ, his mother, and the 
saints, and I will cause you to enjoy your former pleasures." The 
gamester professed his willingness to deny God and the saints but 
not the Virgin, and the Jew drove him angrily away. One day as 
he was passing before an image of the Virgin it bowed to him as 
if thanking hirn. A rich man who was in the church saw this, 
and when it occurred a second time he called the gamester, who 

T 2 



264 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

was in rags, and looked like a ribald fellow, and asked him what 
this wonder meant. He answered : " I do not know, for I am a 
great sinner and have wasted my patrimony in riotous living and 
gaming." " How can that be ? " asked the rich man. " Did you 
ever do the Blessed Mary a service ? " He replied : "I have 
never served God, or her," and then remembering, he added : 
" A certain Jew wanted to enrich me if I would deny the Blessed 
Mary, but I preferred to remain poor to denying her." The rich 
man was deeply moved and said: "You did well," and gave him 
his daughter and great wealth with her hand. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 24 b. A similar story, although 
not exactly parallel, is found in Caesar of Heisterbach, Dial. 
Mirac. Dist. ii., cap. xii (ed. cit., i., p. 78). In this version the 
tempter is not a Jew, but " villicum, hominem quidem malignum, 
nomine, non re Christianum, et daemonum ministerio totum 
mancipatum." The interview between the tempter and his victim 
is given at great length ; it occurs in a wood at night. In the 
church the Virgin intercedes with her son, but the image turns 
away its face. Finally, the Virgin lays the image on the altar and 
falls on her knees before it. The son relents and grants the 
mother s prayer. The remainder of the story is as above. 

Caesarius s version is given with due acknowledgment in Herolt 
(Discipulus), Promptuaritim de Miraculis J3.V.M, ed. cit., xcvi., and 
in Magnum Speculum Exemplorum, ed. cit., B. Maria Virgo, xv. 

Inedited versions are mentioned in Mussafia, Marienlegenden, 
p. 70, and by Warner in his note to Miracles de Nostre Dame, 
collected by Jean Mielot, No. xxxix., where are cited also ; 
Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Hist, vii., 105-106, and Caesarius. 

Besides the French version in Mielot, others are mentioned by 
Weber, Vie des Anciens Peres, p. 14, and in Hist. Litt. de la France, 
xxiii., 122 (Jubinal, Nouv. rec, i., p. 118 ; Le Grand d Aussy, iv., 
p. 34.) 

Finally, an Italian version of Caesarius s story may be found in 
Passavanti s Lo Specchio delta Vera Penitenzia, ed. cit., i., p. 115, 
and a similar German version in Hagen s Gesammtabenteuer, No. 
Ixxxiii., vol. iii., p. 521, see note, vol. iii., p. cxxv. 

CCXCVII. [fo. 152 ro ] Those who confess their sins and straight 
way return to them make what is called in France " confessio Re- 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 265 

nardi," from the story that when Benard was on his way to the 
court of the lion to be hung he made a general confession of all 
his sins to the badger. On the same day he saw some hens near 
the house of a certain man and said to the badger: "That is our 
way, near that house." The badger answered: " Wretched creature, 
you confessed all your sins to me to-day, and among them that you 
had devoured many hens, and promised to refrain in the future." 
Benard replied: "You are right, but I had forgotten it." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14, col. 2. 

A somewhat similar story, with omission of confession, is found 
in Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 29. The editor cites 
Camerarius, Fabulae Aesopicae, Lips., 1570, 337; Scherz mit der 
Wahrlieyt, Frankf., 1563, 34; and Memel, Neuvermehrte Lustige 
Gesellschaft, 1695, 491, 492. 

CCXCVIII. [fo. 152 ro ] Jacques de Vitry remembered hearing 
the confessions of certain youths who had laid waste the fields of 
others, and taken grapes from others vineyards. He enjoined them 
to make restitution and amends for the loss they had caused. 
They promised to refrain in the future, and to restore what they 
had carried off. Near the church, however, they saw some vine 
yards, and with a loud outcry rushed after the grapes and carried 
them away. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14, col. 2. 

CCXCIX. [fo. 152 ro ] Jacques de Vitry heard of a man who 
was being absolved by the priest, who with one hand kept beating 
his bare breast, and catching sight of the priest s purse full of 
money cut it off with the other hand. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14, col. 2. 

CCC. [fo. 153 ro ] Certain ones cease from their sins for a while 
and then return to them more eagerly. Like a crying child, who, 
after he had wept a long time, became silent. Those who were in 
the house rejoiced and said: "Now we shall have quiet." The 
child heard them and said: "I was tired and am resting a little 
in order that I may cry the more. I shall never let you sleep." 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14, col. 2. There are versions in 
Scala Geli, fo. 158 VO (credited to Speculum Exemplorum), and in 
Pauli s Schimpf und Ernst, ed. Oesterley, 594. 



266 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITRY. 

Wright in his Latin Stories, 37, gives "from a MS. at Oxford," 
a curious version which I copy here for reference. "Nota de 
Robineto, qui fuit in quadam domo in qua milites quidam quadam 
nocte hospitati sunt, et cum media nocte multum clamasset, et 
milites valde inquietasset et a sompno impedisset, tandem clamore 
f essus quievit. Et dixerunt milites ad invicem, Dormiamus modo, 
quia modo dormit Robinetus. Quibus Robinetus respondit, Non 
dormio, sed quiesco, ut melius postea clamem. Et dixerunt milites, 
Ergo non dormiemus hac nocte. " 

Wright says in his note: "It is the earliest known reference to 
the name of the personage of the popular creed named Robin 
Goodfellow, here introduced as the household goblin, the lubber 
fiend. " 



CCCI. [fo. 153 ro ] A certain clerk in France wept so at confes 
sion that he could not speak. The priest told him to write down 
his sins, and took the paper to the bishop to advise with him. 
When they opened the paper they found it blank. The priest 
went back to the penitent, and said : " Take heart, my son, thy 
sins are forgiven thee ; lo, I found thy paper blank, and all thy 
sins blotted out ! " 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14, col. 2 ; MS. 11,254, fo. 18 b. 
Jacques de Vitry s version is cited by Lecoy de La Marche in 
Etienne de Bourbon, p. 157, note 1. 

This story is found in Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dial. Mirac. 
Dist. ii., cap. x., who probably took it from a source common to 
himself and Jacques de Vitry. Caesarius s version is longer and 
more detailed. There are versions in Scala Celi, fo. 44 TO ("in 
libro de septem donis spiritus sancti," i.e., Etienne de Bourbon. 
It is not in Lecoy de la Marche s edition). Herolt (Discipulus), 
Promptuarium Exemplorum, C, xxxiv. (from Caesarius) ; Magnum 
Speculum Exemplorum, Contritio, iv. (from Caesarius) ; El Libro de 
los Enxemplos, i. ; Passavanti, Specchio della vera penitenza, ed. cit. 
i., p. 150 (from Caesarius). 

CCCII. [fo. 153 ro ] A man was once in great danger at sea, and 
had no priest to confess to. So he confessed his sins aloud in the 
hearing of all who were in the ship. Now the sin he confessed 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 267 

was so henious that never before had he been willing to confess it 
from shame. When the tempest subsided, no one on board could 
remember the sin confessed in his hearing. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14 b. 

Caesarius of Heisterbach tells the same story, op. cit. Dist. iii., 
cap. xxi., on the authority of " magister Johannes Xantensis," who 
told it to the people "in suis stationibus crucem praedicans." 

Caesarius s version is copied by Scala Celi, fo. 47 (condensed), 
and Herolt, Promptuarium Exemplorum, T, 2. 

CCCIII. [fo. 153 ro ] A man committed a great sin, and never 
dared to confess it. At the point of death, however, he wished to 
do so. The devil fearing that he would confess this sin, disguised 
himself in the form of a priest and heard the confession, telling 
the man that the sin was a heinous one, and might scandalise 
many, and enjoined him not to reveal it again in confession to any 
priest. After the man s death the devil claimed his soul, on the 
ground that he had never confessed his sin to a priest. The man s 
good angel, on the other hand, said that his good intention should 
save him, and the devil s fraud should not aid its author. God 
decided in favour of the man, and commanded his soul to return 
to his body to make confession and do penance. 

Brit. Mus. MS. Harl. 463, fo. 14 b. 

Jacques de Vitry s story is copied by Scala Celi, fo. 45, and 
Recull de Eximplis, ed. cit. cxlix. The version in Herolt (Disci- 
pulus), Promptuarium Exemplorum, C, xxiii., is attributed to 
Arnoldus (Greilhoven de Roterodamis, whose rare Gnotosolitus sive 
Speculum Conscientiae, Brux., 1476, 1479, I have not been able to 
consult). There is an Italian version in Corona de Monaci, Prato, 
1862, p. 61. 

CCCIV. [fo. 22 VO ] Hypocrites and heretics are compared to 
the fox which stuck out its tongue and pretended to be dead. 
The birds approached to eat the red tongue, and were caught by 
the cunning fox. 

The same story is found in Odo de Ceritona in Hervieux, Les 
Fabulistes Latins, ii., p. 629 (also in Jahrluch fur romaniscJie und 
englische Literatur, ix., p. 137), and in Libro de los Gatos, No. 



LIU. 



268 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE V1TRY. 

CCCV. [fo. 46 f ] A monk asked why Christ did not descend 
from the Cross when they said to him : " Let him now come down 
from the Cross." A wise man replied : " That you should not 
leave your cloister, but continue steadfast in the cross of your 
religion." 

CCCYI. [fo. 50 VO ] Certain weak-minded persons who yield to 
temptations rather than fight against them, are compared to the 
fool who burned his own house to destroy the flies which troubled 
him. 

CCCVII. [fo. 63 VO ] Saint Ambrose tells of .a virgin who was 
hastening to martyrdom, and was asked by a pagan whither she 
was going. She answered : "To my friend, who has invited me 
to his wedding feast." The pagan, deriding her, said : " Tell 
your friend to send me some of his roses." Shortly after her 
death a handsome youth, with a basket full of beautiful roses, 
appeared to the pagan, and said : " The friend of the woman, who 
just passed by, sends you some roses as you desired." Then he 
left the roses and disappeared. The pagan was converted and 
himself suffered martyrdom. 

CCC VIII. [fo. 63 VO ] Those who are fervent at the beginning of 
their conversion, and afterwards grow lukewarm, are like the 
bird which the French call bruer* which first catches larks and 
partridges, then sparrows and smaller birds, then beetles, flies, 
and worms, and finally allows itself to die of hunger, 

CCCVIII bis . [fo. 77 VO ] Some are like the child whom the French 
call chamiumrf who exhausts many nurses but profits not by his 
food. 

CCCIX. [fo. 116 VO ] A certain person who sold horses was 
wont to give the buyer equivocal looks. If the horse turned out 
badly, he said : "I warned you not to buy it." If the horse 
turned out a good one, he said : "I advised you to buy it." 

* Probably the coq de bruyerc, or grouse. 

f Changeling, from late Latin camium for cambium, from camliare, French 
changer. 



ANALYSIS AND NOTES. 269 

CCCX. [fo. 117 VO ] An innkeeper spilled the wine of a pilgrim, 
his guest, so that he should buy more. He pretended that he had 
stumbled by accident, and consoled the pilgrim with these words : 
" Do not mind the spilling of this wine ; it is a sign of great 
abundance which you shall have this year." When he had gone 
out, the pilgrim drew the spigot from the cask and let all the 
wine run out, excusing himself afterwards to the host with his 
own words : "Host, this spilling foretells great abundance." 

This story is quoted by ^tienne de Bourbon, 433, p. 376. It is 
also found in Pauli, Scliimpf und Ernst, 372, and in Novellette, etc. 
di San Bernardino, Bologna, 1868 (SceUa di Curiosita, Disp. 
xcvii.), p. 72, No. xxix. Oesterley, in his notes to Pauli, cites 
also Bernardinus de Bustis, Rosarium Sermonum, 2, 277, Z. 

CCCXI. [fo. 130 rD ] When Jacques de Yitry was a pilgrim and 
sailing in a merchant vessel, a great storm arose, and certain 
ribalds were terrified and tore their hair and clothes. When the 
storm was over they resumed their lewd life and stole the victuals 
of the pilgrims. 

CCCXII. [fo. 130 ro ] Other wicked sailors starve the pilgrims 
on their ships, or cast them upon desert islands, or even sell them 
to the Saracens. Jacques de Vitry knew of some who engaged a 
ship on condition that they were to pay for it only in case it 
reached port in safety. When near their destination they sunk 
the ship, escaping themselves in the small boats, and saving their 
own property and carrying off that of the pilgrims, who were 
drowned. 

CCCXIII. [fo. 147 VO ] The Hebrews say that Pharaoh set a 
crown on Moses head when a child. Moses, however, cast it on 
the ground, seeing in it the image of Jove. The king wished to 
kill the child whom the wise men declared would destroy Egypt. 
Some one delivered him by saying : " Let us see if he did it from 
childish ignorance." So they brought live coals and put them in 
his mouth, and his tongue was injured, and thereafter he could 
not speak fluently. 

CCCXIV. [fo. 146 VO ] When a man does not want to lose his 
cow, he ties a bell to its neck. To this cow may be compared the 
woman who leads in the dance. When the devil hears the sound 
he is reassured, and says : " I have not yet lost my cow." 



THE EXEMPLA. OF 

JACQUES DE VITRY. 



INDEXES. 



I. 
INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 



Abbot and Robber : Robber converted by visit to monastery. LXVIII. 

fo. 61 VO 29 

Abbot before promotion ate small fishes, to eat large ones afterwards. 

LXX. fo. 62 VO .... ... 31 

Acharius, St., undeceives man who thinks wife has been transformed into 

mare. See Demon deludes man into belief, etc. 
Adulterous soldier saved by confession from denunciation by demoniac. 

See Confession saves an adulterous soldier. 
Adultery of stork punished by male. See Stork detects and punishes 

adultery of female. 

Abolah and Aholibah, laymen and clergy compared to. xvi bi3 . fo. 18 ro 5 
Albigensian Heretics cannot make sign of cross, xxvi. fo. 30 ro . . 9 

Androclus. CLXXXV. fo. 124: vo . . . . ... 78 

Angel and Hermit (Parnell s Hermit "). Cix. fo. 8G V . . .50 

Angels escort soul of pilgrim to heaven. See Pilgrim escorted by angels 

to heaven, etc. 

Anointing hand of venal judge, xxxvill. fo. 34 VO . . .15 

Anthony, St., cures ennui by praying for a time and then working for a 

time. LXXIV. fo. 66 VO ....... 33 

Anthony s, St., reply to philosophers asking which was first, knowledge or 

letters, xxx. fo. 31 VO . 11 

Ape clings to young and is captured by hunters. XXV. fo. 28 VO . . 9 

Ape revenges herself upon bear, which had devoured her young, by burn 
ing him while asleep. CXLIII. fo. 106 VO . . . .64 
Ape throws away nut on account of the bitter rind, cxxvil. fo. 99 VO . 58 
Apollo, council of demons held in temple of. See Jew passes the night in 

temple of Apollo. 
Apparition of dead scholar of Paris to friend neglecting to carry out his 

bequest. See Scholar of Paris gives a mattress at death to the poor. 
Apparition of dead scholar of Paris to master. See Scholar of Paris 

appears after death to master. 
Apparition of dead soldier to faithless executor. See Executor, faithless, 

pays penalty, etc. 



274 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGK 

Apple, slice of, used to prove sons obedience by Charles, emperor. See 

Charles, emperor, proves obedience of sons, etc. 
Ascalon, Templars tempted to relinquish siege of. See Templars are 

tempted to relinquish siege of Ascalon. 
Ass, accustomed to remain in mill, would not leave it when on fire, and 

perished in the flames, cxxv. fo. 99 VO . . . .57 

Ass carries usurer s body to gibbet. See Usurer s body carried by ass to 

gibbet. 
Ass of leper. Priests fond of banqueting compared to. See Priests fond 

of banqueting, etc. 
Ass sold by husband to wife, and vice versa, in order to elude vow not to 

drink wine. See Vow to drink no wine, etc. 
Ass, which is created slothful and hardy, permits wolves to devour its loins 

without feeling wound, cxxvi. fo. 99 VO . . . .58 

Ass s voice. Priest thinks he has a fine voice ; reminds parishioner of 

dead ass. LVI. fo. 50 VO ....... 22 

Astrologer, Devil in guise of, at Emperor s court, denounces incestuous 

Roman widow. See Confession saves incestuous Roman widow. 
Avaricious knight upbraids servant for not finding cloak : servant had 

known it for seven years. CLXXXI. fo. 123 VO . . . .77 

Avaricious man and envious man allowed to ask for anything they desire : 

one who asks last gets double. Envious man asks to lose one eye. 

cxcvi. fo. 128 ro . . . . . . . .81 

Avaricious priest refuses to bury mother of young man without pay. Dead 

mother in sack left with priest as pledge. See Dead mother in sack 

left as pledge, etc. 
Avaricious rustic puts bad money into Church offerings : Priest slips a 

piece of bad money into his mouth instead of Host, cxcvill. 

fo. 128 .. ... .82 

Avaricious woman during life gives nothing to poor. After her death her 

husband refuses to give anything for her soul. CLXXXII. fo. 124 ro . 77 

Bad money put into Church offerings by avaricious rustic : Priest slips a 

piece of it into his mouth instead of Host. See Avaricious rustic puts 

bad money into Church offerings, etc. 

Bad news (" Maymundo "). CCV. fo. 131 VO . . 85 

Bargains, wine drunk at. See Vow to drink no wine, etc. 
Bear burned while sleeping by ape, whose young he had devoured. See 

Ape revenges herself upon bear, etc. 
Beggars, two, humble and proud, beg for grain with small and large sacks : 

Humble beggar becomes rich. LXXVII. fo. 68 VO . . . 35 

Beggars, two, lame and blind, are healed against their will by relics of St. 

Martin. CXII. fo. 88 VO ....... 52 

Belshazzar, king of Babylon, fears dead father may revive, has him cut to 

pieces and given to foxes. CLIX. fo. 115 VO .69 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 275 

PAGE 

Bernard, St.. and all his brothers save one, are converted : brother follows 

example, and their father, too, becomes a monk, ccxcui. fo. 151 VO . 123 
Bernard, St., protects his virtue by crying "thieves, thieves," and arousing 

house, ccxn. fo. 132 VO ....... 88 

Bernard s, St., sister visits him in rich apparel. He will not see her ; she 

is converted. CCLXXIII. fo. 146 ro ..... 114 

Bernard, St., visits school of logic at Paris, and judges a disputation. 

xxxn. fo. 32 ro ........ 13 

Bernard, St., was fond of greeting children, so as to obtain their blessings. 

CCLXXXVI. fo. 150 ro . . . . . . .120 

Bestial sinner does penance in bestial manner ; eats grass. Is told he 

belongs not to order of angels, but to order of asses. LV. fo. 50 VO . 21 
Bird called in French truer gradually becomes slothful and dies of hunger. 

cccvui. fo. 63 V0 . . . . . . . . .128 

Blasphemer, Christian, shocks Jew. See Jew shocked at Christian blas 
phemer, 
Blasphemer punished by knight by a blow : knight acquitted by king. 

CCXix. fo. 134 VO ........ 91 

Blasphemer refuses to deny the Virgin at Jew s request : Virgin bows 

thanks to him, and makes him rich again. See Virgin, image of, 

bows to gamester, etc. 

Blasphemous child s soul carried off by demons. CCXCIV. fo. 152 ro . 124 

Blind men are given a pig to kill on festal days. XLIII. fo. 40 ro . .17 

Bolster, absence of, lamented by new monk who had never before used one. 

LXXXIV. fo. 72 VO . . . . . . .38 

Bones of the dead blessed and cursed by novice at abbot s order. See 

Novice is sent by abbot to bless, etc. 
Bride, upon return to home, showered with grain, people crying " Habun- 

dantia." CCLXV. fo. 145 ro . . . . . .112 

Brothers, two, educated in monastery and world ; the monk knows more 

deceits and cavillings than the others. XLIX. fo. 46 ro . . .19 

Butcher surprised that customer has lived seven years on his meat. CLXII. 

fo. 116* 70 

Butcher,, who sold bad meat to pilgrims at Acre, asks release, when cap 
tured by Saracens, because he kills so many of Sultan s enemies. 

CLXIII. fo. 116 VO . . . . . . . .70 

Cask, fool tries to fill, by drawing from bottom, etc. See Fool tries to 

fill, etc. 

Cat, roaming, kept at home by disfiguring her. ccix. fo. 132 ro . . 87 

Cat set to guard cheese. See Fool puts cat to guard, etc. 
Cat, students at Paris game with a cat. See Students at Paris play a 

game, etc. 
Changeling, called in French chamium, exhausts many nurses, but docs not 

thrive himself. CCCVin b19 . fo. 77 V0 . . 129 



276 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Charity of hermit who gives away all he possesses, even to Bible. See 

Hermit who gives away, etc. 
Charity of John of Alexandria (Joannes Eleemosynarius). See John of 

Alexandria. 
Charity of noble lady in bestowing garment on poor woman ; Priest 

miraculously prevented from continuing mass during lady s absence. 

XGIII. fo. 76 VO . 42 

Charity of noble lady to leper. Takes him into bed during husband s 

absence. Leper miraculously disappears, xcv. fo. 77 ro 
Charity of Theobald, count of Champagne. See Theobald, count of C. 
Charles, emperor (Charlemagne), proves obedience of sons by slice of 

apple, and distributes kingdom accordingly, cxxm. fo. 97 ro . 56 

Charm for driving mice from grain used in derision of concubines of 

priests. See Concubines of priests not given the kiss of peace, etc. 
Children s blessings desired by Saint Bernard. See Saint Bernard was 

fond of greeting children, etc. 

Christ, reason why, did not descend from the cross, cccv. fo. 46. . 127 

Cistercian monk informed by God that the nuns of that order were firm in 

the faith and powerful in good works. CCLXXix. fo. 148 ro . 
Cloak of avaricious knight cannot be found by servant. See Avaricious 

knight upbraids servant for not finding cloak. 
Commendation (" In manus omnium demonum ") of soul of man who 

refuses to make restitution of goods unjustly acquired. CVI. fo. 84 40 
Concubine of priest allowed to sleep nowhere but in privy. CCXL. 

fo. 139 VO . 10 

Concubines of priests not given kiss of peace, and derided with charm used 

to drive mice from grain. CCXLII. fo. 139 VO . .101 

Concubine, priest relinquishes parish for ; when he is poor, she leaves him. 

CCXLI. fo. 139 VO . . . 100 

(i Confessio Renardi." On way to be hung Renard. desires to take the way 

where he sees some hens, ccxcvii. fo. 152 ro . . . .125 

Confession of youths who laid waste the fields of others : do the same after 

confession, ccxcvin. fo. 152 ro . -126 

Confession impossible from tears : penitent writes sins on paper : paper 

found blank. CCCI. fo. 153 ... .126 

Confession in time of danger at sea forgotten by those who heard it. 

cccn. fo. 153 ro . - 126 

Confession saves an adulterous soldier from punishment. CCLXI. fo. 144 VO 109 
Confession saves incestuous Roman widow denounced by devil in disguise 

of astrologer at Emperor s court. CCLXIII. fo. 144 VO . 

Confession to devil disguised as priest, cccni. fo. 153 ro . .127 

Confessor stops his nose on hearing a penitent s sins. Another spits in 

sinner s face. LXHI. fo. 56 VO . . 25 

Confessors, Dominican, scandalised by frailties of nuns, etc. See Domini 
can confessors, etc. 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 277 



Continence of hermit who will not touch his mother s flesh in carrying her 

across a river. See Hermit in carrying mother, etc. 
Corvees from vassals not repaid by lords. See Knights receive from their 

vassals services, etc. 
Council of demons held in temple of Apollo. See Jew passes the night in 

temple of Apollo. 
Courtesan weeps because she has not succeeded in stripping lover of his 

cloak also. CO. fo. 130 VO . . . . . .83 

Cow vowed to St. Michael in moment of danger ; pilgrims in safety will 

not give even the calf. See Pilgrims to St. Michael. 
Cripples cured by threat of burning the most deformed one. CCLiv. 

fo. 142 W ......... 107 

Cross, Albigensian heretics cannot make sign of. See Aloigensian 

heretics. 
Crows, flocks of, carry away faithless executor. See Executor, faithless, 

pays penalty, etc. 
Crusade, preaching of, by J. de Vitry, moves a man to lower himself from 

a window and take the cross. See Preaching of the Crusade by 

Jacques de Vitry. 
Crusader, about to depart for Holy Land, sees his children to render his 

merit at departing greater, cxxiv. fo. 99 ro . . . .57 

Crusaders, Virgin seen offering her son to. See Virgin seen offering her 

son to Crusaders. 

Crusader weakened by immoderate fasting. LXXXV. fo. 73 ro . .38 

Crying child rests for a time in order to cry the more. CCC. fo. 153 ro . 126 
Curiosity detected by putting mouse in covered dish. XIII. fo. 15 VO . 4 

Curious wife enters oven against husband s command and is killed. 

ccxxxvi. fo. 138 VO ....... 98 

Custom of young dying in land as well as old. Son agrees to leave 

abbey, if father will reform custom. See Father threatens to burn 

abbey, etc. 

" Damocles, sword of." vm. fo. 11 VO (See XLII. fo. 38 ro ) . . 3 

Dance, woman who leads compared to cow with bell : woman carries 

devil s bell. CCCXIV. fo. 146 V0 . . . . . . .131 

Dancing women are compared to the instrument used to catch quails. 

CCLXXin bis . fo. 146 VO . . . . . , .114 

Daughter in doubt whether to follow example of father s or mother s life. 

CCLXXXIX. fo. 150 VO . . . . . . .121 

David sent by Lord to play harp, and induce pilgrim s soul to leave body. 

See Soul of pilgrim ill in foreign parts, etc. 
Dead mother in sack left as pledge with avaricious priest. CXCVII. fo. 

128 82 

Demon deludes man into belief that wife has been transformed into a 

nn.re. St. Acharius undeceives him. CCLXII. fo. 144 VO , 110 

U 



278 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Demon, in a certain man, preaches the truth in order that hearers, not fol 
lowing it, may become more wicked. CLI. fo. 109 VO . . .67 

Demon, in form of Ethiopian, shoots darts (carnal temptation) at " Father," 
who rudely reproved young man for similar temptation. See Tempta 
tion of young man diverted, &c. 

Demon tells man that one of his sons was the priest s, ccxxxni. fo. 

138 . . 97 

Demoniac prevented from denouncing adulterous soldier by confession. 
See Confession saves an adulterous soldier. 

Demons carry off soul of blasphemous child. See Blasphemous child s soul 
carried off by demons. 

Demons, council of, held in temple of Apollo. See Jew passes the night 
in temple of Apollo. 

Demons delude woman into belief that she rides through the air at night. 

Priest heals her with crucifix. CCLXIX. fo. 145 . . H2 

Demons fill usurer s mouth with red-hot coins. See Usurer buried with 
third of property, etc. 

Demons, women given out for, to king s son. See King s son brought up 
in cave. 

Demons write letter to negligent prelate. See Letter written by demons, 
etc. 

Devil always ready when invoked. Master s address to servant : " Come, 

devil, off with my shoes." Devil loosens thongs, ccxcv. fo. 152 ro . 124 

Devil covered with phials seen by Saint Macharius. See Saint Macharius. 

Devil deceives hermit, and makes him kill his father. See Hermit de 
ceived by devil. 

Devil, disguised as priest, hears confession. See Confession to devil dis 
guised as priest. 

Devil falls from woman s long train. CCXLIII. fo. 140 ro . . 101 

Devil fills sack with words and syllables of psalms not properly recited. 

xix. fo. 20 ro ..... . . 6 

Devil, in guise of astrologer at Emperor s court, denounces incestuous 
Roman widow. See Confession saves incestuous Roman widow. 

Devil swallowed by nun with lettuce. See Nun eats lettuce, etc. 

Devil writes down idle words spoken in church, ccxxxix. fo. 139 ro . 100 

Devil s nine daughters and their marriages. CCXLIV. fo. 140 ro . . 101 

Diana, Temple of. See Herostratus. 

Dog, sharpers make rustic believe lamb is. See Sharpers make rustic, 
etc. 

Dominican confessors scandalized by frailties of nuns ; judge all equally 

bad. LXXX. fo. 71 ro . 36 

Dormouse takes the habit when it finds a monastery of lax discipline. 
LXXI. fo. 63 VO .... 

Double Sight, husband deceived by pretence of. CCLI. fo. 142 VO . . 106 

Drunken man beats wife with plough-share concealed in bag. ccxxv. 

fo. 135 . 93 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 279 

PAGE 

Drunken man causes wife s miscarriage by his embraces, ccxxvi. fo. 

135 VO ......... 94 

Duel fought by husband for guilty wife. She forsakes him a second time, 

and he abandons her. ccLix. fo. 143 ro ..... 109 

Emperor confides beautiful daughter to seneschal, who ill-treats her. 

xvn. fo. 18 ro ....... 6 

Envious man asks to lose one eye in order that avaricious man may lose 

two. See Avaricious man and envious man, etc. 
Ethiopian, demon in form of, shoots darts at " Father," who reproved 

rudely young man for carnal temptation. See Temptation of young 

man diverted, etc. 
Exactions practised by the rich on the poor. See Goose taken and feathers 

left. 
Example of father or mother, daughter in doubt which to follow. See 

Daughter in doubt whether to follow example of father or mother. 
Executor, faithless, pays penalty for delaying to execute soldier s bequest 

to poor : is carried away by a flock of black crows, cxiv. fo. 90 VO . 52 
Eye, monk rejoices at loss of one. See Monk rejoices at loss of one eye. 
Eyes torn out by Nun. See Nun tears out eyes. 

Eables : 

Ape asking fox for part of tail (Rom. iii. 17). CLXXI. fo. 120 ro . 73 
Ass caressing master (Laf. iv. 5). xv. fo. 17 ro . . .5 

Bat pretending to be bird or quadruped (Laf. ii. 5). CLIII. fo. Ill 67 
Birds and statue of archer : birds soon loose fear of. v. fo. 8 ro . 2 

Bitch asked dog to lend her his kennel ; refuses to leave it (Phaed. 

i. 19). CLXI. fo. 115 VO . . . . . .70 

Camel asks for horns (Kirchhof, 7,57). xxxvu. fo. 34 VO . .14 

Cobbler and the banker (Laf. viii. 2). LXVI. fo. 59 VO . . 27 

Cock and the pearl (Laf. i. 20). LIV. fo. 48 VO . . . .21 

Crab learned to walk backward from parents (Laf. xii. 10). XLIV. 

fo. 42 ro ........ 17 

Crow in borrowed plumage (Laf. iv. 9). CCXLIX. fo. 142 ro . . 105 

Debate of the members and the stomach (Laf. iii. 2). LXXIII. fo. 

65 ro . . ...... 33 

Dog and shadow of cheese in water (Laf. vi. 17). xvm. fo. 18 VO . 6 

Eagle carries off the cubs of fox, which sets fire to tree and con 
sumes eagle s young (Phaed. i. 28). CXLIV. fo. 10G VO . . 64 

Flea and the fever (Laf. iii. 8). LIX. fo. 53 . . 23 

U 2 



280 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Fly and ant (Laf. iv. 3). CLXXXIX. fo. 126 VO . . . .79 

Ely annoys bald man (Rom. ii. 13). cxc. fo. 126 VO . . .80 

Fox and the stork (Laf. i. 18). CLXV. fo. 117 VO . . .71 

Fox asks mule s genealogy ; is told to read it on hoof (Laf. vi. 7 ; 

xii. 17). xxxui. fo. 33 ro . . . . . - 13 

Fox, crow, and the cheese (Laf. i. 2). XCI. fo. 75 VO . . .42 

Fox persuades lean wolf to follow her through narrow opening into 

store-room. Wolf cannot get out (Laf. iii. 17). CLXXIV. fo. 

121 ro 74 

Frog and mouse (Laf. iv. 11). III. fo. 4 VO 1 

Frogs ask for king (Laf. iii. 4). xxiv. fo. 27 ro ... 8 

Frog bursts from pride (Laf. i. 3). xxix. fo. 31 ro . . .11 

Frog sets up for physician ; cannot cure himself. CCLXVII. fo. 

145 ro ......... 112 

Goose that laid an egg every day killed by owner, in hope of finding 

many eggs in her (Pauli, 53). CLXXXVII. fo. 126 VO . . 78 

Horse and lion pretending to be a physician (Laf. v. 8). CLII. fo. 

lll vo 67 

Horse asking aid of man against stag (Laf. iv. 13). ex. fo. 88 ro . 51 

Kite when well polluted sacrifices of the gods ; when ill begs dove to 

intercede for him (Rom. i. 18). XLI. fo. 36 VO . . .16 

Larks make owl king to defend them. iv. fo. 6 VO . . .1 

Lion delivered from snare by mouse (Laf. ii. 11). CXLV. fo. 106 VO . 65 

Man and viper stiffened by cold (Laf. vi. 13). CLX. fo. 115 V . 70 

Milkmaid and the pot of milk (Laf. vii. 10). LI. fo. 46 VC . . 20 
Mistresses, two, man with : one pulls out black, other white hairs 

(Laf. i. 17). cci. fo. 130 84 

Rustic s axe falls in water. Owner waits for river to flow by. xxxiv. 

fo. 33 ro 14 

Sheep, goat, and mare in partnership with lion (Laf. i. 6). CLVI. 

fo. 113 VO 68 

Sick lion insulted by the other animals (Laf. iii. 14). CLXXXIV. 

fo. 124 77 

Stag admires horns but scorns his slender legs ; caught by his horns 

(Laf. vi. 9). CCLXXIV. fo. 147 ro ..... 115 
Sun, marriage of (Laf. vi. 12). CLXII. fo. 106 VO . . 64 

Swallow urging little ones to destroy the hemp (Laf. i. 8). ci. fo. 

80 r ......... 47 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 281 

PAGE 

Town mouse and country mouse (Laf. i. 9). CLVII. to. 113 VO . 69 

Weasel asks to be released because she keeps house free from mice ; 

devours bread also, ccxin. fo. 132 VO . . . .89 

Wolf and crane ; extracts bone from wolf s throat (Laf. iii. 9). 

cxxxvi. fo. 104 ro ....... 61 

Wolf and kid : warned not to leave fold until mother s return ; dis 
obeys and is devoured. CCLXXXIII. fo. 149 ro . . .119 
Wolf and fox in partnership with lion (Kirchhof, 7, 24). CLVIII. fo. 

113 VO ......... 69 

Wolf and lamb at the brook (Laf. i. 10). cxxxv. fo. 104 ro . . 61 

Wolf, lean, and sleek dog (Laf. i. 5). ccxvil. fo. 134 ro . . 90 

Wolf licks yoke. xxi. fo. 22 VO ...... 7 

Wolf offers services as midwife to sow (Kirchhof, 7, 174). CLXVI. 

fo. 117 VO ........ 71 

Wolves propose peace to shepherds on condition of giving up dogs 

(Laf. iii., 13). XLV. fo. 42 VO . . . . .17 

Easting, immoderate, weakens crusader. See Crusader weakened by im 
moderate fasting. 
Father bitten by son on way to gallows. See Son on way to gallows bites 

father s lip. 
Father killed by son : a hermit deceived by devil in shape of angel. See 

Hermit deceived by devil. 
Father threatens to burn abbey, if son does not return home. Son agrees 

if father will reform custom of young dying as well as old. cxvi. 

fo. 90 VO 53 

Festivals known because rustic named Gocelinus wore red shoes. CLXXXIII. 

fo. 124 VO ......... 77 

Fingers burnt by monk to save himself from carnal temptation. See Monk 

burns fingers, etc. 
Flatterers compared to serpent with rose in mouth. See Serpent carries 

rose in mouth, etc. 

Fool burns house to rid it of flies. CCCVI. fo. 50 VO . 128 

Fool puts cat to guard cheese ; cat eats both mice and cheese, xi. fo. 

13 VO 4 

Fool tries to fill cask by drawing from bottom and pouring in at top. x. 

fo. 13 VO 3 

Fortune-teller predicts to mother success of son, student at Paris : he will 

become bishop. CCLXIV. fo. 145 ro . . . HI 

Fortune-teller promises rich husband : has a poor one herself. CCLXVI. 

fo. 145 112 

Fox attempts to catch birds by feigning to be dead, ccciv. fo. 22 VO . 127 
Fox attempts to catch bird called masangc by pretending that peace has 

been sworn between beasts and birds. xx bis . fo. 22 VO . 6 



282 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITRY. 

PAGE 

Friends in need, parable of. cxx. fo. 93 ro . . . 55 

Furseus, legend of. xcix. fo. 80 r . . .46 

Galteri, Saltus. See Saltus Galteri. 

Goat, wild, obedience of, captured rather than disobey mother, ccxc. 

fo.!51~ ... - -122 

Go-between, maid-servant beaten and thrown out of window by mistress 

for acting as. CCLII. fo. 142 VO . . .106 

Gocelinus red shoes indicate festivals. See Festivals known, because 

rustic, etc. 
God as security for prisoner s ransom. Monk s horse taken to pay it. 

LXIX. fo. 62 ro ... . .30 

Gold adulterated by quicksilver, cxcu. fo, 127 VO . . 80 

Goose taken and feathers left, cxxxvm. fo. 104 ro . . 62 

Grain hoarded to be sold in time of scarcity : Lord sends good harvests 

and owner hangs himself. CLXIV. fo. 116 VO . . . 71 

Grain showered upon bride. See Bride upon return home showered with 

grain. 

Grandson rebukes father s ingratitude to parent. CCLXXXVIII. fo. 150 V . 121 
Guinehochet, demon named, tells man one of his sons is priest s. See 

Demon tells man, etc. 



Hell, pains of, infinite duration of, converts sinner from worldly life. 

cxcix. fo. 128 V .... 

Hermit, angel and (Parnell s " Hermit ") See Angel and hermit. 
Hermit and angel go to bury corpse ; hermit stops his nose ; angel after 
wards stops his nose on meeting handsome but sinful youth. CIV. 

fo. 83 VO -48 

Hermit and courtezan : he asks for more secret room. CCLVII. fo. 143 ro . 108 
Hermit and courtezan : one ashamed to sin in the market-place, the other 

in the desert. CCLVI. fo. 143 ro .... 108 
Hermit assigns robber penance, then is envious when his soul goes to 

heaven ; breaks his neck and own soul goes to hell. See Bobber will 

accept no penance. 

Hermit cured of love by stench of putrefying remains. CCXLV. fo. 140 ro . 102 
Hermit deceived by devil in shape of angel, kills father who visits him. 

LXXVI. fo. 67 r ........ 34 

Hermit gives away all he has except Bible, finally sells that and gives price 

to poor, xcvin. fo. 79 ro . . . . . .46 

Hermit, in carrying mother across a stream, will not touch her flesh. C. 

fo. 80 ro .46 

Hermit proposes to move cell nearer to water ; desists because he sees an 

angel measuring distance to proportion reward to hermit in next world. 

GXXVIII. fo. 100 ro . ... 58 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 283 

PAGE 

Hermit who heals others by his prayers will not heal himself. CV. fo. 83 VO 49 
Hermit who lives far from town still makes baskets and destroys them, so 

as not to be idle. CXCIV. fo. 128 r . . . . .81 

Herostratus burns temple of Diana, xxvil. fo. 30 VO . . .10 

Hogs hunted by monks as if they were game. See Vow to eat meat only 

when guests were present. 
Horse taught to fall down when owner said : " Let us bow our knees." 

CCLVIIT. fo. 143 VO ........ 108 

Horses, three, black, white, and bay, fugitive pursued by, parable 

of LXXXVIII. fo. 73 VO ....... 39 

Horse jockey makes equivocal signs when selling horses. CCCIX. fo. 116 V . 129 
Host impiously kept in woman s mouth for incantation purposes, turns to 

flesh and prevents her from speaking by adhering to palate. CCLXX. 

fo. 145 VO .... . 113 

" Housse Partie." See Grandson rebukes father s ingratitude to parent. 
Hundredfold promised to him who gave all his goods to the poor. Son 

demands father s property given under this promise, xcvi. fo. 77 VO . 45 
Husband, imprisoned, nourished by wife s milk. See Wife nourishes 

imprisoned husband, etc. 

Husband mutilates himself to spite his wife. XXII. fo. 24 VO . .7 

Husband of avaricious woman refuses to give anything for her soul ; she 

had never done anything for her own soul. See Avaricious woman 

during life gives nothing to poor, etc. 
Husband, rich, promised by fortune-teller. See Fortune-teller promises 

rich husband. 

Idle words spoken in church written down by devil. See Devil writes 

down idle words spoken in church. 
Incestuous Eoman widow denounced by devil in guise of astrologer at 

Emperor s court ; saved by confession. See Confession saves in 
cestuous Roman widow. 
Inconsistency of knight in hearing sermons but leading a worldly life. 

He wishes to know what to do in case he is converted, cxxxix. 

fo. 105 . .... .62 

Infinite duration of pains of hell, thought of, converts sinner. See Hell, 

pains of, etc. 
ingratitude of son to father in old age ; refuses to give him wine. CCXCI. 

fo. 151 ro .... . -122 

Innkeeper spills wine of guests, cccx. fo. 117 VO . . 129 

Insane man dragged before image of Virgin : " I may adore thee, but I 

shall never love thee." Story applied to usurers. CLXXII. fo. 120 ro . 73 
Intoxicated husband made to assume monastic habit by wily wife. See 

Monk, woman intoxicates husband, etc. 

Jew passes the night in the temple of Apollo, and witnesses council of 

demons, cxxxi. fo. 102 W 59 



284 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Jew shocked at Christian blasphemer, ccxviii. fo. 134 ro . . .91 

Jew tempts ruined gamester to deny Virgin ; he refuses, and Virgin s 

image bows to him and makes him rich again. See Virgin, image 

of, bows to gamester, etc. 
John of Alexandria (Joannes Eleemosynarius), his charity. XCVII. fo. 

79 ro 45 

Judges, unjust in Lorraine, xxxv. fo. 33 vo . . . . .14 

Judge, venal, hand anointed. See Anointing hand of venal judge. 

King and officer see at night, in a cellar, poor man and wife singing and 

dancing, parable. S^e Poor man singing and dancing. 
King for a year. ix. fo. 11 VO . . . . . .3 

King s son brought up in cave likes demons (women) best. LXXX. fo. 

71 ro 37 

Kiss on way to gallows ; son bites father s lip because he did not reprove 

him in his youth. See Son, on way to gallows, bites father s lip. 
Knight marries wife of usurer who had ruined him. CLXXIII. fo. 120 VO . 73 
Knight punishes blasphemer by a blow ; knight acquitted by king. See 

Blasphemer punished by knight. 

Knight thinks priest says mass for sake of offerings. CXL. fo. 105 . 62 

Knight s illness make him a lamb from a lion. See Scholar of Paris 

refuses to pray for rich knight s recovery. 
Knights receive from their vassals services called " corvees," and give 

them no bread in return, cxxxvu. fo. 104 V0 . . . . .62 

Lamb, sharpers make rustic believe to be dog. See Sharpers make 

rustic believe, etc. 
Latera crucifixi. Priest roasts sides of the crucified for fastidious cook. 

vi. fo. 10 ro ........ 2 

Laughter for thirty days forbidden as a condition of girl being with the 

Virgin. CCLXXV. fo. 147 ro . . . . . .115 

Lawyer accustomed to fraudulent delays begs in vain the Lord for delay 

of his death. XL. fo. 36* . . . . . .15 

Lawyer hesitates to receive Eucharist. Bystanders not his peers, xxxix. 

fo. 36 VO ......... 15 

Lawyer, successful, becomes monk and loses all his cases, because he tells 

the truth. LII. fo. 48 ro . . . . . ... 20 

Lawyers, in hell, bathed in molten gold. See Nero in hell. 

Leper, ass of, priests fond of banqueting compared to. See Priests fond 

of banqueting, etc. 

Leper, charity of noble lady to ; leper miraculously disappears on hus 
band s return. See Charity of noble lady to leper. 
Leper converses, after death, with the charitable Theobald, Count of C. 

See Theobald, Count of C. 
Letter written by demons to negligent prelates, n. fo. 4 VO . . .1 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 285 

PAGE 

Lettuce eaten by nun, without sign of cross, causes her to swallow a devil. 
See Nun eats lettuce, etc. 

" Linquo coax ranis," etc. See Scholar of Paris appears after death to 
master. 

Lion delivers Christian virgin condemned to brothel. See Virgin, Chris 
tian, condemned, etc. 

Louse, sign of, made by woman after she was thrown into the water. 

ccxxi. fo. 134 VO ........ 92 

Lover tests mistress s sincerity by putting burning tow on her bare foot 
and his own ; too engrossed in saving herself to think of him. ecu. 
fo. 130 VO ......... 84 

Lying the only vice that cannot be cured by age. ccvu. fo. 131 VO . . 86 

Macharius, St., sees devil covered with phials. LXXV. fo. 67 ro . . 34 

Mare, man believes that wife has been transformed into. See Demons 
delude man into belief, etc. 

Mariners deceive and maltreat pilgrims, cccxn. fo, ]30 ro . . . 130 

Mariners grow penitent in a tempest ; but become wicked again in good 

weather, cccxi. fo. 130 ro ...... 129 

Mark removed from woman s face by physician, and skin too. See Phy 
sician removes black mark, etc. 

Martin, St., exchanges coat for poor man s ; short sleeves miraculously 

lengthened. XLII. fo. 76 VO . . . . . .42 

Martin s, St., relics heal two beggars against their will. See Beggars, two, 
lame and blind, etc. 

Martin, St., tells travellers they will reach Paris at nightfall if they pro 
ceed slowly. They disregard him and break cart. CLXXXVIII. fo. 
126 VO ......... 79 

Mary Magdalene, presumptuous maid wishes not to resemble. See Presump 
tuous maid wishes not to resemble Mary Magdalene. 

Mass said for sake of offerings, as knight thinks. See Knight thinks 
priest says mass for sake of offerings. 

Matron and monk, who elope with treasures of monastery, saved by the 
Virgin. See Virgin saves matron and monk, etc. 

" Matron of Ephesus." ccxxxn. fo. 137 ro . . . . .96 

Meat to be eaten only when guests were present. See Vow to eat meat 
only when guests were present. 

Melos, very cleanly animal which cannot endure any foul odors. CCXCII. 

fo. 151 ro ......... 123 

Mice run out of pie kept too long by miser. See Miser kept a pie so long 
that mice ran out of it. 

Michael, St., pilgrim to, refuses to pay vow (cow) when in safety. See 
Pilgrim to St. Michael. 

Minstrel at sea in tempest eats largely of salt meat, to prepare him for 

the great drinking before him. com. fo. 130 VO . . .84 



286 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Minstrel revenges himself upon inhospitable porter of illiberal monastery. 

LXVII. fol. 59 VO ........ 28 

Mirror diverts tiger from hunters. See Tiger stops to gaze in mirror, etc. 
Miser kept pie so long that mice ran out of it. CLXXX. fo. 123 VO . . 76 

Mistress allows maid to attend preaching occasionally, ccxxiv. fo. 135 r 93 
Mistress sincerity tested by lover ; puts burning tow on her foot and on his 

own. See Lover tests mistress sincerity. 
Monastic habit assumed in order to steal the sacred vessels. XLVI. fo. 

43 VO 18 

Money defended by woman, but not virtue. See Woman defends money, 

etc. 
Monk and matron elope with treasures of monastery ; saved by Virgin. 

See Virgin saves matron and monk. 
Monk burns fingers in candle to protect himself against carnal temptation. 

CCXLVI. fo. 140 ....... 103 

Monk, chaste, can hold red-hot iron: unchaste looses the power. CCXLVII. 

fol. 140 ro ......... 103 

Monk laments absence of bolster which he had never used in the world. 

See Bolster, absence of, lamented. 

Monk rejoices at loss of one eye. cxi. fo. 88 VO . . . .51 

Monk refuses to grant brother s request on ground that he is no longer in 

the world, cxvu. fo. 91 ro . . . . . .54 

Monk tempted to eat meat kills peacock. Abbot discovers and forgives 

him. xiv. fo. 15 VO ....... 5 

Monk, woman intoxicates husband and makes him become, ccxxxi. fo. 

137 ro ......... 96 

Monk s horse taken to pay prisoner s ransom. See God as security for 

prisoner s ransom, etc. 

Monk s prompt obedience ; leaves letter unfinished. LXXIX. fo. 69 VO . 36 
Monks hunt hogs as if they were game in order to elude vow. See Vow to 

eat meat only when^guests were present. 
Monks, spendthrift, intend to cultivate land next year and pay debts ; but 

forget their resolves. L. fo. 46 VO . 19 

Monks, talkative, make signs with their feet when forbidden to use their 

hands. XLVIII. fo. 46 ro .19 

Moses dashes Pharaoh s crown to the ground : tongue burned with coals. 

cccxin. fo. 147 VO 131 

Mouse in covered dish, curiosity detected by. See Curiosity detected by 

putting mouse, etc. 
Mud, woman lets herself fall into, in order to deceive husband and meet 

lover, ccxxx. fo. 137 ro . . . . . .95 

Nepotism. Archdean so young that he befouls stall. I. fo 4 ro .1 

Nero in hell, xxxvi. fol. 34 VO . . 14 

Nicticorax, habits of. LXXXIII. fo. 72 ro . . 38 

Nightingale s advice, xxvui. fo. 30 VO . . . . .10 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 287 

PAGE 

Nose, hermit stops his, at smell of corpse ; angel at sight of handsome 

youth. See Hermit and angel go to bury corpse. 
Novice is sent by abbot to bless and then curse the bones of the dead ; they 

are silent, cxvm. fo. 91 ro . . . . . .54 

Nun concealed from pursuit of soldier calls " cucu " to reveal her hiding 

place. LVIII. fo. 51 VO .22 

Nun, chaste but proud and talkative, burned after death from waist up. 

CCLXXII. fo. 145 VO . . . . . . .113 

Nuns, Cistercian, defended against slanderers. See Cistercian monk 

informed by God, etc. 
Nun eats lettuce without sign of cross, and swallows a devil, cxxx. fol. 

102 VO ......... 59 

Nun lent to matron to cultivate patience of latter. LXV. fol. 57 VO . 26 

Nun prevented from leaving convent by Virgin s image, at last goes 

another way and is ruined. LX. fo. 53 VO . . . .24 

Nun tears out eyes because prince has fallen in love with them. LVII. 

fo. 51 VO 22 

Nut thrown away by ape on account of bitter rind. See Ape throws away 

nut on account of bitter rind. 

Obedience of sons proved by slice of apple. See Charles, emperor, 

proves obedience of sons, etc. 
Obedience of wild goat to mother s commands. See Goat, wild, obedience 

of. 

Obedience, prompt, of monk : letter unfinished. See Monk s prompt obe 
dience. 

Obstinacy, woman s : Seel. Louse, sign of, etc. ; 2. Shears, sign of, etc. ; 
3. Obstinate wife, pierces finger, etc. ; 4. Obstinate wife sought by 
husband, etc. 

Obstinate wife pierces finger with nail, ccxxvui. fol. 136 ro . . 91 

Obstinate wife sought by husband up the stream, ccxxvu. fol. 136 ro . 94 
Onions, penance, not to be eaten for life. CCLXXXIV. fol. I49 ro . .119 

Oven, curions wife enters, against husband s command ; is killed. See 
Curious wife enters oven, etc. 

Paper found blank in which sins had been written, See Confession impos 
sible from tears. 

Peacock, monk tempted to eat meat, kills, etc. See Monk tempted to eat 
meat, etc. 

Penance not to eat onions for life. See Onions, penance, not to be eaten 
for life. 

Penny from a farthing, thievish servant knows how to steal. CCVIII. fo. 

131 VO 87 

Phials, devil covered with, seen by Saint Macharius. See Saint Macharius 

Philosopher at banquet spits in king s face : can find no meaner spot. CXLIX. 

fo. 108 VO 66 



288 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Physician in spite of himself (" Le Medecin malgre lui "). ccxxxvil. 

fo. 139- 99 

Physican removes black mark from woman s face, and skin also. ccxi. 

. 88 
Pilgrim, escorted by angels to heaven, although he had been somewhat 

negligent ; brother, not a pilgrim, has no escort, cxxxiu. fo. 102 VO . 59 
Pilgrim to St. Michael promises his cow in moment of danger ; forgets 

vow in safety, en. fo. 82 VO . . 47 

Pit, man who fell into, parable of. cxxxiv. fo. 104 ro . 60 

Plague, during, priest thrown into grave by parishioners. See Priest, bad 

omen to meet one. 
Plough-share concealed in bag, wife beaten by drunken husband with. See 

Drunken man beats wife with plough-share, etc. 

Poor man, singing and dancing, parable of. LXXVIII. fo. 68 VO . . 35 

Poor man wraps himself in his single fur garment, and consoles himself with 

thought that he is better off than the rich in hell, etc. cvili. fo. 86 VO 50 
Porter of illiberal monastery punished for inhospitality by minstrel: See 

Minstrel revenges himself, etc. 
Preaching of the Crusade by Jacques de Vitry moves a man to lower 

himself from a window and take the cross, cxxn. fo. 96 VO . . 56 

Pregnant wives, miscarriage caused by husband s embraces, ccxxix. fo. 

136v 95 

Presumptuous maid wishes not to resemble Mary Magdelene. Ruined by 

dissolute fellow. CCLXXI. fo. 145 VO . . . .113 

Priest, bad omen to meet one ; parishioners throw priest into grave during 

plague. CCLXVIII. fo. 145 ro .... 112 

Priest beats with crucifix woman whom demons delude into belief that she 

rides through the air at night. See Demons delude woman into 

belief that she rides through the air at night. 
Priest miraculously prevented from continuing mass during absence of 

charitable lady. See Charity of noble lady, etc. 

Priest robbed of purse by penitent, ccxcix. fo. 152 ro . ]26 

Priest thrown into grave by parishioners during plague. See Priest, bad 

omen to meet one. 
Priest will not pray for soul of father who was an usurer. See Usurer, 

priest will not pray for, etc. 

Priests fond of banqueting compared to ass of leper, xvi. fo. 17 VO 5 

Prelates, negligent in Sicily, letter written by demons to. See Letter 

written by demons, etc. 

" Renardi Confessio." See Confessio Renardi. 

Restitution of goods, unjustly acquired, man refuses to make ; priest 

commends soul " in manus omnium demonum." See Commendation 

of soul of man, etc. 



INDEX TO EXEMPLA. 289 

PAGE 

Robber and abbot. See Abbot and robber. 

Robber will accept no penance but bowing and repeating Lord s prayer 

before cross at roadside. Is captured, and soul goes to heaven. 

Envious hermit s soul goes to hell. LXXII. fo. 65 ro . . .32 

Sack filled by devil with words from psalms, etc. See Devil fills sack, 

etc. 
Sacraments from unworthy priests, man refuses to receive ; in dream, is 

willing to take water from a leper. CLV. fo. 113 ro . . .68 

Saladin, about to die, orders shroud borne about the land. cxix. fo. 93 ro 54 
Salt meat eaten by minstrel at sea in tempest to prepare him for great 

drinking before him. See Minstrel at sea in tempest eats largely of 

salt meat. 
Saltus Galteri. CCXIV. fo. 133 V . . . . . .89 

Saltus Templarii. xc. fo. 75 VO . . . . . .41 

Scholar of Paris appears after death to master with cloak written over 

with sophisms (" Linquo coax ranis," etc.). xxxi. fo. 32 ro . . 12 

Scholar of Paris gives a mattress at death to poor. Friend neglects to 

fulfil request. Dead scholar appears afterwards lying on fiery bed, 

etc. cxv. fo. 90 VO ....... 53 

Scholar of Paris refuses to pray for sick knight s recovery, since his illness 

has made him a lamb from a lion. cm. fo. 82 VO . . .47 

Scolding woman engaged by man to withstand quarrelsome woman for 

him. She reviles him, and tells him to go elsewhere. CCVI. fo. 

131 VO . . . . . . . . .86 

Secret revealed by wife (" Papirius "). ccxxxv. fo. 138 VO . . . 98 

Selling the sun to raise money. CL. fo. 10S VO . . . .66 

Seneschal ill-treats Emperor s daughter. See Emperor confides beautiful 

daughter, etc. 
Sermon-hater prays that by the grace of God he may escape one. cxxix. 

fo. 100 ro 59 

Serpent carries rose in mouth, and some, deluded by it, perish of serpent s 

venom. So flatterers destroy. CXLVII. fo. 108 VO . . .65 

Servant, lazy (" Maymundo "). CCIV. fo. 131 ro . . . .85 

Servant made to carry heap of stones from one place to another, and then 

bring them back, so as not to be idle. CXCV. fo. 128 ro . .81 

Servant, thievish, knows how to steal a penny from a farthing. See Penny 

from a farthing, etc. 
Sharpers make rustic believe he is carrying to market a dog instead of a 

lamb. xx. fo. 20 VO ....... 6 

Shears, sign of, made by woman, after her tongue was cut out. CCXXII. 

fo. 134 W ... 92 

Shepherd forsaking flock compared to tortoise. XII. fo. 15 VO . .4 

Shoes have a good mouth, because they disparage and revile no one. 

CCLXXX. fo. 148 ro 117 



290 THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE V1TRY. 

PAGE 

Shroud of dying husband, wife and servant wrangle over (" Cort le me 

faites pour le ne croter "). See Wife and servant wrangle over dying 

husband s shroud. 
Shroud of Saladin borne about land before his death. See Saladin about 

to die orders shroud, etc. 
Slanderer diffamed girl who refused to yield to his solicitations. CCLXXXI. 

fo. 148 ro 117 

Smith drives thorn into hoof of pilgrims or crusaders horses, and then 

buys them for a low price, cxcm. fo. 127 VO . . . .80 

Soldier becomes monk ; is sent to fair to sell asses ; tells the truth and fails 

to sell them. LIII. fo. 48 VO . . . . ... 21 

Soldier of Christ addresses his steed on eve of battle. LXXXIX. fo. 75 ro . 41 
Soldier taken for Templar. LXXXVII. fo. 73 ro . . . .39 

Son agrees to leave abbey if father will reform custom of young dying as 

well as old in land. See Father threatens to burn abbey, etc. 
Son demands father s property given away on promise of bishop that he 

should receive a hundredfold. Grave opened, paper found in father s 

hands stating that promise is fulfilled. See Hundredfold promised to 

him who gave all his goods to the poor. 
Son on way to gallows bites father s lip because he did not reprove him in 

his youth. CCLXXXVII. fo. 150 r . . . . .121 

Son s ingratitude to father in old age ; refuses to give him wine. See 

Ingratitude of son to father in old age. 
Soul of pilgrim ill in foreign parts wil.1 not leave body. Lord sends David 

to play harp, and soul departs with joy. cxxxn. fo. 102 VO . . 59 

Spices, odour of, makes rustic faint. Smell of dunghill revives him. 

CXCI. fo. 127 ro ........ 80 

Stench of putrefying remains cures hermit of love of woman. See Hermit 

cured of love by stench of putrefying remains. 
Stones, heaps of. carried back and forth by servant to avoid idleness. See 

Servant made to carry heaps of stones, etc. 

Stork detects and punishes adultery of female, ccxxxiv. fo. 138 ro . 97 

Stork grows weak by nourishing young, but is nourished by them in old 

age. CCLX. fo. 143 VO . . . . . . .109 

Students at Paris play a game with a cat. If cat loses it is killed and skin 

sold, xxill. fo. 24 VO ....... 8 

Sun, selling the, to raise money. See Selling the sun to raise money. 
Swearing woman exhorted by priest to renounce habit. She swears she 

will. CCXX. fo. 134 ro . 91 



Templar, soldier taken for. See Soldier taken for Templar. 
Templars are tempted to relinquish siege of Ascalon : resist and conquer. 
LXXXYI. fo. 73 ro ........ 

Templar s leap. See Saltus Templarii. 



INDEX TO EXEHPLA. 291 

PAGE 

Temple of Apollo, council of demons held in. See Jew passes the night 

in temple of Apollo, etc. 
Temptation of young man diverted to " Father " (hermit) who had rudely 

reproved him. LXXXI. fo. 71 ro . . . . . .36 

Theobald, count of Champagne, his charity ; visits leper, who converses 

with him after death, xciv. fo. 77 ro ... 43 

Thief steals statue of Virgin and Child, tries to part the two ; Virgin gives 

him a heavy blow ; thief repents and is converted. CCLXXVI. fo. 147 ro 115 
Threat of burning the greatest cripple cures all the rest. See Cripples 

cured by threat of burning. 

Three caskets (" Merchant of Venice "). XLVII. fo. 44 VO . . .18 

Three men on mountain, at forge, and by river Jordan (vain and proud, 

misers and carnal sinners), parable of . CLIV. fol. lll vo . . 67 

Tiger stops to gaze in mirror; hunters escape, viz. fo. 10 ro . . 2 

Tonsure, wife s hair cut in form of, by husband who finds her with priest. 

See Wife s hair cut in form of tonsure, etc. 

Tooth obtained by wife from husband for lover. CCXLVIII. fo. 140 ro . 104 
Tortoise, shepherd compared to. See Shepherd forsaking flock, etc. 
Tournaments, sinfulness of. CXLI. fol. 105 ro . . 62 

Tow, burning, used to test mistress sincerity. See Lover tests mistress s 

sincerity. 
Train, woman s, long, used by devils as carriage. See Devil falls from 

woman s long train. 
Tree on which to be hanged left to choice of condemned man. LXII. fo. 

55 V0 . (See CCLXXXV. fo. 149 VO ) . . . . . .25 

Trumpet blown before house of man sentenced to death, and " Sword of 

Damocles." XLII. fo. 38 ro ; (See vili. fo. ll vo ) . . 16 

Tyrant s enemies are anger, impatience, and concupiscence. CXLVI. fo. 

107- ... 65 



Usurer buried with third of property ; demons fill his mouth with red-hot 

coins. CLXVIII. fo. 120 ro . . . . . .72 

Usurer compared to a spiaer. CLXXV. fo. 121 ro . 74 

Usurer pays monks to bury him in church, but rises from tomb, attacks 

them, and says he is lost. CLXXVI. fo. 122 ro ... 74 

Usurer, priest will not pray for soul of father who was. ccxvi. fol. 133 . 90 
Usurer refuses to make restitution, but leaves money at usury for benefit of 

soul. CLXIX. fo. 120 ro ....... 72 

Usurer s address to his soul. CLXX. fol. 120 ro ... 72 

Usurer s body can be carried to the grave only by usurers. CLXXVIH fo 

122-" 75 

Usurers carried by ass to gibbet. CLXXVII. fo. 122 ro . . 75 

Usurer s wife marries knight whom husband had ruined. See Knight mar 
ries wife of usurer, etc. 



292 THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 

PAGE 

Usurers refuse to rise in church when various trades are called upon. 

CLXXIX. fo. 122- ........ 76 

Usury, money lent on, interest of not used but laid aside for restitution. 

CLXVII. fo. 119 VO ........ 71 

Vain women are compared to the peacock. CGLXXiii ter . fo. 146 VO . .114 

Virgin, Christian, condemned to brothel, delivered by lion. LXIV. fo. 57 TO . 26 
Virgin, Christian, condemned to brothel, rescued by nobleman. LXI. fo. 

55 VO ......... 24 

Virgin enjoins girl not to laugh for thirty days and promises to receive 

her into her company. See Laughter for thirty days forbidden, etc. 
Virgin, image of, bows to gamester, who refused to deny her, and makes 

him rich. CCXCVI. fo. 152 ro ...... 124 

Virgin, image of, cannot help wife against husband s mistress, because 

latter is devoted to worship of Virgin, ccxxni. fo. 133 ro . .92 

Virgin martyr sends roses by angel to pagan, who is thereby converted. 

CCCVII. fo. 63 VO 128 

Virgin saves matron and monk, who elope with treasures of monastery. 

CCLXXXII. fo. 148 ro . . . . . . .117 

Virgin seen offering her son to Crusaders." cxxi. fo. 94 VO . . .55 

Virgin strikes thief, who tries to part her from image of Child. See Thief 

steals statue of Virgin and Child. 
Virgin s image prevents nun leaving convent. See Nun prevented from 

leaving convent, etc. 
Virtue not defended by woman as well as money. See Woman defends 

money, etc. 
Vow to drink no wine except upon festivals or bargains ; husband and wife 

sell ass to each other to elude it. CCLXXVII. fo. 147 ro . . .116 

Vow to eat meat only when guests were present eluded by inviting some. 

CCLXXVIII. fol. 147 ro . . . . . . .116 

" Weeping Dog." CCL. fo. 142 ro . . . . . .105 

Widow, incestuous, Roman, denounced by devil in guise of astrologer. See 

Confession saves incestuous Roman widow. 
Wife and servant wrangle over dying husband s shroud (" Cortme lefaites 

pour ne le croter ") evil. fo. 84 ro ... .49 

Wife nourishes her imprisoned husband by her own milk, ccxxxviu. 

fo, 139 ro .... . .99 

Wife s hair cut in form of tonsure by husband, who finds her with priest. 

ccx. fo. 132 .88 

Wild cat, women who allow liberties to be taken with them likened to c 

CCLIII. fo. 142 VO . . . . . . . .106 

Wine, vow to drink none except upon festivals or bargains. See Vow to 

drink no wine, etc. 
Wise man commands servant to say to him when he eats : " Thou shalt 

die." cxm. fo. 89 VO . 52 



INDEX TO EXEHPLA. 293 

PAGE 

Wolf does not kill sheep at once, for fear of alarming shepherds, ccxv. 

fo. 133 VO ......... 89 

Wolf stole children and suckled them, but would not let them walk upright. 

CLXXXVI. fo. 125 VO . . . . . 78 

Woman defends money, but not her virtue. CCLV. fo. 142 VO . . 107 

Woman s wiles. See 1. Double SighL, husband deceived by pretence of ; 
2 Monk, woman intoxicates husband, etc. ; 3. Mud, woman lets her 
self fall into, to deceive husband ; 4. Tooth obtained by wife from 
husband for lover ; 5. "Weeping dog." 

Women given out for demons to king s son. He likes them best. See 
King s son brought up in cave, etc. 

Xerxes told by philosopher that he should be destroyed by the very great 
ness of his armament. CXLVIII. fo. 108 VO 66 



II. 

INDEX TO NOTES. 



Adgar, Marienlegenden, ccxxni., 224 ; 

CCLXXV., 254. 

Aesop, ed. Camerarius, ccxcvii., 265. 
Aesop, ed. Corai, CLVI., 199. 
Aesop, ed. Puria, xxxvil., 149 ; XLI., 

150 ; xci., 173 ; ci., 176 ; ex., 182 ; 

cxxxv., 192 ; cxxxvi., 192 ; CXLII., 

193 ; CXLIV., 194 ; CXLV., 194 ; 

CLII., 197 ; CLili.,197 ; CLVII.,199 ; 

CLVIII., 199 ; CLX., 201 ; CLXV., 202 ; 

CLXXXVII., 209; CO., 215 ; CCXVII., 

221 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; CGLXXiv.,254. 
Altdeutsche Blatter, CLVIII., 200. 
Ambrose, De Virginibus, LXI., 160. 
Arnason, Islenzkar PjoSs, CCLI., 240. 
Arnoldus Geilhoven, Gnotosolitus sive 

Speculum Conscientiae, XCV., 174 ; 

XCVI., 175 ; CCCIII., 267. 
Avianus, Tabulae, cxcvi., 212. 
Axon, Literary History of Parnell s 

Hermit, cix., 180. 

Babrius, Tabulae, xci., 173. 
Bandello, Novelle, CXLIX., 196. 
Barbazon et Meon, Fabliaux et Contes, 

ccxxxvil., 232 ; CCLXIII., 247 ; 

CCLXXXII., 257. 
Bareleta, Sermones, LVL, 158 ; LXVI., 

163 ; cxx., 186 ; cxxxiv., 191 ; 

CCXVII., 221 ; CCLXXXVII., 259. 
Barlaam and Josaphat, IX., 137 ; 
xxxvill., 144 ; XLII., 150 ; XLVII., 



153 ; LXXVIII., 168 ; LXXXII., 170 ; 
cxx., 186 ; cxxxiv., 192. 
Bartscb, Altfranzosische Romanzen 

und Pastourellen, CCLXXIH., 253. 
Basile, Pentamerone, xxxvil., 149. 
Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, xcix., 176. 
Benfey, Pantschatautra, XV., 140; 
xviii., 140 ; xx., 142 ; xxiv., 143 ; 
xxvm., 144 ; xxxvil., 149 ; XLVII., 
154; LI., 155 ; LXXIII., 167; CI., 
176 ; CXXXIV., 191 ; CXLV., 194 ; 
CLX., 201 ; CXCVI., 212 ; CCI., 215 ; 
ccxxxii., 228. 
Bernard, St., Vita et res gestae auctore 

Guillelmo, etc., ccxn., 220. 
Bernardino, San, da Siena, Novellette, 
Esempi morali e Apologhi, XCIII., 
173 ; CXLIII., 194 ; ccxix ., 222 ; 
cccx., 269. 

Bernardinus de Bustis, Rosarium Ser- 
monum, CXLIX., 196 ; ccxxxvin., 
233 ; CCCX., 269. 
Bertoldo, Astuzie sottilissime di, xin., 

139 ; LXII., 161 ; CXLIX., 195. 
Biagi, Le Novelle Antiche, etc., 

CXLIX., 196. 
Blade, Contes populaires recueillis en 

Agenais, ccxxi., 223. 
Boccaccio, Decameron, XLVII., 154 ; 

LXXXII., 170 ; CCXLVIII., 238. 
Boetbius, De Disciplina Scholarium, 
CCLXXXVII., 259. 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



295 



Boissonade, Anecdota Graeca, ix., 
137 ; xxviii., 144 ; LXXVIII., 168 ; 

LXXXII., 170 ; CXXXIV., 191. 
Bonaventure des Periers, Nouvelles 

Recreations et Joyeulx Devis, 

ccxxx., 227. 
Boner, Edelstein, LIX., 159 ; CXXVII., 

188; ccix., 219. 
Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, 

III., 136 ; XI., 138 ; xvin., 141 

xx., 142 ; xxviii., 145 ; xxxin. 

147 ; xxxvi., 148 ; xxxviii., 149 

XLI., 150; XLII., 152; XLV., 152 
LII., 156 ;. LIV., 157; LVII., 158 
LVIII., 159 ; LXVI., 163 ; LXVIII. 
164 ; LXXIII., 167 ; LXXVII., 168 
XCI., 173 ; CI., 176 ; CIV., 178 
evil., 179 ; cviii., 179 ; cxx. 
186 ; cxxni., 187 ; cxxxv., 192 
cxxxvi., 192; CXLII., 194 
CXLIV., 194; CXLIX., 196; CLIII. 
197 ; CLVI., 199 ; CLVII., 199 
CLVIII., 200 ; CLIX., 200 ; CLX. 
201 ; CLXX., 204 ; CLXXVII., 206 
CLXXVIII., 206 ; CLXXIX., 207 
CLXXXII., 208 ; CLXXXIV., 208 
CLXXXV., 209 ; CLXXXIX., 210 
CXCVI., 212 ; CXCVIII., 214 
CXCIX., 214 ; CO., 214 ; CCIII. 
215; CCIY., 216; ccix.. 219 
CCXVII., 221 ; CCXLIX., 239 
CCLXI., 245 ; CCLXVIII., 250 
CCLXIX., 251 ; CCLXXIV., 254 
CCLXXXVII., 259. 

Butler, Common School Speaker, ccv., 
217. 

Caesar of Heisterbach, Dialogus Mira- 
culorum, xiii.. 139 ; xix., 141 ; 
LX., 160; XCIV., 174; CLXVIII., 

203 : ccxxxiv., 230 ; ccxLiii., 

235 ; CCLXI., 245 ; CCLXXXIL, 257 ; 
CCXCVI., 264 ; CCCI., 266 ; CCCII.. 

267. 



Caspari, Homilia de Sacrilegiis, 

CCLXVIII., 250. 

Cassianus, Collationes, LXXXI., 169. 
Cavalca, Trattato della Pazienza, 

CCXLVI., 237. 
Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, ccxxx., 

227 ; CCLV., 243. 

Cento Novelle Antiche, xxxin., 148 ; 

XLVII., 154 ; CXLIX., 196. 
Cervantes, Don Quixote, CCLV., 243. 
Cessole. lacopo da, Libro de Costumi, 

etc., XLII., 152. 
Cbild, English and Scottish Popular 

Ballads, LXIX., 165. 
Clouston, Book of Sindibad, CCXXXII., 

228 ; A Group of Eastern Romances 
and Stories, ccxxxi., 228 ; Popular 
Tales and Fictions, XX., 142; LI., 
155; LVII., 158; CIX., 181; CCXXXII., 

229 ; CCL., 240 ; CCLXXXVIII., 260. 
Comparetti, Libro de los Enganos, 

CCL., 240. 
Conde, Jean de, Dis dou Roi et des 

Hermittes, XLVII., 154. 
Corona de Monaci, xix., 141 ; XLII., 

152; LXV., 162; LXVIII., 165; 

LXXIV., 167 ; XCVI., 175 ; CXIX., 

185 ; ccxxxix., 234 ; cccm., 267. 
Corsini, Rosaio della Vita, CXLIX., 

196. 
Crane, Italian Popular Tales, cix., 

182 ; ccxxii., 223. 
Cyrillus, Speculum Sapientiae, CXLV., 

195. 

Dacier, Memoires de 1 Academie des 
Inscriptions, CCXXXII.. 229. 

D Ancona, Libro dei Sette Savj di 
Roma, ccxxxn., 228 ; Studj di 
Critica e Storia Letteraria, xxxni., 
148 ; XLVII., 154 ; LXXXII., 170 ; 
CXLIX., 196 ; CCXXXII., 228 ; 
ccxxxv., 230. 

Dennys, Folk-Lore of China, CCLXV., 
249. 

x 2 



296 



THE EXEMPLA OP JACQUES DE VITEY. 



De Trueba, Narraciones Populares, 

cix., 182. 
Dialogus Creaturarum, in., 136 ; xv., 

140; XVIII., 141; XXVIII., 141; 

XXXVI., 148 ; XLV., 152 ; LI., 155 ; 

xci., 173 ; Cl., 176 ; cxxxv., 192 ; 

CXXXVI., 192 ; CXLIV., 194 ; CXLV., 

195 ; CXLIX., 196 ; CLVI., 199 ; 
CLVII., 199 ; CLX , 201 ; CLXXXIV., 

208 ; CLXXXV., 209 ; CLXXXVII., 

209 ; ccxxi., 223 ; ccxxii., 223 ; 
ccxxvin., 226 ; ccxxxvin., 233 ; 
CCXLIX., 239. 

Douhet, Dictionnaire des Legendes, 
CCLXXV., 254 ; CCLXXXII., 257. 

Du Meril, Poesies inedites du Moyen 
Age, CLXXiv., 205. 

Dunlop, History of Fiction, trans 
lated by Liebrecht, xxviil., 144; 
LX., 160 ; LXXXII., 170 ; cix., 
181 ; ccxxii., 223 ; CCXXXII., 228 ; 
ccxxxvu., 232. 

Enxemplos, Libro de los, II., 135 ; 
III., 136 ; XIII., 139 ; XXVIIL, 145 ; 

xxx., 145 ; xxxi., 146 ; xxxin., 
147; XXXVL, 148; XXXVIIL, 149 ; 

XXXIX., 150 ; XL., 150 ; XLII., 151 ; 
XLIII., 152 ; XLV., 152 ; LVIL, 158 ; 
LXII., 161 ; LXXV., 167 ; LXXVI., 
168 ; LXXVIII., 168 ; LXXXII., 170 ; 
XCI., 173 ; xcvi., 175 ; xcix., 176 ; 
C., 176 ; CIV., 178 ; CIX., 181 ; 
CXIV., 183 ; CXIX., 185 ; CXX., 186 ; 
cxxx., 189 ; cxxxi., 190 ; CXLIX., 

196 ; CLXVIIL, 203 ; CLXXXV., 209 ; 
CXCI., 211 ; CXCVI., 212 ; CCIV., 
216 ; CCV., 217 ; ccvii., 218 ; 
CCXII., 220 ; CCXVII., 221 ; CCXIX., 
222 ; CQXXXL, 228 ; CCXXXV., 230 ; 
CCXXXVI., 231 ; CCXXXVIII., 233 ; 
CCXLIII., 235 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; 
CCLXI., 245 ; CCLXIII., 248 ; 
CCLXXIII., 253 ; CCLXXV., 254 ; 
CCLXXXVII., 259 ; CCLXXXVIII., 



260 ; CCLXXXIX., 261 ; ccxcv., 
263 ; ccci., 266. 

Etienne de Bourbon, Tractatus de 
diversis materiis praedicabilibus, 
XI., 138 ; xm., 139 ; xvni., 140 ; 
XIX., 141 ; XX., 142 ; XXXI., 146 ; 

xxxvm., 149 ; xxxix., 150 ; XL., 

150 ; XLVIL, 154 ; LI., 155 ; LIL, 
156 ; LILT., 156 ; LVIL, 158; LVIIL, 
159; LX.,160; LXVL, 163; LXVIIL, 

164; LXXXV., 171; xciii., 173; 
xciv., 174 ; xcv., 174 ; xcvi., 175 ; 
OIL, 177 ; GUI., 177 ; CIX., 181 ; 
CXVL, 184 ; CXIX., 185 ; CXXL, 
186 ; CLVIIL, 200 ; CLX., 201 ; 
CLXIIL, 202 ; CLXX., 204 ; CLXXX., 
207 ; CLXXXL, 207 ; CLXXXIIL, 

208; CLXXXV., 209; cxci., 211 ; 

CXCIII., 211 ; CCL, 215 ; CCVL, 
218 ; CCVIIL, 219 ; CCXIV., 221 ; 
CCXIX. ,222 ; CCXX.,222 ; CCXXVIL, 
225 ; ccxxx., 227 ; ccxxxi., 227 ; 
CCXXXII., 229 ; CCXXXIV., 230 ; 
ccxxxix., 233 ; CCXLIII., 235 ; 
CCLV., 243 ; CCLXIX., 251 ; 

CCLXXVL, 255 ; CCLXXXII., 257 ; 
CCLXXXVII., 259 ; CCLXXXVIII., 
260 ; CCCI., 266 ; CCCX., 269. 
Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, 
LXVIIL, 164. 

Fiore di Virtu, XLIL. 152 ; LIIL, 156 ; 

LVIL, 158; LXXIL, 166; LXXXII., 

170 ; xci., 173 ; cix., 181 ; CXCVL, 

212 ; CCXLIV., 236. 
Francisco de Osuna, Norte de los 

Estados, CCLV., 243. 

Gatos, Libro de los, XL, 138 ; CXXVIL, 
]88; cxxxiv., 191; CLVII., 199; 
CLVIIL, 200 ; CCCIV., 267. 

Gautier d Arras, Eraclius, ccxxx., 
227. 

Gautier de Cluny (Compiegne), De 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



297 



Miraculis Beatae Virginis Mariae, 

ccxxin., 224. 
Gautier de Coincy, Miracles de Nostre 

Dame, ccxxin., 224; CCLXin., 

248. 
Geilervon Keisersberg, Evangelibiich, 

LXXI., 166. 
Gering, Islendzk Aeventyri, CIX., 

180 ; CCLXXXIX., 261. 
Gesta Romanorum, IX.. 138; XV., 139: 

XVII., 140 ; XX., 142; XXVIII., 144; 

XLii., 151, 152; XLVii., 153, 154; 

CIX., 180 ; CXX., 186 ; CXXXIV., 191 ; 

CLV., 198 ; CLX., 201 ; CLXXXV., 

208 ; CCXXXIV., 230 ; CCXXXV., 

230 ; ccxxxvill., 233 ; CCL., 240 ; 

CCLXIII., 247. 
Gibb, History of the Forty Vezirs, 

cix., 182. 

Girart de Rosillon, XLVII., 354. 
Glanville, Bartholomew, De Proprie- 

tatibus Rerum, vn., 137 ; Lxxxm., 

171 ; ccxxxiv., 230 ; CCLX., 245 ; 

ccxcu., 262. 
Gobii, Joannes Junior, Scala Celi, III., 

136; IX., 138; XIII., 139; XVIII., 

141; xxviii., 115; xxxi., 146; 

xxxvi., 148 ; XLII., 152 ; LIL, 156 ; 

LVI., 158; LVII., 158; LIX., 159; 

LXIV., 162 : LXVI., 163 ; LXVII., 

164 ; LXVIII., 164 ; LXIX., 165 ; 

Lxxm.,]67 ; Lxxvii.,168 ; LXXXI., 

169 ; LXXXII., 170 ; LXXXIX., 172 ; 
XCI., 173 ; XCIII., 173 ; XCV., 174 ; 
XCVI., 175 ; C.,176 ; CIL, 177 ; CIV., 

178 ; cix., 181 ; cxiv., 183 ; cxx., 
186 ; cxxi., 186 ; cxxiv., 188 ; 
cxxxi., 190 ; cxxxm., 191 ; 
CXXXIV., 191 ; CXLII., 194 ; CXLV., 
195 ; CXLIX., 196 ; CLIII., 197 ; 
CLX., 201 ; CLXX., 204 ; CLXXL, 

204 ; CLXXVII., 206 ; CLXXVIII., 

206 ; CLXXIX., 207 ; CLXXXI., 207 ; 
CLXXXII., 208 ; CLXXXV., 209 ; 
CXCI., 211 ; CXCVI., 212 ; CC., 214 ; 



ccxvii., 221 ; ccxxvii., 226 ; 
ccxxxi., 227 ; ccxxxn., 229 ; 
ccxxxiv., 230 ; ccxxxv., 230 ; 
ccxxxvin., 233 ; ccxxxix., 234 ; 

CCXLV., 236 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; CCL., 

240 ; CCL VI., 243 ; CCLXI., 245 ; 

CCLXII., 246 ; CCLXIII., 248 ; 

CCLXIX., 251 ; CCLXXIV., 254 ; 

CCLXXVIL, 255 ; CCLXXXIV., 258 ; 

CCLXXXVIII., 260; CCLXXXIX., 261; 

CCXCIV., 263 ; CCC., 265 ; CCCI., 

266 ; Cecil., 267 ; cccin., 267. 
Goedeke, Every-Man, ix., 138 ; cxx., 

186 ; cxxxiv., 191 ; Orient und 

Occident, LIX., 159 ; cxci., 211 ; 

CXCVI., 212 ; ccxxxii., 229. 
Gonzenbach, Sicilianische Marchen, 

Cix., 182. 
Gottschick, Zeitschrift fiir deutsche 

Philologie, LIX., 159 ; ccix., 219. 
Graf, Roma nella Memoria e nelle 

Immaginazioni del Medio Evo 

xxxvi., 148. 
Gregory, Dialogues, cxxx., 189 ; 

CXXXI., 189 ; CCLXXII., 252 ; 

CCLXXV., 254 ; CCXCIV., 263 ; 

ccxcv., 263. 
Grimm, Household Tales,CCLXXXvm., 

260 ; Reinhart Fuchs, CLVili., 

200. 
Grisebach, Die treulose Wittwe, 

ccxxxii., 229. 
Gritsch, Quadragesimale, XLV., 152 ; 

CXXXV., 192 ; CLX., 201 ; CXCVI., 

212 ; ccxxxv., 230. 
Guerrini, La Vita e le Opere di G. 

C. Croce, xm., 139 ; LXIL, 161 ; 

CXLIX., 195. 
Guibert de Nogent, Liber de Laude S. 

Mariae, ccxxm., 224. 

Hagen, von der, Gesammtabenteuer, 
LXXXII., 170; CCLXXXVIII., 260; 
ccxcvi., 264. 

Haureau, Les Rccits d Apparitions 



298 



THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 



dans les Sermons du Moyen Age, 

xxxi., 146. 
Hebel, Erziihlungen des rheinland- 

ischen Hausfreundes, CCV., 217. 
Heider, Physiologus, LXXXIII., 170. 
Henderson. Notes on the Folk- Lore of 

the Northern Counties, CCLXV., 249. 
Herolt (Discipulus), Promptuarium 

Exemplorum, xix., 141 ; xxxvi., 

148 ; xxxvin., 149 ; XL., 150 ; 

LXI., 161 ; LXIV., 161 ; XLVI., 163 ; 
LXXII., 166 ; LXXV., 167 ; LXXIX., 
169 ; LXXXIL, 170 ; XCV., 174 ; 
XCVI., 175 ; OIL, 177 ; CXII., 182 ; 
cxvi., 184; cxix., 185; CXXI., 186; 
CXXX., 189 ; CLXXVI., 206 ; CXCVI., 

212 ; cxcix., 214 ; ccxxxi., 228 ; 
ccxxxvi., 231 ; ccxxxix., 234 ; 
CCXLIII., 235 ; CCXLVII., 238 ; CCL., 
240 ; CCLXXII., 252 ; CCLXXIII., 

253 ; CCLXXV., 254 ; CCLXXXIV., 
258; CCLXXXVIII.,260; CCCI., 266; 

cccn., 267 ; cccin., 267 ; Promp 
tuarium de Miraculis B. M. V., 
CCLXXXII., 257 ; CCXCVI., 264 ; 
Sermones de Tempore, xin., 139 ; 
LVII., 158 ; LXV., 162 ; LXXII., 166 ; 
CIII., 177 ; CVL, 178 ; CIX., 181 ; 
CLXX., 204 ; CLXXVII., 206 ; 

ccxxxvm., 233 ; CCXLIII., 235 ; 
CCLXXXVII., 259 ; ccxciv., 263 ; 
ccxcv., 263. 

Hervieux. Les Fabulistes Latins, in., 
136 ; XL, 138 ; xin., 139 ; xv., 
140 ; XVIII., 140 ; xxv., 143 ; 
XXIX., 145 ; XLI., 150 ; LXXIII., 
167; xci., 173; cix., 181 ; cxiv., 
183 ; cxvi., 184 ; cxvni., 185 ; 
cxxvn., 188 ; cxxxiv., 191 ; 
cxxxv., 192 ; cxxxvi., 192 ; 

CXLIV., 194 ; CXLV., 194 ; CLIII., 
197 ; CLVI., 199 ; CLVII., 199 ; 
CLVIII., 200 ; CLX., 201 ; CLXVI., 
202 ; CLXXI., 204 ; CLXXXIV., 208 ; 
CLXXXIX., 210; CXC., 210; CCI., 



215 ; CCIX., 219 ; CCXVII., 221 ; 

CCXXXII., 229 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; 

CCLXXIV., 254 ; CCCIV., 267. 
Hintz, Die gute alte Sitte in Altpreus- 

sen, CCLXX., 251. 
Histoire Litteraire de la France, 

xxxviii., 149; cxxxiv., 191; 

CXCVI., 212 ; CCXXXII., 229 ; 
CCXLVI., 237 ; CCLVII., 244 ; 
CCLXXIII., 253 ; CCLXXXII., 257 ; 
CCLXXXVIII., 260 ; CCLXXXIX., 261 ; 

ccxcvi., 264. 
Hobhouse, Historical Illustrations of 

the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold, 

ccxxxvui., 233. 
Holkot, In Librum Sapientiae Regis 

Salomonis, xv., 140 ; XLII., 152 ; 

XLV., 152; CXCVI., 212; CCXXVII., 

225. 
Hollen, Preceptorium, xv., 140 ; 

xxiv., 143 ; LIII., 156 ; LVI., 158 ; 

LVII., 158 ; ccxxvil., 226 ; Ser 
mones, LVI., 158 ; CXXXVI., 192 ; 

CXCVI., 212 ; ccxxn., 223. 
Hommel, Die Aethiopische Ueber- 

setzung des Physiologus, LXXXIII., 

171. 
Horace, Epistles, LXVI., 162. 

Jahrbuch fiir romanische und eng- 

lische Literatur, XLII., 151, 152 ; 

CCCIV., 267. 
John of Salisbury, Policraticus, 

ccxxxn., 229. 
Joly, Histoire de deux Fables de La 

Fontaine, LI., 155. 
Jubinal, Nouveau Recueil de Contes 

Dits, Fabliaux, etc., CCXLiv., 236 ; 

CCLXIII., 248 ; ccxcvi., 264. 

Katha Sarit Sagara, LVII., 158 ; CCL., 
240. 

Keller, Dyocletianus Leben, ccxxxn., 
228 ; Li Romans des Sept Sages, 
ccxxxn., 228 ; Zwei Fabliaux einer 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



299 



Neuenburger Handsclirift, CCXLVI., 
237. 

Kirchhof, Wendunmnth, III., 136 ; 
xviii., 140 ; xxiv., 143 ; xxvm., 
144 ; XXXIH., 148 ; xxxvn., 149 ; 
XLII., 152; XLV., 152; LI., 155; 
LII., 156 ; LIV., 157 ; LXVI., 163 ; 
XCI., 173 ; CI., 176 ; CX., 182 ; 

cxxvii., 188 ; cxxxv., 192 ; 

CXXXVI., 192 ; CXLIV., 194 ; CXLV., 
194 ; CLII., 197 ; CLVL, 199 ; CLVII., 
199 ; CLVIII., 200 ; CLX., 201 ; 
CLXV., 202 ; CLXVI., 202 ; CLXXIV., 
205 ; CLXXXIV., 208 ; CLXXXV., 
208 ; CLXXXIX., 210 ; CCI., 215 ; 
CCXLIX., 239 ; CCLXXIV., 254. 

Knust, Gualteri Burlaei, Liber de Vita 
et Moribus Philosophorum, CXLIX., 
196. 

Koehler, Jahrbuch fiir romanische und 
englische Literatur, ix.. 138; XLVII., 
154 ; ccxxxvili., 233 ; Zeitschrift 
fiir romanische Philologie, cxxx., 
189 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; CCLXXXIX., 
261. 

Koran, cix., 181. 

La Fontaine, Contes, CCXXX., 227 ; 
Fables, m., 135 ; xv., 139 ; xvin., 
140 ; xxiv., 143 ; xxxin., 147 ; 

XLIV., 152 ; XLV., 152 ; LI., 155 ; 

LIV., 157 ; LIX., 159 ; LXVI., 163 ; 
LXXIII., 1G7 ; XCI., 173 ; CI., 176; 
CX., 182 ; CXXXV., 192 ; CXXXVI., 
192; CXLII., 193 ; CXLV., 194 ; CLII., 
197 ; CLIIL, 197 ; CLVI., 199 ; CLVII., 
199; CLX., 201; CLXV. ,202; CLXXIV., 
205 ; CLXXXIV., 208 ; CLXXXVII., 
209; CLXXXIX., 210; CCI., 215; 
CCXVII., 221 ; CCXXVII., 225 ; 
CCXLIX., 239 ; CCLXXIV., 254. 

Landau, Quellen des Dekameron, 
LXXXII., 170 ; CCXLVIII., 238. 

Le Grand d Aussy, Fabliaux, CXCI., 
211 ; ccxxn., 223 ; ccxxxvil., 232 ; 



CCLIV., 242 ; CCLXXXII., 257 ; 

ccxcvi., 264. 
Liber de Abundantia Exemplorum, 

XXXI., 146 ; XLII., 151 ; oil., 177 ; 

cxxxiv., 191 ; CLXX., 204 ; 

CCLXXXVII., 259. 
Liber de Septem Sapientibus, 

ccxxxii., 229. 
Liebrecht, Barlaara und Josaphat, IX., 

137 ; xxvm., 144 ; XLII., 151 ; 

LXXVIII., 168 ; LXXXII., 170; CXX., 

186 ; cxxxiv., 191 ; Zur Volks- 

kunde, ccxxxi., 227 ; CCXLVIII., 

238 ; CCLI., 240. 
Lippomannus, Vitae Sanctorum, IX., 

137. 
Loiseleur Deslongchamps, Essai sur 

les Fables indiennes, xviii., 140 ; 

xxvm., 144 ; cci., 215 ; ccxxxii , 

228 ; CCL., 240. 
Luzel, Legendes chrctiennes de la 

Basse-Bretagne, Lin., 156 ; LXXII., 

166 ; Cix., 182. 

Malespini, Ducento Novelle, CCLV., 

243. 
Martinus Polonus, Sermones, XVIII., 

141; xxxiii., 147; CLXX., 204; 

CLXXXVIII., 201 ; Promptuarium, 

xxxi., 146 ; LX., 160 ; en., 177 ; 

cxix., 185 ; cxx., 186 ; CCLXXXVII., 

259 ; CCLXXXVIII., 260. 
Massmann, Eraclius, CCXXX,, 227. 
Memel, Neuvermehrte Lustige Gesell- 

schaft, CCXCVII., 265. 
Mielot, Miracles de Nostre Dame, LX., 

160 ; CCXXIIL, 224 ; CCLXin., 217 ; 

CCLXXV., 254 ; CCXCVI., 264. 
Miracles de Nostre Dame (Societe des 

Anciens Textes Francais), LX., 160. 
Moliere, Le Medecin malgre lui, 

ccxxxvn., 232 ; CCLIV., 241. 
Montaiglon et Kaynaud, Kecueil gene 
ral et complet des Fabliaux, 

XXXVIII., 149 ; CXCI., 211 ; CCXXII., 



300 



THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 



223; CCXXXVII.,232; CCLXXXVIII., 
260. 

Moyen de Parvenir, CCLV., 243. 

Miiller, Chips from a German Work 
shop, LI., 155. 

Mussafia, Studien zu den mittelalter- 
lichen Marienlegenden, LX., 160 ; 
CCXXIII., 224 ; CCLXXXII., 257 ; 
ccxcvi., 264. 

Neckam, De Laudibus Divinae Sa- 
pientiae, vii., 137 ; De Naturis 
Kerum, ccxxxiv., 230 ; CCLX., 245 ; 
ccxcii., 262. 

Neuhaus, Die lateinischen Vorlagen 
zu den Alt-Franzosischen Adgar - 
schen Marien-Legenden, CCLXXV., 
254. 

Nicholas de Troyes, Grand Parangon 
des Nouvelles Nouvelles, LIII., 156. 

Noel du Fail, Contes d Eutrapel, 
ccxxx., 227. 

Notes and Queries, CCLXV., 250. 

Odo de Ceritona, Fabulae, XL, 138 ; 
xiii., 139 ; xxv., 143 ; cix., 181 ; 

CXIV., 183 ; CXVI., 184 ; CXVIII., 
185 ; CXXVII., 188 ; cxxxiv., 191 ; 
CXXXV., 192 ; CXXXVL, 192 ; CLVII., 
199 ; CLVIII., 200 ; CLX., 201 ; 
CCIX., 219 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; CCXLix., 
239 ; CCLXIII., 248 ; CCLXXXVIII., 
260 ; CCCIV., 267. 

Otte (Otto of Freysingen), Eraelius, 
ccxxx., 227. 

Paley, Greek Wit, CXLIX., 195. 
Papanti, Catalogo del Novellieri 

Italian! in prosa, CXLIX., 196. 
Paratus, Sermones de Tempore, IX., 

138 ; XLII., 151 ; CXCVI., 212. 
Paris, L Ange et 1 Hermite, cix., 

180; Le Lai de 1 Oiselet, xxvm., 

144 ; Vie de St. Alexis, CCXLVI., 

237 ; CCLVII., 244 ; CCLXXXIX., 
261. 



Passavanti, Lo Specchio di vera 

Penitenza,xxxi.,146 ; cxcix.,214 ; 

CCLVII., 244 ; CCLXI., 245 ; ccxcvi., 

264 ; CCCI., 266. 
Pauli, Schimpf und Ernst, XI., 138 ; 

xm., 139 ; xviii., 140 ; xx., 142 ; 

xxvn., 143; xxxni., 147; xxxvni., 

149 ; XLI., 150 ; XLV., 152; LII., 156 ; 
LIII., 156 ; LVI., 158 ; LVII., 358 ; 
LVIII., 159; LXII., 161 ; LXVII., 164 ; 
LXIX., 165 ; LXXI., 166 ; LXXIII., 

167 ; LXXVII., 168 ; en., 177 ; cix., 
181 ; cxxin., 187 ; cxxx., 189 ; 

CXLII., 193; CXLIX., 196; CLXX., 

204 ; CLXXVII., 206 ; CLXXVIII., 
206 ; CLXXIX., 207 ; CLXXXVII., 
209 ; CLXXXVIII., 210 ; CXCVI., 
212 ; cxcvn., 213 ; cxcvin., 214 ; 
cc., 214 ; com., 215 ; ccxiv., 
221 ; ccxvil., 221 ; ccxxi., 223 ; 
CCXXVII., 225 ; CCXXVIII., 226 ; 

ccxxxv., 230 ; ccxxxvi., 231 ; 

CCLV., 243 ; CCLXXVII., 255 ; 

CCLXXXIV., 258 ; CCLXXXVII., 259 ; 

CCLXXXVIII., 260 ; ccxcvu., 265 ; 

CCC., 265 ; CCCX., 269. 
Pelbartus, Sermones, LXXIII., 167. 
Peraldus, Summa Virtutum ac Viti- 

orum, xxxvi., 148 ; CXLIX., 196 ; 

CXCVI., 212 ; CCLXXXVIII., 260. 
Peregrinus, Sermones, IX., 138 ; CXX., 

186 ; CCLXXXVIII., 260. 
Petrus Alphonsi, Disciplina Clericalis, 

xvii., 140 ; xxvm., 144 ; xxxni., 

147 ; CLX., 201 ; cciv., 216 ; ccv., 

217 ; CCL., 240. 
Petrus Comestor, Historia Scholastica, 

CLIX., 200. 
Phaedrus, Fabulae, xci., 173; ci., 

176 ; ex., 182 ; cxxxv.. 192 ; CXLIL, 

193; CXLIV., 194; CXLV., 194; 

CLVI., 199; CLX., 201; CLXI., 201 ; 

CLXV., 202 ; CLXVI., 202 ; CLXXI., 
204 ; CLXXXIV., 208 ; CLXXXIX., 
210 ; CXC., 210 ; CC., 215 ; CCXVII., 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



301 



221 ; CCXXXII., 229 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; 

CCLXXIV., 254. 

Pitre, Fiabe, Novelle e Racconti, 
CCXLVIII., 238 ; Novelle popolari 
toscani, CCLIV., 242. 

Poggio Bracciolini, Facetiae, CCLIV., 
241. 

Rabelais, Pantagruel, xii., 139. 
Rambaud, Histoire de la Civilization 

Fran9aise, XLIII., 152. 
Recits d un Menestral de Rheims, 

cxix., 185. 
Recull de Eximplis, xix., 141 ; xxxi., 

146 ; xxxvi., 148 ; xxxix., 150 ; 

XL., 150; Lin., 156; LVI., 158; 

LVIL, 158 ; LXVI., 163 ; LXVII., 
164 ; LXVIII ., 165 ; LXix., 165 ; 
LXXVII., 168 ; XCV., 175 ; XCVI., 

175 ; cm., 177 ; cix., 181 ; cxxi., 
186 ; cxxii., 187 ; cxxm., 187 ; 
CLV., 198 ; CLXVII., 203 ; CLXX., 
204 ; CLXXVII., 206 ; CLXXVIII., 
206 ; CLXXIX., 207 ; CLXXXII., 208 ; 

CLXXXVII., 209 ; CLXXXVIII., 210 ; 
CXCVIII., 214 ; CXCIX., 214 ; 

ccxxxix., 234 ; cccm., 267. 

Ritter vom Thurn, Buch von den 
Exempeln der Gottesfercht und 
Ebrbarkeit, CCXXXIX.. 234. 

Roberd of Brunne, Handlyng Synne, 
LXXXI.. 169 ; xcix., 176 ; cxxxi., 
190 ; CXLI., 193 ; ccxxxix., 234 ; 
CCXLIII., 235 ; CCLXXII., 252 ; 

CCLXXXII., 257 ; CCLXXXVIII., 260 ; 

ccxciv., 263. 

Robert, Fables inedites, III., 135 ; xv., 
139 ; xvni., 140 ; xxiv., 143 ; 
xxxni., 147; XLI., 150; XLIV., 
152; XLV., 152; LI., 155; LIV., 
157 ; LIX., 159 ; LXVI., 163 ; LXXIII., 
167 ; XCI., 173 ; CI., 176 ; CX., 182 ; 
CXXXV., 192 ; CXXXVI., 192 ; CXLII., 
193 ; CXLV., 194; CLII., 197 ; CLIII., 
197 ; CLVI., 199 ; CLVII., 199 ; 



CLVIII., 200 ; CLX., 201 ; CLXV., 
202 ; CLXXIV., 205 ; CLXXXIV., 208 ; 
CLXXXIX., 210 ; CGI. ,215; ccxvu., 
221 ; ccxxvn., 225 ; ccxxxn., 

228 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; CCLXXIV., 254. 
Romulus, Fabulae, LXI., 150 ; xci., 

173 ; ci., 176 ; ex., 182 ; cxxxv., 

192 ; CXLII., 193 ; CXLIV., 194 ; 
CXLV., 194 ; CLII., 197 ; CLIII., 
197; CLVI., 199; CLVII., 199; 
CLX., 201 ; CLXI., 201 ; CLXV., 

202 ; CLXVI., 202 ; CLXXI., 204 ; 
CLXXXIV., 208 ; CLXXXV., 208 ; 
CLXXXIX., 210 ; CXC., 210; CCXVII., 

221 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; CCLXXIV., 
254. 
Ruinart, Acta Martyrum, LXI., 161. 

Sachs, Hans, LXVII., 164. 

Scherz mit der Warheyt, CCLV., 243 ; 

CCLXXXIV., 258 ; ccxcvn., 265. 
Schmidt, Beitriige zur Geschichte der 

romantischen Poesie, LXXXII., 170. 
Scotus, Mensa Philosophica, xxxix., 

150 ; XL., 150 ; LII., 156 ; CIII., 

177 ; cvi., 178 ; CLXVIII., 203 ; 

CLXXVII., 206 ; CLXXIX., 207 ; cci., 

215 ; coin., 215 ; ccxxx., 227; 

ccxxxm., 230 ; CCXXXVIL, 232 ; 

CCXXXVIIL, 233 ; CCXLI., 234 ; 

CCLIV., 242 ; CCLVIII., 244 ; 
CCLXXVII., 255 ; CCLXXXVII., 259. 
Seven Wise Masters, ccxxxn., 

229 ; CCL., 239. 

Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, 

XLVII., 153. 
Shakespeare Jest-Books, xx., 142 ; 

LVI., 158 ; LXIL, 161 ; CLXVIII., 

203 ; CLXXIX., 207 ; CCIII., 216 ; 
ccxxvn., 226 ; ccxxxv., 230 ; 
CCXLI., 234; CCLIV., 242; 
CCLXXXVII., 259 ; CCLXXXVIII., 
260. 

Simrock, Die deutschen Volksbiicher, 
CCLIV., 242. 



302 



THE EXEMPLA OF JACQUES DE VITEY. 



Speculum Exemplorum, IX., 138 ; 
XLII., 152 ; LVII., 158 ; LXVI., 163 ; 

cix., 181 ; cxx., 186 ; cxxx., 189 ; 
cxxxiv., 191 ; CLXVIII., 203 ; 
CCLXXI., 252. 

Speculum Exemplorum, Magnum, ed. 
Major, ix., 138 ; xix., 141 ; xxxi., 
146; xxxii., 147; xxxix., 150; 
XLII., 151 ; LVI., 158 ; LVII., 158 ; 
LXV., 162 ; LXVI., 163 ; LXVIII., 
164 ; LXXIV., 167 ; LXXV., 167 ; 
LXXIX., 169 ; LXXXI., 169 ; XCV., 
174 ; xcvin., 176 ; CIV.,178 ; Cix., 
181 ; CXiv., 183 ; cxvi., 184 ; 
CXIX., 185 ; CXX., 186 ; CXXVIII., 
189 ; CXXX., 189 ; CXXXI., 190 ; 

cxxxii., 190 ; cxxxin., 191 ; 
cxxxiv., 191 ; CLXVIII., 203 ; 
CXCVI., 212 ; ccxn., 220 ; CCXXii., 
223 ; CCXXVII., 226 ; CCXXXIX., 
234 ; CCXLV., 236 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; 
CCXLVII., 238 ; CCLVI., 243 ; 

CCLXII., 246 ; CCLXIII., 248 ; 
CCLXXI., 252 ; CCLXXIII., 253 ; 
CCLXXV., 254 ; CCLXXXIX., 261 ; 

CCXCTV., 263 ; ccxcv., 263 ; 

GCXCVI., 264 ; ccci., 266. 
Stobaeus, Florilegium, LXVI., 163. 
Stokes, Three Middle-Irish Homilies, 

LVII., 158. 
Straparola, Piacevoli Notti, XLVII., 

154. 



Thaun, Philippe de, Bestiaire, 

LXXXIII., 170. 

Thomas Cantipratanus, Bonum uni- 

versale de Apibus, xciv., 174 ; 

xcv., 174; cxiv., 183; CCXLV., 

236 ; CCXLVII., 238. 
Tobler, Jahrbuch iir romanische und 

englische Literatur, cix., 181 ; 

CXXX., 189; CGI., 215; CCXLIII., 

235 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; CCLVII., 244 ; 

CCLXXXIX., 261. 



Toppen, Aberglauben aus Masuren, 

CCLXX., 251. 

Tre Novelline Antiche, CXCVI., 212. 
Tre Pie Narrazioni, CCXLVI., 237. 

Valerius Maximus, xxvii., 143 ; 

ccxxxvm., 232. 
Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum 

Doctrinale, in., 136 ; XV., 

140 ; xvill., 140 ; LXXIII., 167 ; 

xci., 173 ; Speculum Historiale, 

III., 136; IX., 138; xv., 140; 

XVIII., 140 ; XLVII., 153 ; LII., 

156; LXXIII., 167; xci., 173; 

cxx., 186 ; cxxxv., 192 ; cxxxvi.. 

192; CXLV., 195; CLIIL, 197; 

CLVI., 199; CLXXI., 204 ; CLXXXIV., 

208 ; CLXXXIX., 210 ; CCXVII., 221 ; 

CCXXIII., 224 ; CCXLIX., 239 ; 

CCLXIII., 247 ; CCLXXIV., 254 ; 

ccxcvi., 264 ; Speculum Morale, 

IX., 138 ; LII., 156 ; LIII., 156 ; 

LXXIII., 167; cxxvn., 188; cxcvu., 

213. 
Vitae Patrum, ix., 138; xxx., 145; 

XLII., 151 ; LVII., 158 ; LXV., 162 ; 

LXXIV., 167; LXXV., 167; LXXIX., 

169 ; LXXXI., 169 ; LXXXII., 170 ; 
XCVIII., 176 ; C., 176 ; CIV., 178 ; 
CXXVIIL, 188 ; CXXXIIL, 190 ; 

CCXLV., 236 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; 
CCLVI., 243 ; CCLVII., 244 ; CCLXII., 

246 ; CCLXXIX., 261. 
Voragine, Jacobus de, Legenda Aurea, 
ix., 138 ; xxviii., 144 ; xxxi., 
146 ; cxxxiv., 191. 

Weber, Albrecht, Indische Studien, 

XV., 140 ; xvm., 140 ; xxiv., 143 ; 

CXXXVI., 192 ; CXLV., 194. 
Weber, Alfred, Handschriftliche 

Studien, cix., 181 ; cxxx., 189 ; 

CCXLVI., 237 : CCLVII., 244 ; 

CCLXXXII,, 257; CCLXXXIX., 261 ; 

ccxcvi., 264. 



INDEX TO NOTES. 



303 



Wright, Latin Stories, xix., 141 ; xx., 
142 ; XXXVIII., 149 ; XLII., 151 ; 
XLVII., 154 ; LII., 156 ; LIII., 156 ; 
LX., 160 ; LXVI., 163 ; LXVII., 164 ; 
LXVIIL, 164 ; LXX., 165 ; LXXVII.. 

168 ; LXXVIII., 168 ; LXXXII., 170 ; 

LXXXVIII., 172 ; LXXXIX., 172 ; XC.. 
172; en., 177; CIV., 178; evil. 
179 ; cix., 181 ; cxx., 186 ; cxxin.. 

187 ; CLVIII., 200 ; CLXXXII., 208 ; 
CXCI., 211 ; CCIII., 215 ; CCVIII., 
219 ; ccxiv., 221 ; ccxx., 222 ; 
ccxxi.,223 ; ccxxn., 223; ccxxvn. ; 
225 ; CCXXVIII., 226 ; CCXXX., 227 ; 
ccxxxi., 228 ; ccxxxm., 230 ; 
CCXLII., 235 : CCXLIH., 235 ; 
CCXLVI., 237 ; CCXLVIII., 238 : 



ccxux., 239 ; CCL., 239 ; CCLI., 
240 ; CCLV., 243 ; CCLXI., 245 ; 
CCLXIII.,247; CCLXIV., 249; CCLXV., 

249 ; CCLXVI., 250 ; CCLXVIII., 250 ; 
CCLXIX., 251 ; CCLXXXII., 257 ; 
CCC., 266 ; Popular Treatises on 
Science, LXXXIII., 170. 
Wuttke, Deutsche Volksaberglaube 
der Gegenwart, CCLXX., 251. 

Zambrini, Dodici Conti Morali, cxxx., 
189 ; CCXLVI., 237 ; CCLXXXIX., 
261 ; Libro di Novelle Antiche, 
XLII., 152 ; CXLIX., 196. 

Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum, 
CLXXI., 204. 

Zeitverkurzer, CCLV., 243. 



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